Special Issue "Education for Environmental Citizenship"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Education and Approaches".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Andreas Ch. Hadjichambis
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Cyprus Centre for Environmental Research and Education (CYCERE), Cyprus Ministry of Education and Culture, Cyprus
Interests: education for environmental citizenship; environmental citizenship; environmental education; sustainability education; biology education; science education; socio-scientic issues; teacher professional development
Dr. Pedro Guilherme Rocha dos Reis
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Instituto de Educação, Universidade de Lisboa, Alameda da Universidade, 1649-013 Lisboa, Portugal
Interests: science education; youth activism; socioscientific and socio-environmental issues; environmental citizenship; teachers' professional development
Dr. Demetra Paraskeva-Hadjichambi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Cyprus Centre for Environmental Research and Education (CYCERE), Cyprus Ministry of Education and Culture, Cyprus
Interests: environmental education; environmental citizenship; teacher professional development; biology education; science education
Dr. Marta Romero Ariza
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Departamento de Didáctica de las Ciencias, University of Jaén, Spain
Interests: Environmental citizenship; environmental education; science education; teacher professional development; inquiry-based learning; socio-scientic issues
Dr. Jelle Boeve-de Pauw
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University of Antwerp & Karel de Grote University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Belgium
Interests: environmental education; citizenship education; urban education; STEM education; school effectiveness; implementation studies; teacher professional development; assessment
Dr. Niklas Gericke
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Environmental and Life Sciences,Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden
Interests: biology education; conceptual understanding; implementation research; models and representations; science education; sustainability education; textbook research
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Marie Christine P.J. Knippels
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Freudenthal Institute, Utrecht University, The Netherlands
Interests: Socio-scientific issues; responsible citizenship; biology education; systems thinking; environmental citizenship; socio-scientific inquiry-based learning; teacher professional development; model-based reasoning in biology
Dr. Andri Christodoulou
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Southampton Education School, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK
Interests: Teacher professional development; argumentation; classroom discourse; epistemic practices; socio-scientific issues

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

A series of existing environmental problems (both global and local) constitute the scenery of environmental crises. Environmental citizenship is recognized as an important aspect in addressing global environmental crises (Stern 2011; Ockwell et al. 2009).

Education for Environmental Citizenship (EEC) is the type of education that cultivates a coherent and adequate body of knowledge as well as the necessary skills, values, attitudes, and competencies that an environmental citizen should be equipped with in order to be able to act and participate in society as an agent of change in the private and public sphere, on a local, national and global scale, through individual and collective actions. It pushes them toward solving contemporary environmental problems, preventing the creation of new environmental problems, in achieving sustainability as well as developing a healthy relationship with nature. ‘Education for Environmental Citizenship’ empowers citizens to practise their environmental rights and duties, as well as to identify the underlying structural causes of environmental problems, develop the willingness and the competencies for critical and active engagement and civic participation to address those structural causes and act individually and collectively within democratic means, taking into account both inter- and intra-generational justice (ENEC 2018).

The scope of this Special Issue is to provide a platform for researchers to share their research work on the field of education for environmental citizenship including aspects of civic engagement and civic participation, democratic action, social and environmental change, individual and collective actions, environmental actions, socio-political actions, environmental justice, inter- and intra-generational justice and connectedness to nature.

In this Special Issue, we encourage researchers to submit empirical, theoretical, methodological research articles or reviews in various fields considering EEC, for instance, in the frameworks of formal and non-formal education. Submissions using qualitative, mixed method, or quantitative research approaches are welcome.

References:

European Network for Environmental Citizenship – ENEC (2018). Defining “Education for Environmental Citizenship”. Retrieved from http://enec-cost.eu/our-approach/education-for-environmental-citizenship/

Ockwell, D., Whitmarsh, L., & O'Neill, S. (2009). Reorienting climate change communication for effective mitigation: Forcing people to be green or fostering grass-roots engagement? Science Communication, 30(3), 305–327.

Stern, P. C. (2011). Contributions of psychology to limiting climate change. American Psychologist, 66(4), 303.

