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Soil Stabilization in Sustainability

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 11988

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Engineering Department and Smart Cities Institute, Public University of Navarre, 31006 Pamplona, Spain
Interests: sustainable construction; waste valorization; soil stabilization; hydraulic and alkaline binders
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue focuses on soil stabilization in the construction and building industries, as well as in geotechnical engineering. It covers all the features of this technique used to enhance the bearing capacity of soils, to modify the engineering properties of soils, the construction of pavements, or the manufacture of construction materials, among others. Sample topics of interest include but are not limited to:

-Stabilized soils’ mechanical properties and durability.

-Physical and chemical modification of stabilized soils’ properties. Analytical and testing methods.

-Cementitious products and constituents: cements, hydraulic binders, alkali-activated binders, and other cementitious binders. Low-impact binders.

-Applications of stabilized soils: soils treatment, recycled aggregate manufacturing, pavements construction and design methods, construction and building materials manufacturing.

-Sustainability and circular economy. Waste valorization, raw materials savings, and environmental properties.

Original research articles, review articles, and case studies of interest to the international readership of this journal (scientists, industry and applied researchers, and policy and decision makers) will be considered.

Dr. Andres Seco Meneses
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Soil mechanics
  • soil stabilization
  • sustainable construction materials
  • hydraulic binders
  • alkaline binders
  • pavements
  • waste valorization

