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Wireless Charging in Sensor Networks

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Sensor Networks".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020) | Viewed by 15082

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Kore University of Enna, 94100 Enna, Italy
Interests: wireless sensor networks; intelligent transportation systems; Internet of things; green communications; fuzzy logic
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Kore University of Enna, 94100 Enna, Italy
Interests: intelligent systems for the management of road traffic and transport infrastructure networks; automated vehicle systems
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

Wireless-rechargeable sensor networks are an emerging technology which merges sensing, transmission, and computation capacities and which is expected to lengthen the life of conventional wireless sensor networks (WSNs). As is already known, batteries are ordinarily used as power sensor nodes in common WSNs. As a consequence, WSNs can only operate for a limited time related to battery capacities. When sensors consume their energy, the network can become fragmented, and the information from some parts of the monitored area can no longer be obtained. As wireless and portable mobile devices are becoming pervasive, battery recharge has become a crucial problem. Conventional battery charging approaches are ruled by wired technology, which demands a wired power plug to be attached to an electrical wall outlet. There have been many research efforts to prolong network lifetime. However, despite these exhaustive attempts, the lifetime of a WSN still represents a performance bottleneck and is reasonably a fundamental requirement to be addressed for a functional wide-scale deployment.

Different from typical battery-powered sensor nodes, the devices in wireless-rechargeable sensor networks employ wireless energy transfer methods and can be supplied by chargers to decrease disposable battery usage and prolong the operational life of each sensor node. Wireless charging could allow fast, predictable, and controllable energy replenishment and lengthens the network lifetime.

This Special Issue solicits the submission of high-quality unpublished papers that aim to solve open technical problems and challenges typical of wireless-rechargeable sensor networks. The main aim is to integrate novel approaches efficiently, focusing on the performance evaluation and comparison with existing solutions. Both theoretical and experimental studies for typical wireless-rechargeable sensor networks scenarios are encouraged. Furthermore, high-quality review and survey papers are also welcomed.

Topics include but are not limited to:

  • Architecture for wireless-rechargeable sensor networks
  • Algorithms for wireless recharging
  • Techniques for wireless energy transfer
  • Solutions for wireless energy harvesting
  • Green communications in WSNs
  • Energy efficiency in WSNs
  • Energy management systems for in WSNs
  • Innovative applications and services for wireless-rechargeable sensor networks

Prof. Dr. Giovanni Pau
Dr. Fabio Arena
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

