Special Issue "A Healthy Built Environment for an Ageing Population"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Urban and Rural Development".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Vida Maliene
Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of the Built Environment, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool, L3 3AF, UK
2.Institute of Land Management and Geomatics, Faculty of Water and Land Management, Vytautas Magnus University Agriculture Academy, Studentu 11, Akademija, LT-53361, Kaunas distr., Lithuania
Interests: healthy built environment; sustainable and affordable housing; real estate markets; urban regeneration and sustainable communities
Dr. Emma Mulliner
Website
Guest Editor
Department of the Built Environment, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK
Interests: housing affordability; sustainable housing; sustainable communities; healty housing and communities
Prof. Mike Riley
Website
Guest Editor
Department of the Built Environment, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK
Interests: housing adaptation; affordable housing; design for dementia; ageing
Dr. Mantas Kazimieras Malys

Guest Editor
John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK
Interests: public health; dementia; old age psychiatry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Various countries around the world have been experiencing a rapid aging in population [1]. Worldwide, the number of people aged 60 or over is projected to grow by 56% between 2015 and 2030 and the number aged over 80 is predicted to more than triple in size between 2015 and 2050 [2]. Suitable housing is fundamental to the challenge of population ageing. Appropriate housing markets and well-designed communities are said to reduce risks to health for older people, promote independence and wellbeing, and thereby offer the potential to reduce social and health care costs [3], but unsuitable ones can offer the reverse. Consequently, there is a growing awareness that we need to plan for the ageing population and, crucially, provide suitable housing and environments to cater for their varied needs [1,4]. It is therefore important to ensure that housing providers and policy makers understand the needs and preferences of a diverse ageing society in order to promote their quality of life including public health and social wellbeing.

This Special Issue explores the scientific forum on a healthy built environment including social studies on ageing population needs, stakeholders preferences and oportunities, socio-economic challenges for sustainable housing and environment design, and technological solutions.

References

  1. Yu, C.; Lee, Y. Housing requirements for a ageing society. Indoor Built Environ. 2017, 26, 441–446.
  2. UN Report. World Population Ageing; Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division, UN: New York, NY, USA, 2015.
  3. Harding, E. Sustainable Planning for Housing in an Ageing Population: A Guide for Regional Level Strategies; International Longevity Centre UK, Department for Communities and Local Government: London, UK, 2008.
  4. Local Government Association. Housing our Ageing Population: Learning from Councils Meeting the Housing Need of Our Ageing Population; Local Government Association: London, UK, 2017.

Prof. Dr. Vida Maliene
Dr. Emma Mulliner
Prof. Mike Riley
Dr. Mantas Kazimieras Malys
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Impact of the built environment on a public health and ageing
  • Ageing population needs for a sustainable housing and communities
  • Socio-Economic challenges for delivery of healthy built environment
  • Housing market for an ageing population
  • Housing and environment design for an ageing population
  • Construction technologies and housing adaptation for an ageing population
  • Sustainability and healthy built environment
  • Public health and built environment.

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Older People’s Preferences for Housing and Environment Characteristics
Sustainability 2020, 12(14), 5723; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12145723 - 16 Jul 2020
Abstract
Population ageing presents significant challenges for many countries, one of which is the provision of adequate housing. Developing understanding of the needs and preferences of ageing societies will be crucial in order to assist in the provision of suitable housing and communities that [...] Read more.
