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Special Issue "The Future of Interior Lighting is here"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2021) | Viewed by 12582

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Lambros T. Doulos
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Applied Arts, Hellenic Open University, 26335 Patras, Greece
Interests: daylight, exterior lighting; lighting control; lighting design; lighting measurements; photosensors; road and tunnel lighting; sustainable lighting
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Aris Tsangrassoulis
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University of Thessaly Department of Architecture, Volos, Greece
Interests: Bioclimatic architecture; daylight; dynamic building skins; lighting control; lighting design; low energy building design; photosensors; sustainable lighting

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

One word that characterizes the situation in the lighting industry during recent years is “change”. This change is based on the symbiotic relationship between technological development, lighting design improvement and, of course, the adoption of sustainable principles. Lighting digitization together with the widespread use of LED lamps has led to increased device connectivity offering a wide range of possibilities. LiFi, Internet of Things, Power over Ethernet, wireless sensors have transformed the traditional luminaires into smart devices capable to connect in a network transmitting information. As the light is enriched now with information, it is therefore possible not only to increase energy savings through controls but also to include additional functions such as the ability to adjust the lighting system’s operation according to the users’ expectations and needs. The aforementioned developments allowed not only the manipulation of luminaire’s emitted luminous flux but also the color temperature of the light source. This is the core concept of the Human Centric Lighting which affects health, well-being and productivity providing proper lighting when and where is needed. In recent years zero energy buildings received increased attention though proper legislative pressure and this can potentially sideline the human factor from the epicenter of the build environment. Fortunately, it seems that the focus of lighting design has just moved from spaces to humans. It is therefore of urge importance the new and often contradictory lighting trends to be examined and this is exactly the scope of this special issue. Case studies of exceptional lighting projects are welcome.

Submitted manuscripts should address one or more of the following topics:

  • Architectural lighting & daylighting
  • Decision systems for optimized lighting
  • Human Centric Lighting (Case studies of exceptional lighting projects are welcome)
  • Innovative lighting control (Photosensors, CCD sensors, occupancy sensors, etc)
  • Innovative luminaires (dynamic lighting, dimming, IoT, LiFi, etc)
  • Light pollution and impact on the human health
  • Lighting Design and Sustainability
  • Near and Net Zero Energy Buildings
  • Retrofitting Strategies, Measurement and Verification
  • Social Impact and wellbeing (Ergonomics, Productivity, etc)
  • Visual impairment and corresponding lighting needs

References:

  • Adam G.K., P.A. Kontaxis, L.T. Doulos, E.N.D.Madias, C.A. Bouroussis, F.V. Topalis, Embedded microcontroller with a CCD camera as a digital lighting control system, Electronics, 8 (1), 51, (2019) doi:10.3390/electronics8010033
  • Amirkhani M., V. Garcia-Hansen, G. Isoardi, A. Allan, Innovative window design strategy to reduce negative lighting interventions in office buildings, Energy and Buildings, 15 2018, 253-263
  • Bellia L., F. Fragliasso, E. Stefanizzi, Why are daylight-linked controls (DLCs) not so spread? A literature review, Build. Environ. 106 (September) (2016) 301– http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2016.06.040
  • Boyce P., Exploring human-centric lighting, Lighting Res. Technol. 2016; Vol. 48: 101, 10.1177/1477153516634570
  • Chana Y.C., A. Tzempelikos, I. Konstantzos, A systematic method for selecting roller shade properties for glare protection, Energy Build. 92 (2015) 81– http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2015.01.057
  • Chew I., Dilukshan Karunatilaka, Chee Pin Tan, Vineetha Kalavally, Smart lighting: The way forward? Reviewing the past to shape the future Energy and Buildings, Volume 149, 15 August 2017, Pages 180-191
  • De Almeida A., B. Santos, B. Paolo, M. Quicheron, Solid state lighting review – Potential and challenges in Europe, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 34 (2014) 30–48
  • DoulosT., A. Kontadakis, E.N.Madias, M. Sinou, A. Tsangrassoulis Minimizing energy consumption for artificial lighting in a typical classroom of a Hellenic public school aiming for near Zero Energy Building using LED DC luminaires and daylight harvesting systems, Energy and Building, 194, (2019), 201-217, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2019.04.033
  • Doulos L., A. Tsangrassoulis and F. Topalis, Multi-criteria decision analysis to select the optimum position and proper field of view of a photosensor, Energy Conversion and Management, 86 (2014) 1069–1077 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2014.06.032
  • Figueiro MG, Steverson B, Heerwagen J, Yucel R, Roohan C, Sahin L, Kampschroer K, Rea MS, Light, entrainment and alertness: A case study in offices, Lighting Research & Technology, 2019; doi: 10.1177/1477153519885157
  • Figueiro MG, Kalsher M, Steverson BC, Heerwagen J, Kampschroer K, Rea MS, Circadian-effective light and its impact on alertness in office workers, Lighting Research & Technology, 2019; 51(2):171-83. doi: 10.1177/1477153517750006
  • Lo Verso V., A. Pellegrino, Energy Saving Generated Through Automatic Lighting Control Systems According to the Estimation Method of the Standard EN 15193-1, Journal of Daylighting 6, 2, 131-147, doi: 10.15627/jd.2019.13
  • Mistrick, R.; Casey, C.; Chen, L.; Subramaniam, S. Computer Modeling of Daylight-Integrated Photocontrol of Electric Lighting Systems. Buildings 2015, 5, 449-466.
  • Nguyen, T.P.L.; Peña-García, A. Users’ Awareness, Attitudes, and Perceptions of Health Risks Associated with Excessive Lighting in Night Markets: Policy Implications for Sustainable Development. Sustainability 2019, 11, 6091
  • Peña-García, A. Towards Total Lighting: Expanding the Frontiers of Sustainable Development. Sustainability 2019, 11, 6943
  • Topalis F.V. and L.T. Doulos, Ambient light sensor integration Handbook of Advanced Lighting Technology, 1 January 2017, Pages 607-634, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-00176-0_33
  • Tzempelikos A., Advances on daylighting and visual comfort research, Build. Environ. 113 (2017) 1-4 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2016.12.002
  • Williams, A., Atkinson, B., Garbesi, K, Page, E., Rubinstein, F. Lighting controls in commercial buildings, LEUKOS - Journal of Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, 8, 3, 2012, 161-180