19 pages, 10918 KiB  
Article
EZ-SEP: Extended Z-SEP Routing Protocol with Hierarchical Clustering Approach for Wireless Heterogeneous Sensor Network
by Zhanserik Nurlan, Tamara Zhukabayeva and Mohamed Othman
Sensors 2021, 21(4), 1021; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21041021 - 3 Feb 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3344
Abstract
Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are networks of thousands of nodes installed in a defined physical environment to sense and monitor its state condition. The viability of such a network is directly dependent and limited by the power of batteries supplying the nodes of [...] Read more.
Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are networks of thousands of nodes installed in a defined physical environment to sense and monitor its state condition. The viability of such a network is directly dependent and limited by the power of batteries supplying the nodes of these networks, which represents a disadvantage of such a network. To improve and extend the life of WSNs, scientists around the world regularly develop various routing protocols that minimize and optimize the energy consumption of sensor network nodes. This article, introduces a new heterogeneous-aware routing protocol well known as Extended Z-SEP Routing Protocol with Hierarchical Clustering Approach for Wireless Heterogeneous Sensor Network or EZ-SEP, where the connection of nodes to a base station (BS) is done via a hybrid method, i.e., a certain amount of nodes communicate with the base station directly, while the remaining ones form a cluster to transfer data. Parameters of the field are unknown, and the field is partitioned into zones depending on the node energy. We reviewed the Z-SEP protocol concerning the election of the cluster head (CH) and its communication with BS and presented a novel extended mechanism for the selection of the CH based on remaining residual energy. In addition, EZ-SEP is weighted up using various estimation schemes such as base station repositioning, altering the field density, and variable nodes energy for comparison with the previous parent algorithm. EZ-SEP was executed and compared to routing protocols such as Z-SEP, SEP, and LEACH. The proposed algorithm performed using the MATLAB R2016b simulator. Simulation results show that our proposed extended version performs better than Z-SEP in the stability period due to an increase in the number of active nodes by 48%, in efficiency of network by the high packet delivery coefficient by 16% and optimizes the average power consumption compared to by 34. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Charging in Sensor Networks)
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24 pages, 3619 KiB  
Article
A Novel Charging Method for Underwater Batteryless Sensor Node Networks
by Judith Santana Abril, Graciela Santana Sosa, Javier Sosa, Tomas Bautista and Juan A. Montiel-Nelson
Sensors 2021, 21(2), 557; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21020557 - 14 Jan 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2321
Abstract
In this paper, we present a novel charging method for underwater batteryless sensor node networks. The target application is a practical underwater sensor network for oceanic fish farms. The underwater sections of the network use a wireless power transfer system based on the [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present a novel charging method for underwater batteryless sensor node networks. The target application is a practical underwater sensor network for oceanic fish farms. The underwater sections of the network use a wireless power transfer system based on the ISO 11784/11785 HDX standard for supplying energy to the batteryless sensor nodes. Each sensor has an accumulator capacitor, which is charged for voltage supplying to the sensor node. A new distributed charging scheme is proposed and discussed in detail to reduce the required time to charge all sensor nodes of the underwater sections. One important key is its decentralized control of the charging process. The proposal is based on the self disconnection ability of each sensor node from the charging network. The second important key is that the hardware implementation of this new feature is quite simple and only requires to include a minimal circuitry in parallel to the current sensor node antenna while the rest of the sensor network remains unaltered. The proposed charging scheme is evaluated using real corner cases from practical oceanic fish farms sensor networks. The results from experiments demonstrate that it is possible to charge up to 10 sensor nodes which is the double charging capability than previous research presented. In the same conditions as the approach found in the literature, it represents reaching an ocean depth of 60 m. In terms of energy, in case of an underwater network with 5 sensors to reach 30 m deep, the proposed charging scheme requires only a 25% of the power required using the traditional approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Charging in Sensor Networks)
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21 pages, 2917 KiB  
Article
Hybrid Cyber Petri net Modelling, Simulation and Analysis of Master-Slave Charging for Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks
by Huaiyu Qin, Buhui Zhao, Leijun Xu and Xue Bai
Sensors 2021, 21(2), 551; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21020551 - 14 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1776
Abstract
Wireless charging provides continuous energy for wireless sensor networks. However, it is difficult to replenish enough energy for all sensor nodes with fixed charging alone, and even more unrealistic to charge a large number of nodes within a short time via mobile charging. [...] Read more.
Wireless charging provides continuous energy for wireless sensor networks. However, it is difficult to replenish enough energy for all sensor nodes with fixed charging alone, and even more unrealistic to charge a large number of nodes within a short time via mobile charging. In order to overcome the above weaknesses, this paper firstly puts forward a Master-Slave Charging mode for the WRSN (Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Network), where fixed charging is the master mode and mobile charging is the slave mode, respectively. However, Master-Slave Charging is a typical hybrid system involving discrete event decision and continuous energy transfer. Therefore, the Hybrid Cyber Petri net system is proposed to build a visual specification with mathematical expression of Master-Slave Charging. Moreover, wireless charging in the WRSN is modeled and evaluated from the perspective of a hybrid system for the first time. Furthermore, a greedy-genetic algorithm is proposed to obtain the deployment of fixed chargers and the path planning of a mobile charger, by maximizing the actual electric quantity of the master charging problem and minimizing the mobile charger’s travelling path of the slave charging problem. Finally, the simulation results confirm and verify the Hybrid Cyber Petri net model for Master-Slave Charging. It is worth noting that the proposed model in this paper is highly adaptable to various charging modes in the WRSN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Charging in Sensor Networks)
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15 pages, 4696 KiB  
Article
Wireless Charging System Using Resonant Inductor in Class E Power Amplifier for Electronics and Sensors
by Feng Wen, Xingchen Cheng, Qiang Li and Jianqiao Ye
Sensors 2020, 20(10), 2801; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20102801 - 14 May 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3287
Abstract
This study aims to solve a problem that exists with impedance matching networks in terms of extra cost and power loss of electronic components in a four-coil wireless power transfer (WPT) system using class E power amplifier as power supply, which is not [...] Read more.
This study aims to solve a problem that exists with impedance matching networks in terms of extra cost and power loss of electronic components in a four-coil wireless power transfer (WPT) system using class E power amplifier as power supply, which is not conducive to the improvement of system efficiency and output power. A design method of sharing the resonant inductor in class E power amplifier and the excitation coil in the four-coil WPT system is proposed. This method comprehensively considers the output power and transfer efficiency of the system, the number of coil turns, coil size and many other factors. Compared with the traditional four-coil system using a class E power amplifier as a power supply, the proposed method simplified the system structure by leaving out a resonant inductor and load matching circuit, which can reduce the power loss of system and improve efficiency. Moreover, the precisely tuning of resonant inductor was not necessary, which improved the stability of the system. The correctness and feasibility of the parameter design method were verified by experiments. The experimental results showed that the output power of the system was increased by 18.7%, the efficiency was increased by 11%, and the transmission distance was up to 0.7 m, which is suitable for wireless power supply of electronics and sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Charging in Sensor Networks)
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19 pages, 4779 KiB  
Article
A Charging Algorithm for the Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Network with Imperfect Charging Channel and Finite Energy Storage
by Mengqiu Tian, Wanguo Jiao, Jiaming Liu and Siyuan Ma
Sensors 2019, 19(18), 3887; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19183887 - 9 Sep 2019
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2922
Abstract
Recently, wireless energy transfer technology becomes a popular way to address energy shortage in wireless sensor networks. The capacity of the mobile wireless charging car (WCV) and the wireless channel between the WCV and the sensor are two important factors influencing the energy [...] Read more.
Recently, wireless energy transfer technology becomes a popular way to address energy shortage in wireless sensor networks. The capacity of the mobile wireless charging car (WCV) and the wireless channel between the WCV and the sensor are two important factors influencing the energy efficiency of the wireless sensor network, which has not been well considered. In this paper, we study the energy efficiency of a wireless rechargeable sensor network charged by a finite capacity WCV through an imperfect wireless channel. To estimate the energy efficiency, we first propose a new metric named waste rate, which is defined as a function of the charging channel quality. Then, energy efficiency optimization is modeled as minimizing the waste rate. Through optimizing the distance between the WCV and sensor nodes, the set of optimal charging sensor nodes is obtained. By using the Hamiltonian circle, the nearest neighbor algorithm is proposed to find the traveling path of the WCV. Furthermore, to avoid the untimely death of sensor nodes and the coverage hole, an extended node dynamic replacement strategy is proposed. The simulation results show that the proposed method can reduce the waste rate and the total charging time; i.e., the sum of traveling time and charging delay can be significantly reduced, which indicates that the proposed algorithm can improve the energy efficiency of the network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Charging in Sensor Networks)
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