Special Issue "Exercise and Chronic Disease"

A special issue of Sports (ISSN 2075-4663).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2017).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Anthony Leicht
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Sport and Exercise Science, College of Healthcare Sciences, Division of Tropical Health and Medicine, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, 4811, Australia
Interests: exercise physiology; cardiovascular function; exercise testing/assessment, athlete monitoring; exercise and chronic disease; physical activity

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Regular, structured physical activity or exercise has been frequently reported to be a key contributor to managing one’s health including chronic diseases and conditions. The benefits of exercise are actively promoted but the undertaking of this activity by a range of populations still remains an issue of great concern throughout the world. The optimal exercise parameters (e.g., mode, intensity, duration, etc.) for different populations remains to be confirmed; however, there has been considerable advancement over the past 30 or so years. Several guidelines have been developed to assist with exercise management for health and disease but more investigations are needed to support patients, practitioners and researchers. This Special Issue aims to collate the new and flourishing evidence of the impact of exercise in managing chronic diseases/conditions. Further, it will provide an avenue for researchers and practitioners to engage with up to date and innovative practice. Novel studies of mechanisms, interventions, and populations are of particular interest and encouraged to advance our understanding and development of best, exercise practice for improved health

Prof. Dr. Anthony Leicht
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sports is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • health
  • well-being
  • quality of life
  • cardiovascular
  • diabetes
  • mental health
  • physical activity
  • intervention
  • best practice

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Organized Sport Participation and Physical Activity Levels among Adolescents with Functional Limitations
Sports 2017, 5(4), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports5040081 - 19 Oct 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
Sufficient and regular physical activity is considered a protective factor, reducing the onset of secondary disability conditions in adolescents with chronic diseases and functional limitations. The aim of this study was to explore whether participation in organized sport may be associated to higher [...] Read more.
Sufficient and regular physical activity is considered a protective factor, reducing the onset of secondary disability conditions in adolescents with chronic diseases and functional limitations. The aim of this study was to explore whether participation in organized sport may be associated to higher levels of physical activity in adolescents with functional limitations, based on a national representative sample. Data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study collected in Finland from two data collection rounds (2002 and 2010) were conducted and pooled from adolescents aged between 13 and 15 years old with functional limitations (n = 1041). Differences in self-reported physical activity over the past week and participation in organized sport activity were analysed for each function. Overall, four in ten (n = 413) participated in organized sport and were significantly (p < 0.001) more physically active (mean = 4.92days, SD = 1.81) than their non-participating (mean = 3.29, SD = 1.86) peers with functional limitations. Despite low population prevalence, adolescents with epilepsy or visual impairments were the least active if they were not participating in organized sport, yet were the most active if they were involved in organized sport. Participating in organized sport appears to be an important factor promoting resources for maintaining recommended levels of physical activity in Finnish adolescents with functional limitations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Chronic Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Are We Compensating for the Lack of Physical Activity in Our Diabetic Patients with Treatment Intensification?
Sports 2017, 5(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports5030058 - 07 Aug 2017
Abstract
Background: We studied the association between leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and glycemic control, body mass index (BMI), and hypoglycemic incidents in type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes patients (T2DM). Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 198 diabetic patients (60 with [...] Read more.
Background: We studied the association between leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and glycemic control, body mass index (BMI), and hypoglycemic incidents in type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes patients (T2DM). Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 198 diabetic patients (60 with type 1 diabetes, 138 with type 2 diabetes). LTPA was assessed by a validated 12-month questionnaire. Patients were grouped as sedentary and moderately to vigorously active. Outcome measures were Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), BMI, and hypoglycemic episodes. Results: LTPA effect on the HbA1c reduction was present in diabetes type 1 patients. Patients who were involved in the moderate to vigorous-intensity physical activity had a greater decrease in the HbA1c (p = 0.048) than patients with low physical activity (p = 0.085). Level of LTPA was neither associated with increased number of hypoglycemic episodes, nor BMI. After an average of 4 years of diabetes, the number of patients requiring more than one antidiabetic agent increased, although the observed difference did not correlate with LTPA level. Conclusions: LTPA has an influence on the regulation of diabetes type 1, and intensification of medical treatment is compensating for the lack of lifestyle change—especially in type 2 diabetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Chronic Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
The Relationship between Sport Participation and Chronic Diseases among Men in the USA: An Examination of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System
Sports 2017, 5(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports5030056 - 02 Aug 2017
Cited by 1
Abstract
Sport participation has been associated with lower rates of chronic diseases when compared to other forms of physical activity (PA) among women. However, we do not know if this relationship holds true for men. The purpose of this study was to examine the [...] Read more.
Sport participation has been associated with lower rates of chronic diseases when compared to other forms of physical activity (PA) among women. However, we do not know if this relationship holds true for men. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between sport participation and men’s health and chronic diseases in the USA. This study was a secondary data analysis of the 2015 national Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey. Participants were questioned extensively about their PA behaviors. Seventy-six different activities were identified and these activities were categorized as sport, conditioning exercise, recreation, or household tasks based upon previously identified categories. Logistic regression was utilized to calculate odds and adjusted odds ratios for chronic diseases based on physical activity category. When compared to men who participated in sport, men in the other PA categories had significantly higher odds for all of the chronic diseases except asthma. After controlling for demographic variables, significant odds remain except for stroke. Higher odds for chronic diseases in the other PA categories indicates that men in these group have a higher risk for chronic diseases than men in the sport category. Because of the potential health improvements related to sports participation, it is important to maintain and increase sport participation for both adolescents and adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Chronic Disease)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Exploring Motivation and Barriers to Physical Activity among Active and Inactive Australian Adults
Sports 2017, 5(3), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports5030047 - 28 Jun 2017
Cited by 6
Abstract
Physical inactivity is a major global public health issue associated with a range of chronic disease outcomes. As such, the underlying motivation and barriers to whether or not an individual engages in physical activity is of critical public health importance. This study examines [...] Read more.
Physical inactivity is a major global public health issue associated with a range of chronic disease outcomes. As such, the underlying motivation and barriers to whether or not an individual engages in physical activity is of critical public health importance. This study examines the National Heart Foundation of Australia Heart Week Survey conducted in March 2015. A total of 894 (40% female) Australian adults aged 25–54 years completed the survey, including items relating to motivation and barriers to being physically active. The most frequently selected responses regarding motivation for physical activity among those categorised as active (n = 696) were; to lose or maintain weight (36.6%, 95% CI 33.1–40.3), avoid or manage health condition (17.8%, 95% CI 15.1–20.8), and improve appearance (12.8%, 95% CI 10.5–15.5). Some gender differences were found with a greater proportion of females (43.8%, 95% CI 38.0–49.8) reporting lose or maintain weight as their main motivation for being physically active compared to males (31.9%, 95% CI 27.7–36.6). Among those categorised as inactive (n = 198), lack of time (50.0%, 95% CI 43.0–56.8) was the most frequently reported barrier to physical activity. While empirical studies seek to understand the correlates and determinants of physical activity, it is critical that beliefs and perceptions enabling and prohibiting engagement are identified in order to optimise physical activity promotion in the community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Chronic Disease)

Review

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Open AccessReview
Cancer and Exercise: Warburg Hypothesis, Tumour Metabolism and High-Intensity Anaerobic Exercise
Sports 2018, 6(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports6010010 - 31 Jan 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
There is ample evidence that regular moderate to vigorous aerobic physical activity is related to a reduced risk for various forms of cancer to suggest a causal relationship. Exercise is associated with positive changes in fitness, body composition, and physical functioning as well [...] Read more.
There is ample evidence that regular moderate to vigorous aerobic physical activity is related to a reduced risk for various forms of cancer to suggest a causal relationship. Exercise is associated with positive changes in fitness, body composition, and physical functioning as well as in patient-reported outcomes such as fatigue, sleep quality, or health-related quality of life. Emerging evidence indicates that exercise may also be directly linked to the control of tumour biology through direct effects on tumour-intrinsic factors. Beside a multitude of effects of exercise on the human body, one underscored effect of exercise training is to target the specific metabolism of tumour cells, namely the Warburg-type highly glycolytic metabolism. Tumour metabolism as well as the tumour–host interaction may be selectively influenced by single bouts as well as regularly applied exercise, dependent on exercise intensity, duration, frequency and mode. High-intensity anaerobic exercise was shown to inhibit glycolysis and some studies in animals showed that effects on tumour growth might be stronger compared with moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. High-intensity exercise was shown to be safe in patients; however, it has to be applied carefully with an individualized prescription of exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Chronic Disease)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Acute and Chronic Effects of Isometric Handgrip Exercise on Cardiovascular Variables in Hypertensive Patients: A Systematic Review
Sports 2017, 5(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports5030055 - 01 Aug 2017
Cited by 7
Abstract
The aim of this study was to describe, through a systematic review, the acute and chronic effects of isometric handgrip exercise on cardiovascular variables in hypertensive individuals. In this systematic review, we included studies that analyzed whether a single bout or a program [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to describe, through a systematic review, the acute and chronic effects of isometric handgrip exercise on cardiovascular variables in hypertensive individuals. In this systematic review, we included studies that analyzed whether a single bout or a program with isometric exercises affect cardiovascular variables in hypertensive adults. The electronic database PubMed/Medline was searched for relevant studies published until May 2017. Of the 2927 studies initially identified, 2916 were excluded based on title and abstract and five on the basis of full-text assessment, leaving six studies remaining. In addition, one further study cited in the references of the included articles was included in this review, totaling seven studies included (five studies on the chronic effects of isometric handgrip exercise on cardiovascular parameters). None of the acute studies observed post-exercise hypotension. The majority of the chronic studies found decreases in office blood pressure after isometric handgrip training, with training ranging from 6 to 10 weeks, while heart rate variability parameters were improved in one study and did not change in another. Reduction in oxidative stress was observed; however, this variable was only analyzed in one study. In hypertensives, acute responses to isometric handgrip exercise are very limited due to the small number of studies, therefore more research is required. Furthermore, chronic isometric handgrip training reduces blood pressure; however, there is still a gap in the knowledge on the effects of this modality of exercise on other cardiovascular variables—such as endothelial function, oxidative stress, and cardiac autonomic modulation—which should be addressed in future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Chronic Disease)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Exercise, Osteoporosis, and Bone Geometry
Sports 2017, 5(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports5020029 - 12 May 2017
Cited by 8
Abstract
Exercise is commonly recommended in the prevention and management of osteoporosis. The most common method to monitor bone mass and its response to interventions is bone densitometry. While closely associated with risk of fracture, densitometry-derived areal bone mineral density (aBMD) does not provide [...] Read more.
Exercise is commonly recommended in the prevention and management of osteoporosis. The most common method to monitor bone mass and its response to interventions is bone densitometry. While closely associated with risk of fracture, densitometry-derived areal bone mineral density (aBMD) does not provide a reliable indication of bone geometry or morphological adaptation to stimuli. In fact, the effects of exercise interventions on aBMD are frequently modest, and may not fully represent the benefit of exercise to bone. Animal models suggest that mechanical loading indeed influences bone geometry and thus strength. Such an effect in humans has the potential to reduce osteoporotic fracture. The aim of the current narrative review is to provide an overview of what is known about the effects of exercise on bone geometry, with a focus on relevance to osteoporosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Chronic Disease)
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