Adj. Prof. Lambros Doulos
Prof. Aris Tsangrassoulis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Architectural lighting
  • daylighting
  • Human Centric Lighting
  • lighting control
  • light pollution
  • Near and Net Zero Energy Buildings
  • optimized lighting
  • wellbeing

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
The Future of Interior Lighting Is Here
Sustainability 2022, 14(12), 7044; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14127044 - 09 Jun 2022
Viewed by 314
Abstract
One word that characterizes the situation in the lighting industry during recent years is “change” [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Future of Interior Lighting is here)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Article
Lighting in Kindergartens: Towards Innovative Design Concepts for Lighting Design in Kindergartens Based on Children’s Perception of Space
Sustainability 2022, 14(4), 2302; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14042302 - 17 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 539
Abstract
Light is the foundation of the visual perceptual process that initiates the evaluation of the surrounding area. Linked to various aspects and rhythms of the body, light connects us to both the natural environment and the interior space. The process of perceiving and [...] Read more.
Light is the foundation of the visual perceptual process that initiates the evaluation of the surrounding area. Linked to various aspects and rhythms of the body, light connects us to both the natural environment and the interior space. The process of perceiving and assessing space for children and adults with different viewing heights and viewing perspectives as well as the role of light to facilitate this are the key elements of this study. The paper describes general lighting design strategies for kindergartens, specifically developed to create an environment that takes into account the children’s scale and cognitive processes. The objective was to discuss environments that support the child’s spatial perception along with shape and object recognition by means of lighting design, for example by creating distinct, well-placed shadows. The proposed strategies are informed by a literature review on the concepts and interrelations of light, human physiology and the perception of scale and space. In addition, our process also included visits to kindergartens to observe and analyse existing lighting as well as the use of simulation programs to test lighting scenarios and their patterns/distribution of light and shadow. The outcome described in this paper is a proposal and strategy to take into account children’s vantage points when designing lighting in kindergartens that is still open to practical interpretations in real-world sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Future of Interior Lighting is here)
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Article
Simulating Physiological Potentials of Daylight Variables in Lighting Design
Sustainability 2022, 14(2), 881; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14020881 - 13 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 365
Abstract
A holistic approach to daylight dynamics in our built environment can have beneficial outcomes for both physiological and visual effects on humans. Simulations of how daylight variables affect light levels on the horizontal work plane are compared to their physiological effects, measured as [...] Read more.
A holistic approach to daylight dynamics in our built environment can have beneficial outcomes for both physiological and visual effects on humans. Simulations of how daylight variables affect light levels on the horizontal work plane are compared to their physiological effects, measured as melanopic EDI (Melanopic Equivalent Daylight Illuminance) on a vertical plane. The melanopic EDI levels were calculated in a simulated office space in ALFA software (Adaptive Lighting for Alertness) employing the daylight variables of orientation, time of day, season, sky conditions and spatial orientation. Results were analyzed for how daylight design can contribute to the physiological effects of dynamic light in office buildings. Daylight is shown to be a sufficient light source in the majority of cases to meet the recommended values of EDI and provide the suggested horizontal lx level according to the Danish Standards. A mapping of daylight conditions, focusing on the specific factors presented here, can provide guidelines in the design process and future smart building systems. The complex interrelationship between these parameters is important to acknowledge when working with daylight dynamics as a sustainable element in architecture and lighting design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Future of Interior Lighting is here)
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Article
Light Distribution and Perceived Spaciousness: Light Patterns in Scale Models
Sustainability 2021, 13(22), 12424; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132212424 - 10 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 428
Abstract
Previous research showed that light distribution can affect the perception of spatial size and shape. However, most studies are limited to quantitative assessment of a few scenarios without explaining possible causes behind peoples’ experiences. This exploratory study aimed to reveal complex relationships between [...] Read more.
Previous research showed that light distribution can affect the perception of spatial size and shape. However, most studies are limited to quantitative assessment of a few scenarios without explaining possible causes behind peoples’ experiences. This exploratory study aimed to reveal complex relationships between light patterns and perceived size, and to investigate how light patterns affect perceived spaciousness. A qualitative approach was used with pair-wise comparisons between systematic visual observations of scale models. The observations confirmed that illuminated walls increase spaciousness. Yet, darkness impacts the perception of spaciousness as well. Both compound and separated light zones can expand depth, height, or width, depending on the interpretation of these patterns of light seen in relation to the whole spatial context. Furthermore, the position of illuminated areas, with placements on edge or in the center, may additionally influence perceived size. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Future of Interior Lighting is here)
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Article
Do Attention and Memory Tasks Require the Same Lighting? A Study in University Classrooms
Sustainability 2021, 13(15), 8374; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13158374 - 27 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 909
Abstract
Lighting plays a fundamental role in learning spaces as it influences students’ performance. Nowadays, new technologies and new teaching methods in higher education mean that very different visual tasks are performed in the classroom, so further research is necessary to identify what lighting [...] Read more.