Dr. Andreas Ch. Hadjichambis
Dr. Pedro Guilherme Rocha dos Reis
Dr. Demetra Paraskeva-Hadjichambi
Dr. Marta Romero Ariza
Dr. Jelle Boeve-de Pauw
Dr. Niklas Gericke
Dr. Marie Christine P.J. Knippels
Dr. Andri Christodoulou
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • education for environmental citizenship
  • environmental citizenship
  • sustainability education
  • justice-oriented education
  • transformative education
  • change-oriented education
  • sustainable citizenship education
  • global citizenship education
  • civic participation
  • civic engagement
  • agents of change
  • environmental behavior
  • collective action
  • sustainable development goals
  • citizenship education

Published Papers (12 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Article
Socio-Scientific Inquiry-Based Learning as a Means toward Environmental Citizenship
Sustainability 2021, 13(20), 11509; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132011509 (registering DOI) - 18 Oct 2021
Abstract
This paper draws on the meta-theory of Critical Realism providing a theoretical basis for the pedagogical approach of Socio-Scientific Inquiry-Based Learning (SSIBL) in supporting Education for Environmental Citizenship (EEC). We argue that while there are different configurations of EEC, inducting citizens in decision-making [...] Read more.
This paper draws on the meta-theory of Critical Realism providing a theoretical basis for the pedagogical approach of Socio-Scientific Inquiry-Based Learning (SSIBL) in supporting Education for Environmental Citizenship (EEC). We argue that while there are different configurations of EEC, inducting citizens in decision-making needs satisfies the following criteria: (a) relevant transdisciplinary knowledge, (b) a values orientation toward both the complexity of, and the necessity for, a sustainable world and (c) a confidence for, and commitment to, socio-political action at individual and collective levels. In order to provide a rich perspective about how SSIBL has been operationalized in various national contexts through specific teacher professional development, we present four cases purposefully selected as exemplars from different European countries (the Netherlands, Spain, the UK and Cyprus). The four cases provide powerful scenarios to discuss different ways in which the SSIBL approach can be implemented in teacher education to meet the criteria identified and, thus, promote informed and responsible action in relation to socio-environmental issues. The whole picture shows a consistent theoretical foundation and interesting opportunities for teacher education, as a relevant strategy to prepare teachers in taking risks and integrating SSIBL within school curricula to foster environmental citizenship. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education for Environmental Citizenship)
Article
Promoting Environmental Citizenship in Education: The Potential of the Sustainability Consciousness Questionnaire to Measure Impact of Interventions
Sustainability 2021, 13(20), 11420; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132011420 - 15 Oct 2021
Abstract
Policy documents across the globe call for citizen engagement to fight climate change emergencies and build more sustainable societies. They also recognize the key role of formal and non-formal education in preparing citizens to address those challenges. However, there is a need to [...] Read more.
Policy documents across the globe call for citizen engagement to fight climate change emergencies and build more sustainable societies. They also recognize the key role of formal and non-formal education in preparing citizens to address those challenges. However, there is a need to identify appropriate instruments to evaluate the impact of educational interventions on people’s knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors, which are essential components of the action competence required to become environmental citizens and agents of change. The aim of this paper is to investigate the potential of the Sustainability Consciousness Questionnaire (SCQ) to evaluate different educational interventions aimed at increasing environmental citizenship. It presents three sub-studies from Spain, Belgium, and Sweden using the SCQ with varying contexts, duration, and target groups yet sharing common pedagogical features in the interventions. Pre-intervention scores indicate a common pattern of high sustainability knowingness, moderate sustainability attitudes, and lower sustainability behaviors in the three dimensions (environmental, social and economic) of sustainability consciousness, and a positive impact on sustainability behavior after the intervention. These findings are especially significant when compared to previous studies. We therefore conclude that the SCQ is useful for detecting the effects of learning interventions of varying designs and contexts that address environmental citizenship. The results are discussed in terms of key pedagogical features of the educational interventions, and the appropriateness and sensitivity of the instrument in detecting changes in the intended direction. It concludes with implications for research and practice and suggestions for future lines of work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education for Environmental Citizenship)
Article
Knowledge Use in Education for Environmental Citizenship—Results of Four Case Studies in Europe (France, Hungary, Serbia, Turkey)
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 11118; https://doi.org/10.3390/su131911118 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 368
Abstract
The aim of the paper is to contribute to the research on education for environmental citizenship in a comparative perspective. The central concept of education is the complex issue of knowledge. In the present paper, different knowledge forms, knowledge use, and types of [...] Read more.
The aim of the paper is to contribute to the research on education for environmental citizenship in a comparative perspective. The central concept of education is the complex issue of knowledge. In the present paper, different knowledge forms, knowledge use, and types of knowledge production in environmental education are analysed for two EU countries, France and Hungary, together with two candidate countries, Serbia and Turkey. We review the most important theories and publications, the research questions and the methods considered to be examples for our present work. The second part of the paper presents the case studies according to the theoretical priorities. Evidence-based papers on cases in different European countries illustrating and discussing the evaluation of the types of knowledge used in environmental education and sustainability projects, as well as analysing the power-related components of knowledge use are reviewed. In the final part, case studies are compared and conclusions are drawn. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education for Environmental Citizenship)
