Special Issue "Symmetry in Engineering Sciences 2020"

A special issue of Symmetry (ISSN 2073-8994). This special issue belongs to the section "Computer and Engineering Science and Symmetry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Raúl Baños Navarro
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Engineering, Electrical Engineering section, University of Almería, Almería E-04120, Spain
Interests: power systems; renewable energy; engineering economics; network optimization; multi-objective optimization; ICT in education
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Francisco G. Montoya
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Engineering, Electrical Engineering Section, University of Almeria, 04120 Almeria, Spain
Interests: power quality; smart metering; smart grids and evolutionary optimization applied to power systems and renewable energy
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Symmetry is a frequent pattern widely studied in different research fields. In particular, complex systems with symmetric and asymmetric characteristics arise in engineering science (e.g., in mechanical engineering, symmetric and synchronized systems are often used to satisfy stability criteria for rotating structures; in electrical engineering, the study of symmetrical and asymmetrical faults in power systems is a critical issue; in telecommunications engineering, many systems are symmetrical since data speed or quantity is the same in both directions; in civil engineering, the strength of the objects depends on the symmetry; in computer engineering, symmetric network structures and symmetric algorithms are often studied; etc.).

This Special Issue invites researchers to submit original research papers and review articles related to any engineering discipline in which theoretical or practical issues of symmetry are considered. The topics of interest include (but are not limited to):

  • Symmetry in electrical engineering (power, electronics, electromechanics, computer, control, microwaves, telecommunications, etc.);
  • Symmetry in mechanical engineering (acoustical, aerospace, automotive, marine, railway, thermal, etc.);
  • Symmetry in civil engineering (architectural, construction, earthquake, environmental, hydraulic, mining, structural, transportation, etc.);
  • Symmetry in chemical engineering (biochemical, molecular, processes, thermodynamics, etc.);
  • Symmetry in other interdisciplinary engineering disciplines (agricultural, biomedical, graphical modelling, industrial, information, materials, metallurgy, military, nanotechnology, control, automation, robotics, etc.);
  • Symmetry and topology of complex networks in engineering;
  • Symmetry and optimization in engineering applications.

Prof. Raúl Baños
Prof. Dr. Francisco G. Montoya
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Symmetry is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Symmetry and asymmetry
  • Symmetry and synchronization
  • Symmetry operations
  • Symmetry measures
  • Topological symmetry
  • Geometric symmetry
  • Symmetry in complex systems
  • Complex networks and graphs
  • Optimization
  • Computation
  • Electrical engineering
  • Mechanical engineering
  • Civil engineering
  • Chemical engineering