Lighting plays a fundamental role in learning spaces as it influences students’ performance. Nowadays, new technologies and new teaching methods in higher education mean that very different visual tasks are performed in the classroom, so further research is necessary to identify what lighting is best suited to these new tasks. The objective of the study is to analyse the impact that variations in levels of illuminance and Correlated Colour Temperature (CCT) of classrooms have on the cognitive functions (attention and memory) of university students. The cognitive performance of 90 participants was evaluated based on attention and memory tasks. The participants had to view nine virtual classroom configurations, with three different illuminance settings (100 lx, 300 lx and 500 lx) and three CCTs (3000 K, 4000 K and 6500 K). The results showed that attention and memory tasks require different level of illumination. While attention improves with higher light levels, memory improves with lower light levels. Higher CCTs generate better performance in both attention and memory tasks. These results highlight the link between lighting and students’ cognitive responses. This study and its methodology can be useful for architects and researchers as they establish lighting design guidelines capable of improving students’ cognitive processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Future of Interior Lighting is here)
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Article
Influences of Spectral Power Distribution on Circadian Energy, Visual Comfort and Work Performance
Sustainability 2021, 13(9), 4852; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13094852 - 26 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 817
Abstract
Spectral power distribution (SPD) is an essential element that has considerable implications on circadian energy and the perception of lit environments. The present study assessed the potential influences of SPD on energy consumption (i.e., considering circadian energy), visual comfort, work performance and mood. [...] Read more.
Spectral power distribution (SPD) is an essential element that has considerable implications on circadian energy and the perception of lit environments. The present study assessed the potential influences of SPD on energy consumption (i.e., considering circadian energy), visual comfort, work performance and mood. Two lighting conditions based on light-emitting diode (LED) and organic light-emitting diode (OLED) were used as proxies for SPDs of different spectral content: dominant peak wavelength of 455 nm (LED) and 618 nm (OLED). Using measured photometric values, the circadian light (CL), melatonin suppression (MS), and circadian efficacy (CE) of the two lighting sources were estimated via a circadian-phototransduction model and compared. Additionally, twenty-six participants were asked to evaluate the said lit environments subjectively in terms of visual comfort and self-reported work performance. Regarding circadian lighting and the associated energy implications, the LED light source induced higher biological actions with relatively less energy than the OLED light source. For visual comfort, OLED lighting-based conditions were preferred to LED lighting-based conditions, while the opposite was true when considering work performance and mood. The current study adds to the on-going debate regarding human-centric lighting, particularly considering the role of SPD in energy-efficient and circadian lighting practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Future of Interior Lighting is here)
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Article
An Approach for Designing Mixed Light-Emitting Diodes to Match Greenhouse Plant Absorption Spectra
Sustainability 2021, 13(8), 4329; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13084329 - 13 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 802
Abstract
We report a methodological approach for simulating luminary output radiation, which is achieved by mixing light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in order to match any plant absorption spectrum. Various recorded narrow-band LED spectra of different colors were first characterized and then fitted with a multi-Gaussian [...] Read more.
We report a methodological approach for simulating luminary output radiation, which is achieved by mixing light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in order to match any plant absorption spectrum. Various recorded narrow-band LED spectra of different colors were first characterized and then fitted with a multi-Gaussian model. An optimizing procedure computed the optimal weighting of the relevant parameters so as to minimize the discrepancy between the combined spectrum and the reference target curve. The particle swarm optimization (PSO) method was applied because it is the most suitable technique for mono-objective situations. Within the useful spectral interval, the worst relative standard deviation between the optimized curve and recorded LED spectral power distribution (SPD) was 3.4%. When combining different LED types, the simulated light output showed that we could limit ourselves to selecting only five colored sources. This work will help us to design an optimized 200 W laboratory luminaire with a pulse-width switched-mode power supply. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Future of Interior Lighting is here)
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Article
Influence of the Adaptation of Balconies to Loggias on the Lighting Climate inside an Apartment Building under Cloudy Sky
Sustainability 2021, 13(6), 3106; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063106 - 12 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 808
Abstract
The reconstruction of balconies and loggias is a key element of the renovation of apartment buildings. Artificial light will never replace natural light. Every day, one must make full use of the potential of daylight and enjoy an advantage—free-of-charge natural light entering the [...] Read more.
The reconstruction of balconies and loggias is a key element of the renovation of apartment buildings. Artificial light will never replace natural light. Every day, one must make full use of the potential of daylight and enjoy an advantage—free-of-charge natural light entering the interior. When renovating balconies, people often change the character of this protruding structure from a façade to a loggia. This is also the subject of this paper. For the evaluation of the daylighting conditions prevailing in residential building, the Daylight Factor (DF) was considered as the parameter for indicating the quantity of admitted daylight. The DF values and illuminance—CIE overcast sky were calculated using DIALux 9.1 software. The aim of the paper is to compare two variants of the level of daylight in the rooms of the residential building. One option to bring in even more natural light than a window is a variant with balconies. Loggias are satisfactory in terms of static and thermal technology, but daylight conditions are deteriorating. The article provides an insight into the solution of the renovation of balconies and loggias in a specific apartment building. The result shows their influence on changes in the conditions of natural daylight in the interior of two selected rooms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Future of Interior Lighting is here)