Article
The Importance of International Collaboration to Enhance Education for Environmental Citizenship
Sustainability 2021, 13(18), 10326; https://doi.org/10.3390/su131810326 - 15 Sep 2021
Viewed by 609
Abstract
Environmental Education is essential to promote awareness and facilitate the development of environmental citizens. To contribute to the enhancement of environmental awareness, Iceland, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Romania have collaborated in joint educational projects which aim at building capacities on sustainable development, [...] Read more.
Environmental Education is essential to promote awareness and facilitate the development of environmental citizens. To contribute to the enhancement of environmental awareness, Iceland, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Romania have collaborated in joint educational projects which aim at building capacities on sustainable development, delivering environmental teaching lectures, and developing open educational resources. This article presents past and ongoing collaborations between the mentioned countries, assesses the status of environmental education, and highlights the benefits of international collaboration. For this purpose, information on environmental courses in representative universities from each country was collected, SWOT analyses were performed in each country, and a survey among potential students was carried out. The presented analysis reveals that international collaboration raises environmental awareness and increases the likelihood of becoming environmental citizens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education for Environmental Citizenship)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Evaluating an Educational Intervention Designed to Foster Environmental Citizenship among Undergraduate University Students
Sustainability 2021, 13(15), 8219; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13158219 - 23 Jul 2021
Viewed by 579
Abstract
Taking its primary interest in active environmental citizenship, this paper aims at evaluating a case of an educational intervention designed to foster environmental citizenship among undergraduate students at a technological university. The study employs a survey methodology implementing a recently validated environmental citizenship [...] Read more.
Taking its primary interest in active environmental citizenship, this paper aims at evaluating a case of an educational intervention designed to foster environmental citizenship among undergraduate students at a technological university. The study employs a survey methodology implementing a recently validated environmental citizenship questionnaire. A randomized pre-group –post-group quasi-experimental survey design explores students’ environmental citizenship attributes before and after the intervention course, ‘Sustainable Development’, in comparison to students who participated in a general elective course, ‘Media Philosophy’. The results show that the participation in the intervention course induced positive change in students’ environmental citizenship in comparison to the control group. Additional analysis indicates that environmental citizenship is significantly related to environmental attitudes, nature experiences during childhood and adolescence, and gender. The article provides a timely contribution shedding light on how specific pedagogical approaches in higher education can foster environmental citizenship. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education for Environmental Citizenship)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Secondary Science Teachers’ Views on Environmental Citizenship in The Netherlands
Sustainability 2021, 13(14), 7963; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13147963 - 16 Jul 2021
Viewed by 599
Abstract
Environmental Citizenship (EC) is a promising aim for science education. EC enables people not only to responsibly make decisions on sustainability issues—such as use of renewable energy sources—but also to take action individually and collectively. However, studies show that education for EC is [...] Read more.
Environmental Citizenship (EC) is a promising aim for science education. EC enables people not only to responsibly make decisions on sustainability issues—such as use of renewable energy sources—but also to take action individually and collectively. However, studies show that education for EC is challenging. Because our understanding of EC practice remains limited, an in-depth, qualitative view would help us better understand how to support science teachers during EC education. This study aims to describe current EC education practices. What do secondary science teachers think sustainability and citizenship entail? What are their experiences (both positive and negative) with education for EC? A total of 41 Dutch science teachers were interviewed in an individual, face-to-face setting. Analysis of the coded transcripts shows that most teachers see the added value of EC but struggle to fully implement it in their teaching. They think the curriculum is unsuitable to reach EC, and they see activities such as guiding discussions and opinion forming as challenging. Furthermore, science teachers’ interpretation of citizenship education remains narrow, thus making it unlikely that their lessons are successful in fostering EC. Improving EC education therefore may be supported by explicit representation in the curriculum and teacher professional development directed at its implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education for Environmental Citizenship)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Design of a Pedagogical Model of Education for Environmental Citizenship in Primary Education
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 6000; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13116000 - 26 May 2021
Viewed by 1002
Abstract
Education for Environmental Citizenship plays an important role in social change toward sustainable development, achieving economic, social, and environmental balance through informed, cooperative, and participative citizens. There are several pedagogical models with the potential to involve students in environmental activities, but no specific [...] Read more.