Population ageing presents significant challenges for many countries, one of which is the provision of adequate housing. Developing understanding of the needs and preferences of ageing societies will be crucial in order to assist in the provision of suitable housing and communities that are sustainable in the long term. While a preference to ‘age in place’ is clear in the literature, comparatively less academic research is available on older people’s preferences for more specific housing and environment attributes. The aim of this study is to identify the main housing and environment characteristics that are linked to the health and wellbeing of the elderly and determine the preferences for such characteristics via a survey with UK residents aged 55+. The results indicate a strong preference for independent living and an increasing desire for bungalows in later life. Housing conditions, energy efficiency, thermal comfort, and home adaptions to facilitate ageing in place are particularly important housing characteristics to older people. The location and environment are also key drivers of housing preferences; a safe neighbourhood, accessibility to amenities, public transport, and a clean and walkable environment are particularly important. Preferences varied with age, but gender has a less significant impact on the preferences expressed. The findings of this study will be valuable for stakeholders engaged in housing policy and provision for older people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue A Healthy Built Environment for an Ageing Population)
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Open AccessArticle
Housing Preferences of Seniors and Pre-Senior Citizens in Poland—A Case Study
Sustainability 2020, 12(11), 4599; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12114599 - 04 Jun 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
This article identifies and compares the housing preferences of seniors and pre-senior citizens in Poland. In addition, the attitude of residents of large cities in the Wielkopolskie Voivodeship towards senior citizens’ housing was determined. Surveys were conducted in the two largest cities of [...] Read more.
This article identifies and compares the housing preferences of seniors and pre-senior citizens in Poland. In addition, the attitude of residents of large cities in the Wielkopolskie Voivodeship towards senior citizens’ housing was determined. Surveys were conducted in the two largest cities of this region. The influence of the potential behaviors of this group of society on the development of housing was also examined. Results showed that differentiation of housing preferences was visible primarily when choosing the type of development and size of the dwelling. Seniors preferred smaller units in multi-family housing construction. Pre-senior citizens, on the other hand, were more likely to think about living in a single-family house. The location of a new dwelling was also important. Seniors, more often than people aged 50–59, chose a location in the city center. Pre-senior citizens, in contrast, more often decided to live in a rural area or outside the city center. Moreover, the attitude of seniors towards senior citizens’ housing is undecided, which may indicate that many people may change their housing preferences in the future and decide to move. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue A Healthy Built Environment for an Ageing Population)
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Open AccessArticle
Beijing’s Selected Older Neighborhoods Measurement from the Perspective of Aging
Sustainability 2020, 12(10), 4112; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12104112 - 18 May 2020
Abstract
The older neighborhoods in Chinese cities are the main areas in which the elderly live. Both housing and the older adults have experienced the resonance process of co-growth and co-aging. Along with the acceleration of the aging population, the older neighborhoods with the [...] Read more.
The older neighborhoods in Chinese cities are the main areas in which the elderly live. Both housing and the older adults have experienced the resonance process of co-growth and co-aging. Along with the acceleration of the aging population, the older neighborhoods with the aging physical space environment are increasingly unable to meet the needs of the elderly, which affects their health and well-being. Although the Chinese government has launched a program of retrofitting older neighborhoods to make them more hospitable for older residents through, for example, elevator installation and infrastructure improvement, these practices are merely associated with various neighborhood features. Most existing research starts from small-scale case studies and consequently lacks macro-level analysis of the characteristics of the physical spaces and aging population in older neighborhoods. Therefore, this paper selects old neighborhoods constructed from 1949–1999 in the central city of Beijing (within the Fifth Ring Road) as research subjects. The research begins with an analysis of the construction and evolution of the standards of selected older neighborhoods in Beijing and establishes measurement metrics for the spatial characteristics of both the neighborhood and aging population. This article concludes that older neighborhoods in central Beijing can be classified into seven clusters based on their spatial characteristics and three clusters based on aging population characteristics through K-means classification. Additionally, this paper conducts an overlay analysis of these two classification results to identify different spatial features of older neighborhoods within varying characteristics of the aging population and proposes suggestions for the renovation of selected old neighborhoods. The study aims to provide a reference for retrofitting older neighborhoods with the goal of creating an aging-friendly community, and to supply a scientific basis for empirical research on the middle scale and micro scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue A Healthy Built Environment for an Ageing Population)
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Open AccessArticle
Housing Choices of Older People: Staying or Moving in the Case of High Care Needs
Sustainability 2020, 12(7), 2888; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12072888 - 04 Apr 2020
Abstract
Despite the development of various housing options across Europe, older people often face the choice of staying at home with the support of family and/or formal services or moving to a care home, but how people vary regarding these preferences and how newer [...] Read more.
