Special Issue "Strength and Conditioning and Biomechanics for Sports"

A special issue of Sports (ISSN 2075-4663).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2022) | Viewed by 11655

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Marco Beato
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University of Suffolk, Ipswich, United Kingdom
Interests: strength; injuries; flywheel exercise; football (soccer); training
Dr. Stuart McErlain-Naylor
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University of Suffolk, Ipswich, United Kingdom
Interests: sports biomechanics; cricket; badminton; impacts; acceleration; flywheel exercise

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Strength and conditioning practitioners use exercise prescription to improve the performance of competitive athletes and athletic teams. This is achieved through the combination of strength training, aerobic conditioning, plyometrics, and other methods. In experimental and theoretical sports biomechanics, the laws of mechanics are applied to gain a greater understanding of athletic performance through biomechanical measurement and modelling. We have the pleasure to open the call for papers for this Special Issue titled “Strength and Conditioning and Biomechanics for Sports”.

The aim of this Special Issue is to publish a series of studies that are related to strength and conditioning and/or sports biomechanics. We encourage the submission of research investigating the chronic and acute effect of strength (e.g., traditional and novel forms of resistance training) and conditioning (e.g., aerobic and anaerobic conditioning) protocols as well as investigating biomechanical parameters (e.g., kinetics and kinematics) in sporting movements. Biomechanical investigations relating to athlete screening, training monitoring or prescription, or comparisons of alternative exercises (i.e., the biomechanics of strength and conditioning) are especially welcomed. Review papers of any of the above or related topics are also welcomed.

Dr. Marco Beato
Dr. Stuart McErlain-Naylor
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sports is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Strength
  • Training
  • Biomechanics
  • Kinetics
  • Kinematics
  • Plyometrics
  • Resistance
  • Aerobic
  • Anaerobic

