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Fluid Power Components and Systems

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2022) | Viewed by 20461

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Fluid Mechanics, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Campus Terrassa, Colom 11, 08222 Terrassa, Spain
Interests: fluid power; gerotor; design tools; mechanical dynamics; bond graph; numerical simulation; CFD; experimental techniques; PIV; fault diagnosis
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

I would like to bring to your attention this Special Issue on "Fluid Power Components and Systems". Essentially, fluid power is the transmission of forces and motions using a confined and pressurized fluid with its main overall merit of density power. Occasionally, fluid power could be considered the 'dark matter' of power transmission systems: it is there, but it is not 'directly' observed. Over the years, numerous investigations and great researchers have established fluid power fundamentals, in both components and systems.

This Special Issue on "Fluid Power Components and Systems" aims to disseminate recent advances of fluid power technology, contributing to the existing literature. The scope of this Special Issue focuses on a wide range of topics, including the following:

  • New methodologies for the analysis, modeling, simulation, and design of hydraulic and pneumatic components
  • Advanced configurations and design for hydrostatic pumps and motors
  • New configurations and design solutions for hydraulic valves and actuators
  • New experimental approaches and techniques in hydraulic and pneumatic components
  • Component sizing and manufacturing techniques in fluid power components
  • Fluid power production methods
  • New materials in fluid power components
  • Advanced system configuration in mobile and industrial fluid power
  • Applications of fluid power in the field of hydrostatic, hybrid, and power split transmissions
  • Efficiency labeling in fluid power components
  • Energy rating in fluid power systems
  • Monitoring, fault detection, and life reliability in fluid power components
  • Design by end-user: diagnosis, prognostic, and energy consumption evaluation
  • Biodraulics: fluid power in bioengineering
  • Hydraulic drives and actuators in powered prosthetics
  • Noise and vibration in hydraulic components and systems
  • Tailor-made fluid power technology
  • Environmental topics and issues in fluid power

The purpose of this Special Issue is to gather together the cutting-edge approaches and results in the fluid power field in its wide spectrum.

On behalf of the journal, I invite you to consider this Special Issue as an opportunity and an optimal launch pad to publish and disseminate your research approaches and results in the captivating fluid power field.

We are looking forward to receiving your submissions.

Dr. P.J. Gamez-Montero
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • fluid power
  • hydraulics
  • pneumatics
  • analysis
  • modeling
  • simulation
  • design hydraulic and pneumatic components
  • hydrostatic pumps and motors
  • valves
  • drives and actuators
  • hybrid and power split transmissions
  • noise
  • vibration
  • energy rating
  • efficiency labeling
  • experimental techniques
  • materials
  • manufacturing techniques
  • production methods

