Special Issue "Sustainable Transport: Transport, Environment, and Development"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Sustainability and Applications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Brantley Liddle
Website
Guest Editor
Energy Studies Institute, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119620, Singapore
Interests: energy economics and policy; energy and climate change; economic growth and energy/environment; transport and energy/environment; population and energy/environment
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Transport is an important source of local, regional, and global pollution. In addition, given current technology, transport is likely to remain fossil fuel-intensive in the immediate future. However, transport is also strongly tied to both development and industrialization, and mobility is important for quality of life. This special issue will focus on sustainable transportation and transport and the environment, broadly defined. Papers might focus on the impact of transportation or the potential technical and/or institutional solutions. The level of analysis could be local, regional, or national, and methods employed could range from case-study to regression. Submissions employing multidisciplinary approaches are particularly encouraged.

Dr. Brantley Liddle
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Transport and spatial form
  • Energy efficiency in transport
  • Transport technology and emissions/energy consumption
  • Impact of aviation and freight

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Modelling of Emissions and Energy Use from Biofuel Fuelled Vehicles at Urban Scale
Sustainability 2019, 11(10), 2902; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11102902 - 22 May 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Biofuels have been considered to be sustainable energy source and one of the major alternatives to petroleum-based road transport fuels due to a reduction of greenhouse gases emissions. However, their effects on urban air pollution are not straightforward. The main objective of this [...] Read more.
Biofuels have been considered to be sustainable energy source and one of the major alternatives to petroleum-based road transport fuels due to a reduction of greenhouse gases emissions. However, their effects on urban air pollution are not straightforward. The main objective of this work is to estimate the emissions and energy use from bio-fuelled vehicles by using an integrated and flexible modelling approach at the urban scale in order to contribute to the understanding of introducing biofuels as an alternative transport fuel. For this purpose, the new Traffic Emission and Energy Consumption Model (QTraffic) was applied for complex urban road network when considering two biofuels demand scenarios with different blends of bioethanol and biodiesel in comparison to the reference situation over the city of Coimbra (Portugal). The results of this study indicate that the increase of biofuels blends would have a beneficial effect on particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions reduction for the entire road network (−3.1% [−3.8% to −2.1%] by kg). In contrast, an overall negative effect on nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions at urban scale is expected, mainly due to the increase in bioethanol uptake. Moreover, the results indicate that, while there is no noticeable variation observed in energy use, fuel consumption is increased by over 2.4% due to the introduction of the selected biofuels blends. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Transport: Transport, Environment, and Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Electric Charging Demand Location Model—A User- and Destination-Based Locating Approach for Electric Vehicle Charging Stations
Sustainability 2019, 11(8), 2301; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11082301 - 17 Apr 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
In recent years, with the increased focus on climate protection, electric vehicles (EVs) have become a relevant alternative to conventional motorized vehicles. Even though the market share of EVs is still comparatively low, there are ongoing considerations for integrating EVs in transportation systems. [...] Read more.
In recent years, with the increased focus on climate protection, electric vehicles (EVs) have become a relevant alternative to conventional motorized vehicles. Even though the market share of EVs is still comparatively low, there are ongoing considerations for integrating EVs in transportation systems. Along with pushing EV sales numbers, the installation of charging infrastructure is necessary. This paper presents a user- and destination-based approach for locating charging stations (CSs) for EVs—the electric charging demand location (ECDL) model. With regard to the daily activities of potential EV users, potential positions for CSs are derived on a micro-location level in public and semipublic spaces using geographic information systems (GIS). Depending on the vehicle users’ dwell times and visiting frequencies at potential points of interest (POIs), the charging demand at such locations is calculated. The model is mainly based on a survey analyzing the average time spent per daily activity, regional data about driver and vehicle ownership numbers, and the georeferenced localization of regularly visited POIs. Optimal sites for parking and charging EVs within the POIs neighborhood are selected based on walking distance calculations, including spatial neighborhood effects, such as the density of POIs. In a case study in southeastern Germany, the model identifies concrete places with the highest overall demand for CSs, resulting in an extensive coverage of the electric energy demand while considering as many destinations within the acceptable walking distance threshold as possible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Transport: Transport, Environment, and Development)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Decomposition Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Korea’s Transportation Sector
Sustainability 2019, 11(7), 1986; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11071986 - 03 Apr 2019
Cited by 9
Abstract
This study analyzed the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transportation sector in Korea from 1990 to 2013 using Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) factor decomposition methods. We decomposed these emissions into six factors: The population effect, the economic growth effect due to [...] Read more.
This study analyzed the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transportation sector in Korea from 1990 to 2013 using Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) factor decomposition methods. We decomposed these emissions into six factors: The population effect, the economic growth effect due to changes in the gross domestic product per capita, the energy intensity effect due to changes in energy consumption per gross domestic product, the transportation mode effect, the energy mix effect, and the emission factor effect. The results show that some factors can cause an increase in GHG emissions predominantly influenced by the economic growth effect, followed by the population growth effect. By contrast, others can cause a decrease in GHG emissions, predominantly via the energy intensity effect. Even though the transportation mode effect has contributed to a reduction of GHG emissions, it remains relatively small compared to other factors. The energy mix and emission factor effects contributed to the reduction of GHG emissions in the early 2000s, however the effects have led to an increase of GHG emissions since the mid-2000s. Altogether, based on these results, this study suggests some GHG mitigation policies aimed at achieving the national target for this sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Transport: Transport, Environment, and Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Introduction of Biodiesel to Rail Transport: Lessons from the Road Sector
Sustainability 2019, 11(3), 904; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11030904 - 11 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Biodiesel is a potentially low-carbon, renewable alternative fuel to diesel, sharing similar chemical and physical properties to diesel. There have been significant efforts in introducing primarily bioethanol and some biodiesel to the road transport sector, with varying levels of success. However, the rail [...] Read more.
Biodiesel is a potentially low-carbon, renewable alternative fuel to diesel, sharing similar chemical and physical properties to diesel. There have been significant efforts in introducing primarily bioethanol and some biodiesel to the road transport sector, with varying levels of success. However, the rail sector has not seen as large an effort in introducing biodiesel. This paper summarizes the literature on the introduction of biodiesel (bioethanol was a relevant fuel) in order to learn lessons, which can be applied to the rail transport sector. A decision-making framework PESTLE (Political/Policies, Economic, Social, Technological, Legal, and Environmental) is used to analyze these lessons, and their relevance (or not) to the rail sector. While introduction of biodiesel in the rail sector has some inherent advantages, such as fewer refueling points, customers and manufacturers compared to the road sector, it also faces some challenges, especially in the context of the longer life of locomotives, making fleet turnover and potential transition to 100% biodiesel slow. Additionally, maintenance costs are still uncertain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Transport: Transport, Environment, and Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Inland Shipping to Serve the Hinterland: The Challenge for Seaport Authorities
Sustainability 2018, 10(10), 3468; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103468 - 28 Sep 2018
Cited by 9
Abstract
The competitiveness of seaports is predominantly affected by factors external to the ports themselves, connected mainly with the quality of the hinterland and foreland infrastructure. Measures taken in these areas are reflected in the main objectives of the port strategies. Concurrently, the measures [...] Read more.
The competitiveness of seaports is predominantly affected by factors external to the ports themselves, connected mainly with the quality of the hinterland and foreland infrastructure. Measures taken in these areas are reflected in the main objectives of the port strategies. Concurrently, the measures may have adverse environmental impacts (pollutant emissions, noise, land occupancy, etc.) and deteriorate the life quality of the port city’s communities. Therefore, measures taken by seaport authorities to improve their competitiveness must also heed the idea of sustainable development (sustainable port strategy). The answer to this challenge is the idea of green ports, being an element of the corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategies of seaports. One of the elements of this concept is promoting more environmentally friendly transport modes/transport chains in serving the hinterland as an alternative to road transport. Inland shipping is the most environmentally friendly and also cost-competitive mode of transport. Therefore, a modal shift from road to inland waterways is one of the elements of the European Union sustainable transport policy, as well as also gaining importance in the development policies of seaport authorities as an element of a green port strategy. However, this issue has been relatively rarely addressed in the seaport economics literature. In particular, there has been a lack of studies that would make it possible to answer the question of what kind of action should be taken by seaport authorities in order to increase the share of inland shipping in hinterland transport. This article aimed to develop a concept of a promotion policy to be applied by seaport authorities to increase the share of inland shipping in hinterland transport. The study used the elements of a multiple case study design method which included the following seaports: Antwerp, Rotterdam, Hamburg, and the Marseilles–Fos port complex. This article was dedicated to identifying, analyzing, and classifying the policies implemented by these European seaports to promote inland waterway transportation. The research showed that these actions were quite similar in terms of their scope. The actions were classified as external and internal initiatives. The most common external actions included initiatives that improved the quality of inland waterways and the quality of shipping connections with the hinterland. Internal initiatives focused on improving the port’s infrastructure for barges and on implementing an appropriate information policy. The presented concept of a promotion policy can be a road map for all port authorities aiming to improve the quality of inland shipping as a mode of hinterland transport. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Transport: Transport, Environment, and Development)
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Open AccessArticle
The Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Chinese Civil Vehicles’ Possession in the Context of Rapid Economic Development from 1996 to 2015
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 2999; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10092999 - 23 Aug 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
The possession of civil vehicles in a country or a region often reflects its usage of cars. The purpose of this study is to better understand the regional diversity of civil vehicles’ possession in multiple geographic scales (national, regional, provincial). We also aim [...] Read more.
The possession of civil vehicles in a country or a region often reflects its usage of cars. The purpose of this study is to better understand the regional diversity of civil vehicles’ possession in multiple geographic scales (national, regional, provincial). We also aim to investigate the impact of economic levels on the possession of civil vehicles through the lens of Mk test, Theil index, principal component analysis and panel data models. Results show that the possession quantity of civil vehicles in China changed significantly, with a slow growth in 1996–2005 and a rapid growth in 2006–2015. During 1996–2015, the possession quantity of civil vehicles revealed a spatial inequality. The positive impact of economic development on the possession of civil vehicles is gradually decreasing from east to west and from coastal to inland. From 2000 to 2015, disparities in the spatial distribution of civil vehicles showed a trend of ‘increasing slightly in the first place then decreasing continuously,’ during 2000–2005, within-regional inequalities are greater than between-regional inequalities. The inequalities between provinces in the northern coastal areas (NC) were the main reasons for within-regional inequalities. Since 2006, between-regional inequalities have been greater than within-regional inequalities. The level of economic development has a significant positive impact on the possession of civil vehicles; the spatio-temporal patterns of civil vehicles in most areas are in line with economic development trends. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Transport: Transport, Environment, and Development)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Comparing the Effects of Vehicle Automation, Policy-Making and Changed User Preferences on the Uptake of Electric Cars and Emissions from Transport
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 676; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030676 - 02 Mar 2018
Cited by 9
Abstract
Switching energy demand for transport from liquid fuels to electricity is the most promising way to significantly improve air quality and reduce transport emissions. Previous studies have shown this is possible, that by 2035 the economics of alternative powertrain and energy vectors will [...] Read more.
Switching energy demand for transport from liquid fuels to electricity is the most promising way to significantly improve air quality and reduce transport emissions. Previous studies have shown this is possible, that by 2035 the economics of alternative powertrain and energy vectors will have converged. However, they do not address whether the transition is likely or plausible. Using the UK as a case study, we present a systems dynamics model based study informed by transition theory and explore the effects of technology progress, policy-making, user preferences and; for the first time, automated vehicles on this transition. We are not trying to predict the future but to highlight what is necessary in order for different scenarios to become more or less likely. Worryingly we show that current policies with the expected technology progress and expectations of vehicle buyers are insufficient to reach global targets. Faster technology progress, strong financial incentives or a change in vehicle buyer expectations are crucial but still insufficient. In contrast, the biggest switch to alternatively fuelled vehicles could be achieved by the introduction of automated vehicles. The implications will affect policy makers, automotive manufactures, technology developers and broader society. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Transport: Transport, Environment, and Development)
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Review

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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Sustainability and Shared Mobility Models
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3194; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093194 - 07 Sep 2018
Cited by 20
Abstract
Shared mobility or mobility in the sharing economy is characterised by the sharing of a vehicle instead of ownership, and the use of technology to connect users and providers. Based on a literature review, the following four emerging models are identified: (1) peer [...] Read more.
Shared mobility or mobility in the sharing economy is characterised by the sharing of a vehicle instead of ownership, and the use of technology to connect users and providers. Based on a literature review, the following four emerging models are identified: (1) peer to peer provision with a company as a broker, providing a platform where individuals can rent their cars when not in use; (2) short term rental of vehicles managed and owned by a provider; (3) companies that own no cars themselves but sign up ordinary car owners as drivers; and (4) on demand private cars, vans, or buses, and other vehicles, such as big taxis, shared by passengers going in the same direction. The first three models can yield profits to private parties, but they do not seem to have potential to reduce congestion and CO2 emissions substantially. The fourth model, which entails individuals not only sharing a vehicle, but actually travelling together at the same time, is promising in terms of congestion and CO2 emissions reductions. It is also the least attractive to individuals, given the disbenefits in terms of waiting time, travel time, comfort, and convenience, in comparison with the private car. Potential incentives to encourage shared mobility are also discussed, and research needs are outlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Transport: Transport, Environment, and Development)
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