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Article
Sustainable Illumination for Baroque Paintings with Historical Context Considerations
Sustainability 2020, 12(20), 8705; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12208705 - 20 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 821
Abstract
The topic of museum illumination and conservation has been richly developed in recent years to take steps toward a zero-energy building concept. Most artworks preserved in museums’ expositions were designed for specifically defined light contexts, wherein daylight and seasonal changes were part of [...] Read more.
The topic of museum illumination and conservation has been richly developed in recent years to take steps toward a zero-energy building concept. Most artworks preserved in museums’ expositions were designed for specifically defined light contexts, wherein daylight and seasonal changes were part of the artistic effect, an issue which has received little scholarly attention. From this premise, this paper aims to prove that defining the original illuminative context of artworks is required for a sustainable conservation, perception, and ultimate interpretation. To do this, a selection of seventeenth and eighteenth century churches and palaces from Europe, the Americas, and Asia will be presented using modern conservation frameworks for artworks. The results demonstrate that both aspects, chosen materials and light exposure, were connected, allowing the spaces to be effective without consuming too much electric lighting. This leads to a discussion about if museum displays should incorporate this context, if it is a more sustainable solution, and if it presents the artworks more accurately to visitors, even as other problems may arise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Future of Interior Lighting is here)
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Article
Sustainability and Energy Efficiency: BIM 6D. Study of the BIM Methodology Applied to Hospital Buildings. Value of Interior Lighting and Daylight in Energy Simulation
Sustainability 2020, 12(14), 5731; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12145731 - 16 Jul 2020
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 3424
Abstract
One of the least used aspects of BIM (Building Information Modeling) is the ability to obtain the energy model of the building using the BIM methodology known as BIM 6D. This digital information model allows simulating the real energy behavior of the building [...] Read more.
One of the least used aspects of BIM (Building Information Modeling) is the ability to obtain the energy model of the building using the BIM methodology known as BIM 6D. This digital information model allows simulating the real energy behavior of the building and the improvement in the building’s lighting systems, both natural and artificial, in particular daylighting. In this way, the BIM 6D simulation allows us to make design and operation decisions for the building, not only for new buildings that must be, in accordance with current legislation, NZEB (Nearly Zero-Energy Building) but also for the rehabilitation of existing buildings. Particularly in buildings for sanitary use, BIM 6D allows an exhaustive analysis of the energy impact of said rehabilitation, guiding it towards an improvement in energy and light efficiency, which in turn provides greater quality and comfort in the use of the sustainable building. This subject of study is especially important in public buildings for hospital use. Buildings where energy efficiency and comfort, oriented towards optimal and efficient lighting, are two fundamental criteria highly appreciated by patients and citizens in general. Once the energy model of the building has been obtained, it is possible to study and identify possible alternatives to improve energy efficiency and improve lighting, as well as to analyze the possibilities of incorporating other more efficient forms of renewable energy, such as the use of daylight. In this work we can see how applying a set of simulated improvement actions in BIM 6D achieves an energy saving of 50% in general and up to 13% only by acting on lighting systems, allowing the decarbonization of buildings with high energy consumption, such as hospitals, and in turn, will lead to an improvement in the energy certification of these buildings; thus achieving a better and higher quality of habitability, using more efficient forms of lighting and transforming buildings into more sustainable spaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Future of Interior Lighting is here)
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Article
Flat Glass or Crystal Dome Aperture? A Year-Long Comparative Analysis of the Performance of Light Pipes in Real Residential Settings and Climatic Conditions
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3858; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093858 - 09 May 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 965
Abstract
This paper presents the first comparative study of its type of the performance of light pipes with different types of apertures: a flat glass versus a bohemian crystal dome. Measurements were taken at 20-minute intervals over a period of one year in the [...] Read more.
This paper presents the first comparative study of its type of the performance of light pipes with different types of apertures: a flat glass versus a bohemian crystal dome. Measurements were taken at 20-minute intervals over a period of one year in the bathrooms of two newly built identical houses of the same orientation located in Manchester, UK. The comparative analysis of the data collected for both light pipes types reveals that the crystal domed aperture consistently outperforms the flat glass one. Furthermore, the difference in the recorded horizontal illuminance is most marked during the winter months and at the end of the one-year experiment, indicating that the crystal dome has better performance for low incident winter light and higher resistance for the long term effect of weathering and pollution. This study provides strong evidence based on long term real measurements. Such evidence informs architects’ decisions when weighing up the aesthetic considerations of a flat glass aperture versus the higher illumination levels afforded by a crystal dome aperture with higher resistance to weathering and pollution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Future of Interior Lighting is here)
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Review