Education for Environmental Citizenship plays an important role in social change toward sustainable development, achieving economic, social, and environmental balance through informed, cooperative, and participative citizens. There are several pedagogical models with the potential to involve students in environmental activities, but no specific model suitable for primary education is found. This article describes the preliminary investigation phase of a Design-Based Research that resulted in the development of the first prototype of a Pedagogical Model of Education for Environmental Citizenship in Primary Education (students aged 6 to 10 years), in Portugal. This preliminary investigation phase was based on a systematic analysis and literature review on the topic (thesis, articles, projects, and curricular guidelines for primary education), seeking to answer the following research questions: (1) According to the current world characteristics, which learning outcomes should an environmental citizen achieve, and which of them can be promoted in primary education? (2) What are the most appropriate teaching methodologies and strategies for promoting environmental citizen learning outcomes in primary education? The methodology used is presented, and the proposed prototype is described, along with the desired learning outcomes that are considered necessary for the formation of an Environmental Citizen and the most appropriate methodologies and educational activities to promote them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education for Environmental Citizenship)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Environmental Citizenship Education through the Doñana, Biodiversity and Culture Program
Sustainability 2021, 13(5), 2809; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052809 - 05 Mar 2021
Viewed by 443
Abstract
While the need to educate for the formation of environmentally committed citizens is something that has always been recognized, currently however it has become an obligation. The present study analyzes the Doñana, Biodiversity and Culture Program from the perspective of its participants. The [...] Read more.
While the need to educate for the formation of environmentally committed citizens is something that has always been recognized, currently however it has become an obligation. The present study analyzes the Doñana, Biodiversity and Culture Program from the perspective of its participants. The program is part of the action being carried out with schools intending to teach environmental citizenry using the context of protected natural spaces, in this specific case, the Doñana National Park. The Park’s managers and public guides were interviewed, and observation records of the process were collected. These were later analyzed by means of a category table elaborated within the project Patrimonial Education for Citizens’ Territorial and Emotional Intelligence, of which this study is a part. The consistency of the informants was verified, as also was the practice observed, showing the importance of the socio-identity framework, of critical thinking, and of socio-affective relationships with the territory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education for Environmental Citizenship)
Article
Unprepared to Deal with Invasion: Pre-Service Teachers’ Perception, Knowledge and Attitudes toward Invasive Species
Sustainability 2020, 12(24), 10543; https://doi.org/10.3390/su122410543 - 16 Dec 2020
Viewed by 811
Abstract
The serious and growing impacts of invasive alien species (IAS) on the planet make it necessary to include this issue with greater determination in educational programs, with the aim of generating citizens capable of dealing with this environmental problem in a sustainable way. [...] Read more.
The serious and growing impacts of invasive alien species (IAS) on the planet make it necessary to include this issue with greater determination in educational programs, with the aim of generating citizens capable of dealing with this environmental problem in a sustainable way. Likewise, the management of IAS represents a clear socio-scientific issue (SSI), which gives greater interest to its inclusion in school. At this point, future teachers play a key role, so that their knowledge, perceptions and attitudes on the subject must be evaluated. In order to deal with this objective, a questionnaire was filled out by 400 students of the degrees in early childhood education and primary education of the Universities of La Rioja (UR) and the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Spain. Our results show that pre-service teachers do not perceive impacts of different types generated by IAS, and they show a clear lack of knowledge about transmission vectors. Likewise, they do not support various control measures, especially slaughter of invasive vertebrates, related to affective dimensions. These results highlight the need to work toward an appropriate integration of this issue at different educational levels, training students and educators, fostering favorable attitudes toward a sustainable management of IAS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education for Environmental Citizenship)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Review
A Systematic Literature Review on the Participation Aspects of Environmental and Nature-Based Citizen Science Initiatives
Sustainability 2021, 13(13), 7457; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13137457 - 03 Jul 2021
Viewed by 961
Abstract
It is commonly argued that, despite the tremendous resonance Citizen Science (CS) has shown in recent years, there is still lack of understanding of important aspects defining citizens’ participation and engagement in CS initiatives. While CS initiatives could provide a vehicle to foster [...] Read more.