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

11 pages, 1634 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study of the Valorization of Sulfate Soils for Use as Construction Material
by Andrés Seco, Jesús María del Castillo, Céline Perlot, Sara Marcelino-Sádaba, Eduardo Prieto and Sandra Espuelas
Sustainability 2022, 14(11), 6609; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14116609 - 28 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1349
Abstract
This article shows an experimental investigation carried out for the stabilization of a sulfate soil. The stabilization was carried out in two phases: the first phase was the consumption of the sulfate present in the soil through its controlled transformation into ettringite. After [...] Read more.
This article shows an experimental investigation carried out for the stabilization of a sulfate soil. The stabilization was carried out in two phases: the first phase was the consumption of the sulfate present in the soil through its controlled transformation into ettringite. After this, a modified soil with lower maximum density, greater optimum moisture identified via standard proctor (SP) test, no plasticity and improved unconfined compressive strength (UCS) was obtained. In the second phase, the modified soil was stabilized by the use of different additives rich in oxides of calcium or magnesium, combined with by-products or waste materials containing reactive aluminum or silicon oxides. As a result, the mechanical strength of the modified soil was improved. In this phase, a binary binder composed of a magnesium oxide product and ground granulated blast-furnace slags (GGBS) obtained the highest UCS. The binary binder composed of lime and an alumina filler formed ettringite in the treated soil. This experiment allowed for the validation of a two-phase stabilization process and the non-conventional additives used, mainly magnesium oxide and GGBS, even for high-bearing-requirement pavement layers’ construction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Stabilization in Sustainability)
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21 pages, 6351 KiB  
Article
Stabilisation of a Plastic Soil with Alkali Activated Cements Developed from Industrial Wastes
by Nuno Cristelo, Jhonathan Rivera, Tiago Miranda and Ana Fernández-Jiménez
Sustainability 2021, 13(8), 4501; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13084501 - 18 Apr 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1809
Abstract
The development of alternative materials for the construction industry, based on different types of waste, is gaining significant importance in recent years. This is mostly due to the need to increase sustainability of this heavily polluting activity, thus mitigating the dependence on, for [...] Read more.
The development of alternative materials for the construction industry, based on different types of waste, is gaining significant importance in recent years. This is mostly due to the need to increase sustainability of this heavily polluting activity, thus mitigating the dependence on, for instance, Portland cement. The present paper is related to the development of an alkaline activated cement (AAC) exclusively fabricated from industrial by-products (both precursor and activator). Coal combustion fly ash, a common residue from thermoelectric powerplants, and glass waste, from the manufacture of ophthalmic lenses, were used as precursors. These precursors were activated with a recycled alkaline solution, resulting from the cleaning of aluminium extrusion dies, instead of the more common commercial reagents usually applied for this type of binder. Several pastes were studied, combining the precursor and alkaline solution in different proportions. When the most-performing cements were defined, they were used to stabilise a cohesive soil. The experimental procedure and subsequent analysis were designed based on a Response Surface Methodology model, considering the Activator/Solids and Soil/Precursor ratios as the most relevant variables of the stabilisation process. It was observed that, depending on the type of alkaline cement used, there was an optimum precursor and activator contents to optimise the mechanical properties of the stabilised soil. The reliability of this prediction was especially dependent on the type of precursors and, also, on their respective dissolution process right before the homogenization with the soil, under the working conditions available. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Stabilization in Sustainability)
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19 pages, 12188 KiB  
Article
Effect of Silica Fume as a Waste Material for Sustainable Environment on the Stabilization and Dynamic Behavior of Dispersive Soil
by Murat Türköz, Seyfettin Umut Umu and Ogan Öztürk
Sustainability 2021, 13(8), 4321; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13084321 - 13 Apr 2021
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 3377
Abstract
The use of dispersive soils, which are common in many parts of the world, in engineering applications such as water structures, earthen dams and road embankments is possible with their improvement. Recently, the effects of different chemicals on the stabilization of dispersive soils [...] Read more.
The use of dispersive soils, which are common in many parts of the world, in engineering applications such as water structures, earthen dams and road embankments is possible with their improvement. Recently, the effects of different chemicals on the stabilization of dispersive soils have been investigated. The use of waste materials in stabilization is preferred both because of the more sustainable environment and the economic advantages it provides. The use of silica fume (SF) as a waste material in different engineering applications provides an important advantage in environmentally and economically sustainable ways. Many studies have been carried out regarding silica fume, especially in the construction industry. Although SF is used in many industries, there is no study about its potential impact on the stabilization and dynamic properties of dispersive soils. In this study, first, Atterberg limits and standard Proctor compaction tests were performed on the mixtures prepared by adding different SF percentages (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30%). Afterward, pinhole tests and resonant column tests were performed to determine dispersibility and dynamic properties on the samples prepared by compaction characteristics for each SF percentage reached. In general, it was determined that SF contributed to a change in soil class, and improvement in dispersibility and dynamic properties of the soil sample, depending on SF content; positive effects of SF were observed in terms of shallow soil improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Stabilization in Sustainability)
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16 pages, 7448 KiB  
Article
Stabilization of a Clay Soil Using Cementing Material from Spent Refractories and Ground-Granulated Blast Furnace Slag
by Andres Seco, Jesus María del Castillo, Sandra Espuelas, Sara Marcelino-Sadaba and Benat Garcia
Sustainability 2021, 13(6), 3015; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063015 - 10 Mar 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1959
Abstract
Nowadays, huge amounts of refractory materials are generated around the world. The majority of them lack valorization methods. This study analyzes the ability of a doloma and two magnesia spent refractory wastes as soil stabilizers on their own, as well as when combined [...] Read more.
Nowadays, huge amounts of refractory materials are generated around the world. The majority of them lack valorization methods. This study analyzes the ability of a doloma and two magnesia spent refractory wastes as soil stabilizers on their own, as well as when combined with Ground-Granulated Blast Furnace Slags (GGBS). These materials showed a limited ability for the soil’s plasticity modification from a plasticity index of 15.6 to a minimum of 12.7. The high pH of the additives increased the soil’s pH from 7.88 to values in the range of 10.94–11.25 before the 28 days, allowing the development of the pozzolanic reactions. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) increased along the curing time, reaching a maximum value of 5.68 MPa after 90 days. Based on the UCS, the optimum refractory GGBS ratios oscillate between 30:70 and 50:50. The UCS values after soaking samples reduced the unsoaked results between 68.70% to 94.41%. The binders considered showed a low effect against the soil swelling and the lack of delayed expansive effects because of the MgO hydration. Finally, X Ray Diffraction (XRD) tests showed that the stabilization only slightly modified the combinations of mineralogy and the formation of Magnesium Silicate Hydrate (MSH) gels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Stabilization in Sustainability)
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16 pages, 1157 KiB  
Article
Stabilization Study of a Contaminated Soil with Metal(loid)s Adding Different Low-Grade MgO Degrees
by Jessica Giro-Paloma, Joan Formosa and Josep M Chimenos
Sustainability 2020, 12(18), 7340; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12187340 - 7 Sep 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2277
Abstract
Low-grade magnesium oxide (LG-MgO) was proposed as ordinary Portland cement (OPC) or lime substitute (CaO) for metal(loid)s remediation in contaminated soils. Some metal(loid)s precipitate at pH ≈ 9 in insoluble hydroxide form thus avoiding their leaching. LG-MgO avoids the re-dissolution of certain metal(loid)s [...] Read more.
Low-grade magnesium oxide (LG-MgO) was proposed as ordinary Portland cement (OPC) or lime substitute (CaO) for metal(loid)s remediation in contaminated soils. Some metal(loid)s precipitate at pH ≈ 9 in insoluble hydroxide form thus avoiding their leaching. LG-MgO avoids the re-dissolution of certain metal(loid)s at 9.0 < pH < 11.0 (pH-dependents), whose solubility depends on the pH. A highly contaminated soil with heavy metal(loid)s was stabilized using different LG-MgO by-products sources as stabilizing agents. Two of the three studied LG-MgOs were selected for the stabilization, by mixing 5, 10, and 15 wt.%. The effect of using LG-MgO not only depends on the size of the particles, but also on those impurities that are present in the LG-MgO samples. Particle size distribution, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis, citric acid test, specific surface, bulk density, acid neutralization capacity, batch leaching tests (BLTs), and percolation column tests (PCTs) were techniques used to deeply characterize the different LG-MgO and the contaminated and remediated soils. The remediation’s results efficacy indicated that when the medium pH was between 9.0 and 11.0, the concentration of pH-dependent metal(loid)s decreases significantly. Although around 15 wt.% of a stabilizing agent was appropriate for the soil remediation to ensure an alkali reservoir that maintains optimal stabilization conditions for a long period, 5 wt.% of LG-MgO was enough to remedy the contaminated soil. When evaluating a polluted and decontaminated soil, both BLTs and PCTs should be complementary procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Stabilization in Sustainability)
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