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Review
Standardizing Melanopic Effects of Ocular Light for Ecological Lighting Design of Nonresidential Buildings—An Overview of Current Legislation and Accompanying Scientific Studies
Sustainability 2021, 13(9), 5131; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13095131 - 04 May 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1078
Abstract
DIN SPEC 5031-100 and CIE S 026:2018 are regulatory frameworks that are intended to establish health-preserving indoor lighting in Europe. Therefore, they are crucial for the visual environment and its sustainability. The standards are largely congruent. Inconsistencies should now be harmonized with the [...] Read more.
DIN SPEC 5031-100 and CIE S 026:2018 are regulatory frameworks that are intended to establish health-preserving indoor lighting in Europe. Therefore, they are crucial for the visual environment and its sustainability. The standards are largely congruent. Inconsistencies should now be harmonized with the newly published draft standard DIN/TS 5031-100, for which the objection period ended on 3 June 2020; thus, it can be expected that the standard will soon be put into operation. This publication provides the reader with a detailed technical as well as medical overview of the scope and background information on how the standard came about. Applicable laws, ordinances and standards were compiled across countries, and related studies were reviewed. It is demonstrated that the focus of this new standard, as with previous versions, is on the melanopic sensitivity of ganglion cells. The authors base this on a literature search for projects about ecological lighting design over the past 20 years. However, in practice, the publication of the standard does not yet completely counteract the health effects of inappropriate indoor lighting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Future of Interior Lighting is here)
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