Despite the development of various housing options across Europe, older people often face the choice of staying at home with the support of family and/or formal services or moving to a care home, but how people vary regarding these preferences and how newer cohorts will be different is under-researched. This study explores the housing choices of older people under the condition of liminality, which is defined as the hypothetical condition of high care needs. The most common choices available are compared; that is, staying at home (with social home-care support or visits to a daycare centre) or moving to supported housing or a care home. Cluster analysis revealed five distinct groups of older people that were differentiated in their choices between various options of moving versus staying at home, either by using home care or daycare. Differences between the clusters along three dimensions that influence decisions to move or stay, namely levels of attachment, satisfaction with housing and availability of support, which often function as limits on the options that are preferred, were explored. The results present the complexity of the decision-making process under imagined conditions of liminality and show a great diversity among people’s preferences. They also indicate that a significant share of older people have a strong preference for only one option (two of the cluster groups). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue A Healthy Built Environment for an Ageing Population)
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of the Objective and Subjective Physical Neighbourhood Environment on the Physical Activity of Older Adults: A Case Study in the Malaysian Neighbourhoods of Johor Bahru
Sustainability 2020, 12(5), 1760; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12051760 - 27 Feb 2020
Abstract
Physical neighbourhood environments (PNE) can affect the active ageing and physical wellbeing of older residents. This paper examined the PNE objective (PNEO): land use mix entropy, population density, traffic intersection density and distance to facilities; and PNE subjective (PNES): the Neighbourhood Environment Walkability [...] Read more.
Physical neighbourhood environments (PNE) can affect the active ageing and physical wellbeing of older residents. This paper examined the PNE objective (PNEO): land use mix entropy, population density, traffic intersection density and distance to facilities; and PNE subjective (PNES): the Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale-Abbreviated (NEWS-A): and their relationship with the physical activity (PA) levels of older residents. The PA was measured using an IPAQ questionnaire on 280 older residents in neighbourhoods in the city of Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia. Cross-tabulations and correlation analyses were conducted to analyse the significant relationships. It was found that PNEO and PNES in the different housing environments influenced the PA levels of the late middle-aged and young-old adults, that the distance to facilities such as mosques and recreation areas should be less than 200 metres, and that high population density areas in Malaysian neighbourhoods are unsuitable for active ageing lifestyles because of the construction of physical barriers. This research identified the PNEO and PNES indicators for the promotion of an active ageing lifestyle in older residents, which could assist in improving existing housing policies and guidelines on active ageing in Malaysian neighbourhoods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue A Healthy Built Environment for an Ageing Population)
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Open AccessArticle
Identifying Motives for Implementing eHealth by using Activity Theory
Sustainability 2020, 12(4), 1298; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12041298 - 11 Feb 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
eHealth interventions are utilized as a solution to address the current demographic challenges in society, as the number of old people increases. Thus, working life, work practice, and professional requirements needed for providing healthcare services will be transformed. The aim of this paper [...] Read more.
eHealth interventions are utilized as a solution to address the current demographic challenges in society, as the number of old people increases. Thus, working life, work practice, and professional requirements needed for providing healthcare services will be transformed. The aim of this paper is to explore contradictive motives regarding the professionals’ work practice when introducing innovative eHealth technologies in Scandinavian healthcare services at a municipal level. The study is based on two qualitative group interviews where nurses, assistant nurses, occupational and physiotherapists, as well as project managers participated. Two persons from an IT department were also interviewed. The interviews were analyzed by thematic analysis. The activity theory is used to explore the individuals’ different contradictive motives in this work practice. The work practice consists of a collaborative activity, where expansive learning is important in this transformation of work to obtain a sustainable society. The motives identified in this study are to 1) improve quality of life for the patients, 2) create attractive and interesting work for the employees, 3) save money for the municipality, 4) learn about new technology, and 5) use the municipality’s resources effectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue A Healthy Built Environment for an Ageing Population)
Open AccessArticle
Spatio-Temporal Trend of Aging Regions and Their Neighborhood Environment: Findings from Daegu Metropolitan City, Korea
Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 1218; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12031218 - 07 Feb 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
This study aims to examine how the aging population of each region has changed from 2009 to 2018, and how age-friendly the current neighborhood environments are in those areas in Daegu, Korea. The 139 administrative units are used as spatial units to identify [...] Read more.
This study aims to examine how the aging population of each region has changed from 2009 to 2018, and how age-friendly the current neighborhood environments are in those areas in Daegu, Korea. The 139 administrative units are used as spatial units to identify aging regions, while 100 m × 100 m grid cells are employed as spatial units to capture the environmental variables of the neighborhood comprehensively. To analyze Daegu’s aging regions, emerging hotspot analysis was performed, demonstrating the spatio-temporal patterns of the elderly population. ANOVA analysis and a case study with field surveys were used to examine the age-friendly environmental conditions in aging regions. Findings of this study showed that Daegu’s aging regions were increasing rapidly and spreading from the city center over time. In addition, it was found that the neighborhood environmental conditions of the aging regions were very poor in terms of accessibility, safety, and pleasurability. Significant differences were also found in the levels of age-friendliness of the neighborhood environments, depending on whether they are urban or suburban. The results herein support public policy proposals relevant to urban planning, environmental design, and aging policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue A Healthy Built Environment for an Ageing Population)
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Open AccessArticle
Measuring Age-Friendly Housing: A Framework
Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 848; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12030848 - 23 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
An ageing population raises the question of providing adequate housing that enables older people to age in place without losing autonomy and independence. Except for the issue of accessibility, no framework exists that specifically outlines a standard to achieve and, as a result, [...] Read more.
An ageing population raises the question of providing adequate housing that enables older people to age in place without losing autonomy and independence. Except for the issue of accessibility, no framework exists that specifically outlines a standard to achieve and, as a result, interventions on existing or on new buildings may be inconsistent without leading to a desired rise in living standards. This research addresses this issue by presenting a framework for the assessment of the age-appropriateness of housing through a number of metrics that detect and identify physical and non-physical features of a home environment to enable ageing in place. The study combines data from a qualitative systematic literature review of 93 papers and qualitative data from structured interviews with four experts in the field. As a result, 71 metrics were identified, divided into eight main domains, to describe the framework. This paper provides an improved understanding of the housing features that enable ageing in place. The tool categorizes and rates qualitative and quantitative aspects that contribute to the age-friendliness of housing, resulting in an easy to adopt assessment framework. This is a valuable means for stakeholders engaged in improving the current housing stock or in constructing new buildings for older people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue A Healthy Built Environment for an Ageing Population)
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Open AccessArticle
Developing Guidelines for Thermal Comfort and Energy Saving during Hot Season of Multipurpose Senior Centers in Thailand
Sustainability 2020, 12(1), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010170 - 24 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In Thailand, many government buildings and facilities are adapted to serve as Multipurpose Senior Centers (MSCs). However, most of them have been used without taking into account of thermal comfort of occupants. The present research aimed to develop guidelines for improving suitable indoor [...] Read more.
In Thailand, many government buildings and facilities are adapted to serve as Multipurpose Senior Centers (MSCs). However, most of them have been used without taking into account of thermal comfort of occupants. The present research aimed to develop guidelines for improving suitable indoor environment for the Thai elderly in hot season and analyze energy use of the 3 case-study MSCs. Both field study and climate-controlled chamber study were conducted. The obtained data were analyzed to develop the equation for predicting the thermal sensation, which would be inputted in the scSTREAM program for analysis purposes. The energy use was evaluated using the DOE-2 program. The results suggested that during 8:00 a.m.–12:00 p.m., natural ventilation should be used together with orbit fans to produce an actual air velocity of 0.64–0.73 m/s. From 12:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m., air conditioners should set at 26.00–26.50 °C with an actual air velocity of 0.06–0.22 m/s. The results also showed that the developed guidelines could improve the level of thermal comfort from “slightly cool” to “neutral” and reduce energy use in hot season by 16.56% due to the reduction of cooling load and fan operation of air conditioning systems. Moreover, energy consumption in MSCs are also affected by the building parameters. These findings can be applied as guidelines for improving a large number of MSCs in Thailand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue A Healthy Built Environment for an Ageing Population)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Outdoor Living Environment on Elders’ Quality of Life in Old Residential Communities
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6638; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236638 - 24 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The population is getting older in Mainland China, which presents a huge challenge of how to support these increasing elders to enjoy a high quality of life (QoL). Due to the limited nursing institutions and Chinese traditional culture, aging in place is the [...] Read more.
The population is getting older in Mainland China, which presents a huge challenge of how to support these increasing elders to enjoy a high quality of life (QoL). Due to the limited nursing institutions and Chinese traditional culture, aging in place is the most common choice for elders. Up to now, most elders in cities are living in old residential communities (ORCs) rather than new ones. Poor quality of outdoor living environment (OLE) in these ORCs cannot well support the daily life of the elders, especially for those with physical problems. A questionnaire study was conducted to explore the influence of OLE on the QoL of elders living in ORCs. A total of 107 questionnaires were completed by both elderly residents in ORCs (45.79% were male and 54.21% were female). The data was analyzed by a mix of reliability analysis, correlation analysis, and regression analysis. The results showed that physical health of elders was influenced by distance, safety, greenery, seat, recreational facilities; psychological health was predicted by width, height, and greenery; social relationship was affected by distance, safety, and recreational facilities. Based on the research results, recommendations were proposed to property management service providers and local governments, including providing more seats at a reasonable height, setting handrails alongside the long ramp, installing folding seats along building stairs, and so on. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue A Healthy Built Environment for an Ageing Population)
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Open AccessArticle
Sustainable Development Research on the Spatial Differences in the Elderly Suitability of Shanghai Urban Parks
Sustainability 2019, 11(22), 6521; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11226521 - 19 Nov 2019
Abstract
As an important subset of the urban population and a major contributor to urban social wealth, the elderly play an important role in a city’s sustainable development. Based on data from the statistical yearbook and an empirical investigation, this paper evaluated the elderly [...] Read more.
As an important subset of the urban population and a major contributor to urban social wealth, the elderly play an important role in a city’s sustainable development. Based on data from the statistical yearbook and an empirical investigation, this paper evaluated the elderly suitability of 75 parks in China’s Shanghai Central District using a self-defined Python script tool based on ArcGIS. According to spatial differences in the elderly suitability of parks, we employed spatial interpolation to explore the reasons for variations in park services in different residential spaces in Shanghai Central District. The results revealed the following: (1) the elderly suitability of parks in Shanghai Central District decreases gradually from the inner ring to the outer ring; (2) the park accessibility in Shanghai Central District is generally low, and the park service space can be divided into five categories ranging from “low accessibility, super-low elderly suitability” to “high accessibility, high elderly suitability”; and (3) the advantages of regional function and location, the development of regional culture and tourism economy, and the implementation of regional elderly-care policies are factors promoting the improvement of the elderly suitability of regional park services. Finally, this paper provided scientific decision-making suggestions for Shanghai and other aging cities to optimize the elderly suitability of urban parks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue A Healthy Built Environment for an Ageing Population)
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Open AccessArticle
Aging-Suitability of Urban Waterfront Open Spaces in Gongchen Bridge Section of the Grand Canal
Sustainability 2019, 11(21), 6095; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11216095 - 01 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Aging has become a worldwide issue in the 21st century. China became an aging society in 1999, and home-based care is now the main mode of care for the elderly. Present research on the aging-suitability of spaces mainly focuses on the interior and [...] Read more.