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 1054 KiB  
Article
Multi-Factor Design for a Vacuum Ejector Improvement by In-Depth Analysis of Construction Parameters
by Llorenç Macia, Robert Castilla, Pedro Javier Gamez-Montero and Gustavo Raush
Sustainability 2022, 14(16), 10195; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141610195 - 17 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1411
Abstract
A vacuum supersonic ejector is an indispensable pneumatic device placed in nearly all industrial production lines. This device, also called a zero-secondary flow ejector, is characterized by the maximum entrained flow and the minimum secondary pressure. Numerical simulations were carried out by means [...] Read more.
A vacuum supersonic ejector is an indispensable pneumatic device placed in nearly all industrial production lines. This device, also called a zero-secondary flow ejector, is characterized by the maximum entrained flow and the minimum secondary pressure. Numerical simulations were carried out by means of the CFD toolbox OpenFOAM v8 and its solver HiSA, which uses the AUSM+up upwind scheme. A single-factor analysis of eight parameters was performed to find how the ejector’s performance was enhanced or decreased, while other parameters were fixed. Four parameters were subject to further analysis to find the geometry that improves the standalone performance of the ejector. The mixing chamber length is the parameter that most improves its performance; alone it leads to a 10% improvement. A multi-factor analysis, based on a fractional factorial design, is carried out with the four relevant parameters. Results indicate that the multi-factor analysis enhances the performance of the ejector by 10.4% and the mixing chamber length is the factor that most influences the improvement. Although a multi-factor design improves the performance, no significant relevance has been detected with respect to the mixing chamber length improvement alone. The improved performance of this device leads to a reduction in operating time and, as a consequence, results in significant energy savings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Power Components and Systems)
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22 pages, 10140 KiB  
Article
Psychoacoustic Evaluation of Hydraulic Pumps
by Tobias Pietrzyk, Markus Georgi, Sabine Schlittmeier and Katharina Schmitz
Sustainability 2021, 13(13), 7320; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13137320 - 30 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1870
Abstract
In this study, sound measurements of an axial piston pump and an internal gear pump were performed and subjective pleasantness judgements were collected in listening tests (to analyze the subjective pleasantness), which could be seen as the inverse of the subjective annoyance of [...] Read more.
In this study, sound measurements of an axial piston pump and an internal gear pump were performed and subjective pleasantness judgements were collected in listening tests (to analyze the subjective pleasantness), which could be seen as the inverse of the subjective annoyance of hydraulic drives. Pumps are the dominant sound source in hydraulic systems. The noise generation of displacement machines is subject of current research. However, in this research only the sound pressure level (SPL) was considered. Psychoacoustic metrics give new possibilities to analyze the sound of hydraulic drive technology and to improve the sound quality. For this purpose, instrumental measurements of the acoustic and psychoacoustic parameters are evaluated for both pump types. The recorded sounds are played back to the participants in listening tests. Participants evaluate them regarding the subjective pleasantness by means of paired comparison, which is an indirect scaling method. The dependence of the subjective pleasantness on speed and pressure was analyzed for both pump types. Different regression analyses were carried out to predict the subjectively perceived pleasantness or annoyance of the pumps. Results show that a lower speed is the decisive operating parameter for reducing both the SPL and the annoyance of a hydraulic pump. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Power Components and Systems)
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15 pages, 3341 KiB  
Article
Modelling and Validation of Cavitating Orifice Flow in Hydraulic Systems
by Paolo Casoli, Fabio Scolari and Massimo Rundo
Sustainability 2021, 13(13), 7239; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13137239 - 28 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1901
Abstract
Cavitation can occur at the inlet of hydraulic pumps or in hydraulic valves; this phenomenon should be always avoided because it can generate abnormal wear and noise in fluid power components. Numerical modeling of the cavitation is widely used in research, and it [...] Read more.
Cavitation can occur at the inlet of hydraulic pumps or in hydraulic valves; this phenomenon should be always avoided because it can generate abnormal wear and noise in fluid power components. Numerical modeling of the cavitation is widely used in research, and it allows the regions where it occurs more to be predicted. For this reason, two different approaches to the study of gas and vapor cavitation were presented in this paper. In particular, a model was developed using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method with particular attention to the dynamic modeling of both gaseous and vapor cavitation. A further lumped parameter model was made, where the fluid density varies as the pressure decreases due to the release of air and the formation of vapor. Furthermore, the lumped parameter model highlights the need to also know the speed of sound in the vena contracta, since it is essential for the correct calculation of the mass flow during vaporization. A test bench for the study of cavitation with an orifice was set up; cavitation was induced by increasing the speed of the fluid on the restricted section thanks to a pump located downstream of the orifice. The experimental data were compared with those predicted by CFD and lumped parameter models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Power Components and Systems)
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19 pages, 8361 KiB  
Article
Experimental Methods for Measuring the Viscous Friction Coefficient in Hydraulic Spool Valves
by Massimo Rundo, Paolo Casoli and Antonio Lettini
Sustainability 2021, 13(13), 7174; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13137174 - 25 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2643
Abstract
In hydraulic components, nonlinearities are responsible for critical behaviors that make it difficult to realize a reliable mathematical model for numerical simulation. With particular reference to hydraulic spool valves, the viscous friction coefficient between the sliding and the fixed body is an unknown [...] Read more.