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Article
Kinematic and Kinetic Characteristics of Repetitive Countermovement Jumps with Accentuated Eccentric Loading
Sports 2022, 10(5), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10050074 - 06 May 2022
Viewed by 804
Abstract
Two methods for challenging the musculoskeletal and nervous systems to better exploit the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) mechanism during plyometric training are reactive strength exercises and accentuated eccentric loading (AEL). Combining repetitive, reactive jumping with AEL poses a novel approach, in which the effects [...] Read more.
Two methods for challenging the musculoskeletal and nervous systems to better exploit the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) mechanism during plyometric training are reactive strength exercises and accentuated eccentric loading (AEL). Combining repetitive, reactive jumping with AEL poses a novel approach, in which the effects of both methods may be combined to elicit a unique stimulus. This study compared kinematic, kinetic, and electromyographic variables between a control (CON1) and two AEL conditions (AEL2 and AEL3). Additionally, non-reactive and reactive jumps performed within these sets were compared. Participants performed two sets of six countermovement jumps (CMJ) under each loading condition. AEL3 had moderate to large positive effects (es) on peak and mean eccentric force (es = 1.1, 0.8, respectively; both p < 0.01), and eccentric loading rate (es = 0.8, p < 0.01), but no effect on concentric variables or muscle activation intensity. The effects of AEL2 were similar but smaller. With or without AEL, there were moderate to large positive effects associated with reactive CMJ (second jump in a set, compared to the first) on peak and mean eccentric velocity (es = 1.7, 0.8, respectively; both p < 0.01), peak and mean eccentric force (es = 1.3, 1.2, p < 0.01), eccentric loading rate (es = 1.3, p < 0.01) and muscle activity (es = 1.8–1.9, p < 0.01). Concentric variables did not differ. Thus, the flight phase and act of landing during reactive jumps elicited greater increases in eccentric forces, loading rates, and muscle activity than AEL. Nonetheless, kinetic variables were greatest when AEL was combined with reactive jumping. Considering the limitations or complexity associated with most AEL protocols, sets of repetitive (reactive) CMJ may be more pragmatic for augmenting eccentric kinetic variables and neuromuscular stimuli during training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strength and Conditioning and Biomechanics for Sports)
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Article
Level of Agreement, Reliability, and Minimal Detectable Change of the MusclelabTM Laser Speed Device on Force–Velocity–Power Sprint Profiles in Division II Collegiate Athletes
Sports 2022, 10(4), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10040057 - 08 Apr 2022
Viewed by 981
Abstract
This study examined the level of agreement (Pearson product-moment correlation [rP]), within- and between-day reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]), and minimal detectable change of the MusclelabTM Laser Speed (MLS) device on sprint time and force–velocity–power profiles in Division II [...] Read more.
This study examined the level of agreement (Pearson product-moment correlation [rP]), within- and between-day reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]), and minimal detectable change of the MusclelabTM Laser Speed (MLS) device on sprint time and force–velocity–power profiles in Division II Collegiate athletes. Twenty-two athletes (soccer = 17, basketball = 2, volleyball = 3; 20.1 ± 1.5 y; 1.71 ± 0.11 m; 70.7 ± 12.5 kg) performed three 30-m (m) sprints on two separate occasions (seven days apart). Six time splits (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 m), horizontal force (HZT F0; N∙kg−1), peak velocity (VMAX; m∙s−1), horizontal power (HZT P0; W∙kg−1), and force–velocity slope (SFV; N·s·m−1·kg−1) were measured. Sprint data for the MLS were compared to the previously validated MySprint (MySp) app to assess for level of agreement. The MLS reported good to excellent reliability for within- and between-day trials (ICC = 0.69–0.98, ICC = 0.77–0.98, respectively). Despite a low level of agreement with HZT F0 (rP = 0.44), the MLS had moderate to excellent agreement across nine variables (rp = 0.68–0.98). Bland–Altman plots displayed significant proportional bias for VMAX (mean difference = 0.31 m∙s−1, MLS < MySp). Overall, the MLS is in agreement with the MySp app and is a reliable device for assessing sprint times, VMAX, HZT P0, and SFV. Proportional bias should be considered for VMAX when comparing the MLS to the MySp app. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strength and Conditioning and Biomechanics for Sports)
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Article
Chest Exercises: Movement and Loading of Shoulder, Elbow and Wrist Joints
Sports 2022, 10(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10020019 - 31 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1421
Abstract
Injuries to the shoulder are very common in sports that involve overhead arm or throwing movements. Strength training of the chest muscles has the potential to protect the shoulder from injury. Kinematic and kinetic data were acquired in 20 healthy subjects (age: 24.9 [...] Read more.
Injuries to the shoulder are very common in sports that involve overhead arm or throwing movements. Strength training of the chest muscles has the potential to protect the shoulder from injury. Kinematic and kinetic data were acquired in 20 healthy subjects (age: 24.9 ± 2.7 years) using motion capture, force plates for the bench press exercises and load cells in the cable for the cable pulley exercises with 15% and 30% of body weight (BW). Joint ranges of motion (RoM) and joint moments at the shoulder, elbow and wrist were derived using an inverse dynamics approach. The maximum absolute moments at the shoulder joint were significantly larger for the cable pulley exercises than for the bench press exercises. The cable cross-over exercise resulted in substantially different joint angles and loading patterns compared to most other exercises, with higher fluctuations during the exercise cycle. The present results indicate that a combination of bench press and cable pulley exercises are best to train the full RoM and, thus, intra-muscular coordination across the upper limbs. Care has to be taken when performing cable cross-over exercises to ensure proper stabilisation of the joints during exercise execution and avoid joint overloading. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strength and Conditioning and Biomechanics for Sports)