Aging has become a worldwide issue in the 21st century. China became an aging society in 1999, and home-based care is now the main mode of care for the elderly. Present research on the aging-suitability of spaces mainly focuses on the interior and exterior environmental conditions of the home, ignoring public open spaces at the regional and urban levels, with a specific lack of research on waterfront open spaces, which is an important type of public open space in Jiangnan Watertown. The study used the example of the waterfront space of the Hangzhou Gongchen Bridge section of the Grand Canal, the longest artificial canal in the world, to analyze the aging-suitability of waterfront open spaces. Firstly, in this section, the activity characteristics of the elderly were surveyed through observation and semi-structured interviews, then the subjective satisfaction of the elderly with the waterfront spaces was investigated. Through correlation and principal component analysis, five common factors affecting the satisfaction of the elderly were obtained: environment, function, transportation, social culture, and vision. Finally, some design suggestions suitable for the elderly were proposed for three aspects: environment, function, and transportation, which are the most important factors affecting the overall subjective satisfaction of the elderly with the waterfront open space. This study provided a reference for the design and planning of aging-friendly waterfront open spaces, which would improve the aging-suitability of urban open spaces, increasing social participation, and enhancing the quality of life of the elderly. It is of profound significance to build a senior-friendly city and deal with the increasingly severe aging problem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue A Healthy Built Environment for an Ageing Population)
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Open AccessArticle
A Conceptual Guideline to Age-Friendly Outdoor Space Development in China: How Do Chinese Seniors Use the Urban Comprehensive Park? A Focus on Time, Place, and Activities
Sustainability 2018, 10(10), 3678; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103678 - 14 Oct 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to narrow the gap between the theoretical findings from past studies and current open space development through evaluating the behavior pattern and landscape preferences of seniors in urban parks in China. Combining an on-site observational approach with [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to narrow the gap between the theoretical findings from past studies and current open space development through evaluating the behavior pattern and landscape preferences of seniors in urban parks in China. Combining an on-site observational approach with a questionnaire, the research has taken place in two successful traditional comprehensive parks in Xi’an, Shaanxi, China. The results for time, place, and activities were analyzed and depicted in figures. Design guidelines have been provided based on the analysis; new perspectives for further investigations have been pointed out for landscape architects and urban planners to carry on exploring the process of establishing a successful age-friendly outdoor space. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue A Healthy Built Environment for an Ageing Population)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Environmental Factors Associated with Older Adult’s Walking Behaviors: A Systematic Review of Quantitative Studies
Sustainability 2019, 11(12), 3253; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11123253 - 12 Jun 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The aim of this study is to systematically review the relationship between neighborhood environments and all types of walking behaviors among older adults. Seventy peer-reviewed journal articles which met the selection criteria were examined. Research designs were summarized by geographical location and the [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to systematically review the relationship between neighborhood environments and all types of walking behaviors among older adults. Seventy peer-reviewed journal articles which met the selection criteria were examined. Research designs were summarized by geographical location and the associations of environmental characteristics and walking were calculated. Interactions between moderators and environmental characteristics for all types of walking were also categorized. Results have shown that transport walking is the most supported by neighborhood environmental characteristics. The positively related environmental characteristics are walkability, urbanization, land use mix-diversity and accessibility, walking amenities, and bicycle lanes. Total walking was positively associated with walkability and urbanization. Recreational walking was associated with neighborhood employment/income level, nearness to public transport/bus stops, and social cohesion. The most commonly used moderators were age and gender, but inconsistent moderating effects between neighborhood environments and walking were also found. In densely populated environments such as Hong Kong, older adults walked mostly for both transport and recreation. In contrast, American older adults in low density areas walked less for transport and more for recreation. Findings support a strong relationship between neighborhood environments and older adults’ walking. Future research should focus on longitudinal studies and comparison studies by geographic location. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue A Healthy Built Environment for an Ageing Population)
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