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Sensitivity Analysis of Rigid Pavement Design Based on Semi-Empirical Methods: Romanian Case Study
Symmetry 2021, 13(2), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13020168 - 22 Jan 2021
Viewed by 259
Abstract
Due to the intensive process of road construction or rehabilitation of pavement caused by an increase in traffic volume, in the field of rigid pavement design and research in Romania, we can say that there is a need to improve the design method. [...] Read more.
Due to the intensive process of road construction or rehabilitation of pavement caused by an increase in traffic volume, in the field of rigid pavement design and research in Romania, we can say that there is a need to improve the design method. In the last decade, more and more researchers have been concerned about climate change and the increase in traffic volume; hence, there is a need for a renewal of the climatological, as well as traffic, databases because these are part of the input data for the design process. The design method currently used in Romania for jointed plain concrete pavement design is NP081/2002. The limitation of the data and the lack of lifetime estimation of structural and functional performance are the main aspects that need to be addressed in the new design procedure. The Mechanistic–Empirical Pavement Design (MEPDG) method offers the possibility of the design of pavement structures by estimating the structural and functional performances. This paper aims to obtain a comparative study of these two methods for the analysis of the input data collected from the field corresponding to the three failure criteria, while the symmetry of the characteristics of the material and their asymmetrical thicknesses are compared, thus contributing to the design of viable and long-lasting pavement structures using a rigid pavement with the specific characteristics of the mountainous area in northeastern Romania on the national road DN17 Suceava—Vatra Dornei. The novelty of this study consists of the implementation of the mechanistic–empirical method MEPDG instead of the old NP081/2002 method used in Romania. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Engineering Sciences 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Improving Room Carrying Capacity within Built Environments in the Context of COVID-19
Symmetry 2020, 12(10), 1683; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12101683 - 14 Oct 2020
Viewed by 762
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic that has struck the world since March 2019 has established an unusual modus operandi for all of us. During this transient situation, some of the activities have been severely altered, especially those which are performed in indoor spaces such as [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic that has struck the world since March 2019 has established an unusual modus operandi for all of us. During this transient situation, some of the activities have been severely altered, especially those which are performed in indoor spaces such as classrooms, restaurants, or libraries. As physical distance is mandatory in most countries, the capacity of these places has been severely reduced, causing unsustainable economic and logistical issues. This work aims to analyze the possible ways of distributing seats in symmetrical spaces for different uses and room sizes. For that purpose, the classical seat arrangement in rows and columns is compared with an equilateral triangle-based seat pattern, which is proposed as a better solution in most cases. Results show that a greater number of seats is achieved in most situations using the proposed patterns, with mean increases of 13% and peaks from 25% to 50% in some specific circumstances. A discussion about an optimized layout, shape and size of the furniture used in multiple seat tables is included. The outcome shall generate a positive impact on schools, colleges, restaurants, libraries, and similar built environments where seating capacity is crucial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Engineering Sciences 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Time Series Effect on Surface Deformation above Goaf Area with Multiple-Seam Mining
Symmetry 2020, 12(9), 1428; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12091428 - 28 Aug 2020
Viewed by 422
Abstract
The surface subsidence caused by coal mining is a large area, and computer simulation is a fast and intuitive method, which can help us understand the macroscopic subsidence law. The mined-out area left over by coal mining is not disposed of appropriately for [...] Read more.
The surface subsidence caused by coal mining is a large area, and computer simulation is a fast and intuitive method, which can help us understand the macroscopic subsidence law. The mined-out area left over by coal mining is not disposed of appropriately for a long time. Thus, it can easily cause ground subsidence, collapse, or spot cracking, especially when mining multiple coal seams, which seriously restricts the construction and safety of the near-surface rock and soil layers. Based on the engineering background of five-layer coal mining in the Beibu Coal Mine of Laiwu City, a “Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua in 3D” numerical calculation model was established. The model was used to analyze the surface deformation indexes of four groups with different mining sequences in multiple coal seams, revealing the sequence effects of mining time on the surface deformation law in the goaf collapse areas, hence obtaining optimal mining sequences. The results showed that the four groups of mining sequences (including vertical settlement and horizontal deformation) have stable surface deformation centers, but the deformation ranges and amounts are quite different. The settlement deformation is the main difference. Mining sequence I has the largest deformation of 62.7 cm, followed by mining sequence III. Mining sequences II and IV are basically the same, at only 22% of the value of mining sequence 1. A multi-index analysis of the surface deformation curve including the inflection point, stagnation point, and slope showed that the larger the surface deformation, the more evident the change of the curve (concave or convex) and slope, the more uneven the foundation stress, the more severe the damage to the surface structures, and the less suitable the surface construction. Finally, upon analyzing the indicators of surface stability and adaptability, mining sequence IV was indicated as the optimal scheme. It is suggested that an optimal mining sequence should be appropriately selected before the mining of multiple coal seams. The research results can provide effective guidance for addressing surface deformations under similar geological conditions, and can provide scientific evaluations for the safety and stability of surface buildings and structures, leading to considerable economic and social benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Engineering Sciences 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Bi-Directional Filter for the Removal of Lines and Cracks in Images
Symmetry 2020, 12(8), 1280; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12081280 - 02 Aug 2020
Viewed by 648
Abstract
In this paper, a method for the removal of noisy lines and cracks corrupted by different noise types is explored, using a cascade of filtering cycles based on the principle of symmetry among neighboring pixels. Each filtering cycle includes a filter in two [...] Read more.
In this paper, a method for the removal of noisy lines and cracks corrupted by different noise types is explored, using a cascade of filtering cycles based on the principle of symmetry among neighboring pixels. Each filtering cycle includes a filter in two perpendicular directions, one horizontal and the other vertical. Any pixel, to be deemed original, should have a number of symmetric pixels within its neighboring pixels greater than the number specified by the condition set for each direction in all the filters. Since the conditions of each filter increase gradually from one cycle to the next, it becomes more difficult for a noisy pixel to satisfy the filter conditions in each filtering cycle, while an original pixel can easily satisfy the conditions in all the filtering cycles. The reason is that a noisy pixel has a random value and therefore faces difficulty in finding a sufficient number of symmetric pixels in each direction, while an original one has a value correlated with the values of its neighboring pixels. Extensive simulation experiments prove that the proposed method efficiently detects and restores different noisy lines and cracks of different shape and thickness. Also, it retains the image details and outperforms other well-known algorithms, both objectively and subjectively. More specifically, the proposed algorithm achieves restoration performance better than the other known methods by ≥0.81dB in all simulation experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Engineering Sciences 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Design and Optimization of Plasmon Resonance Sensor Based on Micro–Nano Symmetrical Localized Surface
Symmetry 2020, 12(5), 841; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12050841 - 20 May 2020
Viewed by 721
Abstract
Surface Plasma resonance (SPR) sensors combined with biological receptors are widely used in biosensors. Due to limitations of measurement techniques, small-scale, low accuracy, and sensitivity to the refractive index of solution in traditional SPR prism sensor arise. As a consequence, it is difficult [...] Read more.
Surface Plasma resonance (SPR) sensors combined with biological receptors are widely used in biosensors. Due to limitations of measurement techniques, small-scale, low accuracy, and sensitivity to the refractive index of solution in traditional SPR prism sensor arise. As a consequence, it is difficult to launch commercial production of SPR sensors. The theory of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) developed based on SPR theory has stronger coupling ability to near-field photons. Based on the LSPR sensing theory, we propose a submicron-sized golden-disk and graphene composite structure. By varying the thickness and diameter of the array disk, the performance of the LSPR sensor can be optimized. A graphene layer sandwiched between the golden-disk and the silver film can prevent the latter from oxidizing. Symmetrical design enables high-low concentration of dual-channel distributed sensing. As the fixed light source, we use a 632.8-nm laser. A golden nano-disk with 45 nm thickness and 70 nm radius is designed, using a finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulation system. When the incident angle is 42°, the figure of merit (FOM) reaches 8826, and the measurable refractive index range reaches 0.2317. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Engineering Sciences 2020)
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