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Article
Intra- and Inter-Limb Strength Asymmetry in Soccer: A Comparison of Professional and Under-18 Players
Sports 2021, 9(9), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports9090129 - 13 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1444
Abstract
(1) Background: the present study examined the isokinetic peak torque exerted by both knee extensors and flexors, anterior–posterior imbalance and the magnitude and direction of inter-limb asymmetry in professional and academy soccer players. (2) Methods: one hundred soccer players (professional = 50, elite [...] Read more.
(1) Background: the present study examined the isokinetic peak torque exerted by both knee extensors and flexors, anterior–posterior imbalance and the magnitude and direction of inter-limb asymmetry in professional and academy soccer players. (2) Methods: one hundred soccer players (professional = 50, elite academy = 50) volunteered to take part in this investigation. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to measure the knee extensor (quadriceps) and flexors muscle (hamstrings) torques of the limbs as well as inter-limb asymmetries—using a standard percentage difference equation. (3) Results: professional players exhibited significantly greater (effect size [ES] = large) strength levels in the quadriceps and hamstrings under both testing conditions, significantly higher (small to moderate) intra-limb ratio values for 60°·s−1 but not for the 300°·s−1 test condition, significantly (small to moderate) lower inter-limb asymmetry values for all test conditions, with the exception of the hamstrings at 60°·s−1 and the direction of asymmetry was poor to slight, indicating that limb dominance was rarely the same between groups. (4) Conclusions: this study shows that isokinetic assessments, i.e., peak torque exerted by both knee extensors and flexors and intra-limb ratio, and the subsequent inter-limb asymmetry, i.e., magnitude and direction, can differentiate between professional and academy soccer players. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strength and Conditioning and Biomechanics for Sports)
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Article
Differences in Kinetics during One- and Two-Leg Hang Power Clean
Sports 2021, 9(4), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports9040045 - 27 Mar 2021
Viewed by 3591
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to quantify the kinetics per leg during the one- and two-leg hang power clean using various loads. Nine male track and field athletes performed the one- and two-leg hang power clean on a force platform. The estimated [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to quantify the kinetics per leg during the one- and two-leg hang power clean using various loads. Nine male track and field athletes performed the one- and two-leg hang power clean on a force platform. The estimated one-repetition maximum was used for the one-leg hang power clean (OHPC), and the one-repetition maximum was used for the two-leg hang power clean (THPC). The loads used were 30%, 60%, and 90% during both trials. We calculated peak power, peak force, and peak rate of force development during the pull phase from the force-time data. The peak power and the peak force for all loads during the OHPC were statistically greater than during the THPC. The peak rates of force development at 60% and 90% during the OHPC were statistically greater than during the THPC. Additionally, the peak power at 90% was significantly less than at 60% during the THPC. These findings suggest that the OHPC at loads of 60% and 90% is a weightlifting exercise that exhibits greater explosive force and power development characteristics than the THPC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strength and Conditioning and Biomechanics for Sports)
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Article
Post Flywheel Squat Potentiation of Vertical and Horizontal Ground Reaction Force Parameters during Jumps and Changes of Direction
Sports 2021, 9(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports9010005 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1776
Abstract
(1) Background: The aim of the study was to determine the post-activation performance enhancement (PAPE) of vertical and horizontal ground reaction force parameters during jumps and change of direction following flywheel squat exercise using two different flywheel inertias. (2) Methods: Eleven male athletes [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The aim of the study was to determine the post-activation performance enhancement (PAPE) of vertical and horizontal ground reaction force parameters during jumps and change of direction following flywheel squat exercise using two different flywheel inertias. (2) Methods: Eleven male athletes performed a countermovement jump (CMJ), standing broad jump (SBJ), and “modified 505” change of direction (COD) in a control condition and 6 minutes following three sets of six repetitions of flywheel half squats at one of two inertias (0.029 kg·m2 and 0.061 kg·m2). Peak directional ground reaction force, power, and rate of force development were calculated for each test. (3) Results: Higher inertia flywheel squats were able to acutely enhance CMJ peak vertical force (Bayes Factor (BF10) = 33.5, very strong; δ = 1.66; CI: 0.67, 2.70), whereas lower inertia flywheel squats were able to acutely enhance CMJ peak vertical power (BF10 = 3.65, moderate; δ = 0.93; CI: 0.11, 1.88). The vertical squat exercise induced no PAPE effect on resultant SBJ or horizontal COD ground reaction force parameters, nor were any differences observed between the inertias. (4) Conclusions: Researchers and practitioners should consider the kinetic and kinematic correspondence of a pre-load stimulus to the subsequent sport-specific activity (i.e., flywheel squat to CMJ). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strength and Conditioning and Biomechanics for Sports)
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