In hydraulic components, nonlinearities are responsible for critical behaviors that make it difficult to realize a reliable mathematical model for numerical simulation. With particular reference to hydraulic spool valves, the viscous friction coefficient between the sliding and the fixed body is an unknown parameter that is normally set a posteriori in order to obtain a good agreement with the experimental data. In this paper, two different methodologies to characterize experimentally the viscous friction coefficient in a hydraulic component with spool are presented. The two approaches are significantly different and are both based on experimental tests; they were developed in two distinct laboratories in different periods of time and applied to the same flow compensator of a pump displacement control. One of the procedures was carried out at the Fluid Power Research Laboratory of the Politecnico di Torino, while the other approach was developed at the University of Parma. Both the proposed methods reached similar outcomes; moreover, neither method requires the installation of a spool displacement transducer that can significantly affect the results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Power Components and Systems)
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20 pages, 3066 KiB  
Article
Parameterization, Modeling, and Validation in Real Conditions of an External Gear Pump
by Miquel Torrent, Pedro Javier Gamez-Montero and Esteban Codina
Sustainability 2021, 13(6), 3089; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063089 - 11 Mar 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 5109
Abstract
This article presents a methodology for predicting the fluid dynamic behavior of a gear pump over its operating range. Complete pump parameterization was carried out through standard tests, and these parameters were used to create a bond graph model to simulate the behavior [...] Read more.
This article presents a methodology for predicting the fluid dynamic behavior of a gear pump over its operating range. Complete pump parameterization was carried out through standard tests, and these parameters were used to create a bond graph model to simulate the behavior of the unit. This model was experimentally validated under working conditions in field tests. To carry this out, the pump was used to drive the auxiliary movements of a drilling machine, and the experimental data were compared with a simulation of the volumetric behavior under the same conditions. This paper aims to describe a method for characterizing any hydrostatic pump as a “black box” model predicting its behavior in any operating condition. The novelty of this method is based on the correspondence between the variation of the parameters and the internal changes of the unit when working in real conditions, that is, outside a test bench. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Power Components and Systems)
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20 pages, 1892 KiB  
Article
Methodology for Model Architecting and Failure Simulation Supported by Bond-Graphs—Application to Helicopter Axial Piston Pump
by Geneviève Mkadara, Jean-Charles Maré and Gregor Paulmann
Sustainability 2021, 13(4), 1863; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13041863 - 9 Feb 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2212
Abstract
This paper reports work performed to support the development of condition monitoring strategies through extensive use of simulation. The aim is to define and implement a methodology that makes the development of lumped-parameter models more efficient and straightforward. This is achieved by considering [...] Read more.
This paper reports work performed to support the development of condition monitoring strategies through extensive use of simulation. The aim is to define and implement a methodology that makes the development of lumped-parameter models more efficient and straightforward. This is achieved by considering the model architecting and the approach adopted for fault injection early in the process. Various options are proposed and compared for both these activities. The Bond-Graph formalism is extensively used for its ability to focus on the model structure and interfaces, the nature of the phenomena considered, and potential causality issues. The interest of the proposed methodology is illustrated with the example of a pressure-compensated axial piston pump that supplies the flight control actuators in helicopters. The pump model architecting and the fault injection are presented, with special attention to jamming and erosion of the pump compensator valve. From these examples, it is shown that the proposed methodologies provide an efficient model-based means of identifying fault signatures and implementing low-cost condition monitoring features in an industrial context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Power Components and Systems)
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19 pages, 6197 KiB  
Article
Simulation of Hydraulic Cylinder Cushioning
by Antonio Algar, Javier Freire, Robert Castilla and Esteban Codina
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020494 - 6 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3652
Abstract
The internal cushioning systems of hydraulic linear actuators avoid mechanical shocks at the end of their stroke. The design where the piston with perimeter grooves regulates the flow by standing in front of the outlet port has been investigated. First, a bond graph [...] Read more.
The internal cushioning systems of hydraulic linear actuators avoid mechanical shocks at the end of their stroke. The design where the piston with perimeter grooves regulates the flow by standing in front of the outlet port has been investigated. First, a bond graph dynamic model has been developed, including the flow throughout the internal cushion design, characterized in detail by computational fluid-dynamic simulation. Following this, the radial movement of the piston and the fluid-dynamic coefficients, experimentally validated, are integrated into the dynamic model. The registered radial movement is in coherence with the significant drag force estimated in the CFD simulation, generated by the flow through the grooves, where the laminar flow regime predominates. Ultimately, the model aims to predict the behavior of the cushioning during the movement of the arm of an excavator. The analytical model developed predicts the performance of the cushioning system, in coherence with empirical results. There is an optimal behavior, highly influenced by the mechanical stress conditions of the system, subject to a compromise between an increasing section of the grooves and an optimization of the radial gap. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Power Components and Systems)
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