It is commonly argued that, despite the tremendous resonance Citizen Science (CS) has shown in recent years, there is still lack of understanding of important aspects defining citizens’ participation and engagement in CS initiatives. While CS initiatives could provide a vehicle to foster forms of participation contributing to the democratization of science, there is still limited attention paid to the “Citizen” component of the Citizen Science term. For the purpose of this work, we systematically reviewed the available literature for empirical studies in respect to citizens’ participation in environmental and nature-based CS initiatives established during the last two decades, using the PRISMA methodology. The participatory facet of the retrieved 119 CS initiatives was analysed on the basis of: (a) exclusion and inclusion demographic factors, (b) CS models and practices, (c) facilitators and constraints of citizen’s participation, and (d) environmental citizenship. Our findings show that the majority of the CS initiatives did not place restrictions on gender participation; however, we have identified that mostly highly educated adults participated in the reviewed initiatives. In addition, most of the CS initiatives reported in the literature were situated in the EU and USA, were mostly limited to the local scale, and primarily followed the contributory model. Academic institutions were found to coordinate the majority of the CS initiatives examined. By using digital technologies, academic scientists were able to control and increase data quality, as well as to engage a broader audience, even though they were mostly treating volunteers as “data collectors”, desiring their long-term engagement. Therefore, it will be of CS benefit to be better aligned with the mentality and needs of citizens. In this direction CS initiatives should trigger citizens’ learning gains and interpersonal/social benefits and personal, environmental, and social motivations, but also to shift their goals towards contributing to science and citizens’ connection with nature. On the other hand, there is a need to overcome any design and implementation barriers, and to enhance democratization through a more participative engagement of active and aware citizens, thus promoting environmental citizenship. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education for Environmental Citizenship)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Teachers’ Perceptions on Environmental Citizenship: A Systematic Review of the Literature
Sustainability 2021, 13(5), 2622; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052622 - 01 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 943
Abstract
As we are living amid an unprecedent environmental crisis, the need for schools to empower students into environmental citizenship is intensifying. Teachers are considered as the main driving force in fostering students’ environmental citizenship. However, a critical question is how teachers conceive environmental [...] Read more.
As we are living amid an unprecedent environmental crisis, the need for schools to empower students into environmental citizenship is intensifying. Teachers are considered as the main driving force in fostering students’ environmental citizenship. However, a critical question is how teachers conceive environmental citizenship and whether their perceptions of environmental citizenship are well-informed. There is an urgent need to investigate teachers’ perceptions, considering their crucial role in the formation of students’ environmental citizenship. This study examines teachers’ perceptions of environmental citizenship through a systematic review and thematic analysis of relevant empirical studies. The selected studies (n = 16) were published in peer-reviewed journals during the timespan of the last twenty-five (25) years (1995–2020). The thematic findings of this review revealed that teachers’ perceptions: (a) manifest a relatively decreased understanding of environmental citizenship, (b) are narrowed down to the local scale, individual dimension and private sphere, (c) affect teaching practices, (d) are multi-dimensional, defined by inter-related components, (e) vary according to teachers’ educational/cultural background and personal identity, (f) affect other environmental constructs defining teachers’ professional identity, (g) can be enhanced during teacher education, (h) can be also improved during professional development initiatives. These findings bear significant implications for researchers, policymakers, as well as for teacher educators in the field of Environmental Education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education for Environmental Citizenship)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Hypothesis
A Value-Based Framework Connecting Environmental Citizenship and Change Agents for Sustainability—Implications for Education for Environmental Citizenship
Sustainability 2021, 13(8), 4338; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13084338 - 14 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 734
Abstract
Civic agency is acknowledged as a key driver/catalyst for social transformation toward sustainability. Recent environmental citizenship education (EEC) models advocate a transformative approach for addressing environmental unsustainability (addressing underlying structural causes) and the identification of the development of change agents, as both the [...] Read more.
Civic agency is acknowledged as a key driver/catalyst for social transformation toward sustainability. Recent environmental citizenship education (EEC) models advocate a transformative approach for addressing environmental unsustainability (addressing underlying structural causes) and the identification of the development of change agents, as both the means for deep social transformation toward sustainability and the outcome of EEC. Given the paucity of studies looking into the psychological attributes of sustainability change agents, this work aims to deepen the theoretical understanding of the motivations that drive individuals to act as change agents and the type and extent of the change that they aspire to effect, with a view to developing competent environmental citizens. To this end, this conceptual work applies Schwartz’s theory of universal values to construct a three-level framework of environmental citizenship (EC) (individual-level, community-level, and socially-transformative-level). Each level reflects an increasing level of change agency that is driven by distinct motivational values and competences. The framework shares affinities with qualitative change agency typologies in the literature but claims that these different qualitative types reflect expanding ‘levels-of-concern’ and an increasing extent of change, as expressed in the EC framework. The paper then discusses curricular implications for the design of meaningful EEC deriving from the framework: Effective EEC entails developing change agency by adapting learning to the EC-level of the learners and the educational organization. The proposed EC/change agency framework provides a scaffold for such curricular adaptation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education for Environmental Citizenship)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop