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Review

Acute and Chronic Effects of Isometric Handgrip Exercise on Cardiovascular Variables in Hypertensive Patients: A Systematic Review

1
Graduate Program in Physical Education. University of Pernambuco, Recife, Pernambuco 50100-010, Brazil
2
Group Research in Health and Sport—ASCES College, Caruaru, Pernambuco 55016-901, Brazil
3
Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Federal University of Pernambuco, Vitoria de Santo Antão, Pernambuco 55608-680, Brazil
4
Faculty of Physical Education University of Brasília, Brasilia, Distrito Federal 70910-900, Brazil
5
Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Movement and Rehabilitation Sciences, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
6
Albert Einstein Hospital, Sao Paulo, São Paulo 06455-010, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sports 2017, 5(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports5030055
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 21 July 2017 / Accepted: 25 July 2017 / Published: 1 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Chronic Disease)
The aim of this study was to describe, through a systematic review, the acute and chronic effects of isometric handgrip exercise on cardiovascular variables in hypertensive individuals. In this systematic review, we included studies that analyzed whether a single bout or a program with isometric exercises affect cardiovascular variables in hypertensive adults. The electronic database PubMed/Medline was searched for relevant studies published until May 2017. Of the 2927 studies initially identified, 2916 were excluded based on title and abstract and five on the basis of full-text assessment, leaving six studies remaining. In addition, one further study cited in the references of the included articles was included in this review, totaling seven studies included (five studies on the chronic effects of isometric handgrip exercise on cardiovascular parameters). None of the acute studies observed post-exercise hypotension. The majority of the chronic studies found decreases in office blood pressure after isometric handgrip training, with training ranging from 6 to 10 weeks, while heart rate variability parameters were improved in one study and did not change in another. Reduction in oxidative stress was observed; however, this variable was only analyzed in one study. In hypertensives, acute responses to isometric handgrip exercise are very limited due to the small number of studies, therefore more research is required. Furthermore, chronic isometric handgrip training reduces blood pressure; however, there is still a gap in the knowledge on the effects of this modality of exercise on other cardiovascular variables—such as endothelial function, oxidative stress, and cardiac autonomic modulation—which should be addressed in future studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: hypertension; cardiovascular variables; exercise hypertension; cardiovascular variables; exercise
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MDPI and ACS Style

Farah, B.Q.; Germano-Soares, A.H.; Rodrigues, S.L.C.; Santos, C.X.; Barbosa, S.S.; Vianna, L.C.; Cornelissen, V.A.; Ritti-Dias, R.M. Acute and Chronic Effects of Isometric Handgrip Exercise on Cardiovascular Variables in Hypertensive Patients: A Systematic Review. Sports 2017, 5, 55. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports5030055

AMA Style

Farah BQ, Germano-Soares AH, Rodrigues SLC, Santos CX, Barbosa SS, Vianna LC, Cornelissen VA, Ritti-Dias RM. Acute and Chronic Effects of Isometric Handgrip Exercise on Cardiovascular Variables in Hypertensive Patients: A Systematic Review. Sports. 2017; 5(3):55. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports5030055

Chicago/Turabian Style

Farah, Breno Q., Antônio H. Germano-Soares, Sergio L.C. Rodrigues, Camila X. Santos, Sávio S. Barbosa, Lauro C. Vianna, Véronique A. Cornelissen, and Raphael M. Ritti-Dias. 2017. "Acute and Chronic Effects of Isometric Handgrip Exercise on Cardiovascular Variables in Hypertensive Patients: A Systematic Review" Sports 5, no. 3: 55. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports5030055

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