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Special Issue "Advances in Plasmonic Sensing"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Ibrahim Abdulhalim
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electro-Optic Engineering, IlseKatz Institute for Nanoscale Science and TechnologyBen Gurion University, Beer Sheva 84105, Israel
Interests: plasmonic biosensors; nanophotonic devices; liquid crystal optics and devices; spectropolarimetric imaging, interference microscopy, biomedical optics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Plasmonic sensors are being utilized in many fields from chemical and biological sensing, to industrial applications in the pharma, gas sensing, and chemical industry, to superresolution imaging and enhanced imaging in cells, localized and extended plasmon-based sensors, and surface-enhanced spectroscopies (SEF, SERS, SEIRA). This Special Issue encompasses a broad range of plasmonic sensors and their applications, including LSEPR, ESPR, SEF, SERS, SEIRA, imaging and diagnostics applications. Further topics that will be covered include state-of-the-art technologies in plasmonic sensing devices and systems, novel methodologies, plasmonic structures, novel SERS and SEF substrates, functionalization protocols of metallic surfaces, and specific sensing protocols.

Prof. Dr. Ibrahim Abdulhalim
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Plasmonic sensors
  • SPR sensors
  • SEF
  • SERS
  • SEIRA
  • Enhanced spectroscopies

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Method for Determining the Plasmon Resonance Wavelength in Fiber Sensors Based on Tilted Fiber Bragg Gratings
Sensors 2019, 19(19), 4245; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19194245 - 30 Sep 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
Surface plasmon resonance-based fiber-optic sensors are of increasing interest in modern sensory research, especially for chemical and biomedical applications. Special attention deserves to be given to sensors based on tilted fiber Bragg gratings, due to their unique spectral properties and potentially high sensitivity [...] Read more.
Surface plasmon resonance-based fiber-optic sensors are of increasing interest in modern sensory research, especially for chemical and biomedical applications. Special attention deserves to be given to sensors based on tilted fiber Bragg gratings, due to their unique spectral properties and potentially high sensitivity and resolution. However, the principal task is to determine the plasmon resonance wavelength based on the spectral characteristics of the sensor and, most importantly, to measure changes in environmental parameters with high resolution, while the existing indirect methods are only useable in a narrow spectral range. In this paper, we present a new approach to solving this problem, based on the original method of determining the plasmon resonance spectral position in the automatic mode by precisely calculating the constriction location on the transmission spectrum of the sensor. We also present an experimental comparison of various data processing methods in both a narrow and a wide range of the refractive indexes. Application of our method resulted in achieving a resolution of up to 3 × 10−6 in terms of the refractive index. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plasmonic Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Scattering by Plasmonic Gratings of Circular Nanorods Using Lattice Sums Technique
Sensors 2019, 19(18), 3923; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19183923 - 11 Sep 2019
Abstract
A self-contained formulation for analyzing electromagnetic scattering by a significant class of planar gratings composed of plasmonic nanorods, which were infinite length along their axes, is presented. The procedure for the lattice sums technique was implemented in a cylindrical harmonic expansion method based [...] Read more.
A self-contained formulation for analyzing electromagnetic scattering by a significant class of planar gratings composed of plasmonic nanorods, which were infinite length along their axes, is presented. The procedure for the lattice sums technique was implemented in a cylindrical harmonic expansion method based on the generalized reflection matrix approach for full-wave scattering analysis of plasmonic gratings. The method provided a high computational efficiency and can be considered as one of the best-suited numerical tools for the optimization of plasmonic sensors and plasmonic guiding devices both having a planar geometry. Although the proposed formalism can be applied to analyze a wide class of plasmonic gratings, three configurations were studied in the manuscript. Firstly, a multilayered grating of silver nanocylinders formed analogously to photonic crystals was considered. In the region far from the resonances of a single plasmonic nanocylinder, the structure showed similar properties compared to conventional photonic crystals. When one or a few nanorods were periodically removed from the original crystal, thus forming a crystal with defects, a new band was formed in the spectral responses because of the resonant tunneling through the defect layers. The rigorous formulation of plasmonic gratings with defects was proposed for the first time. Finally, a plasmonic planar grating of metal-coated dielectric nanorods coupled to the dielectric slab was investigated from the viewpoint of design of a refractive index sensor. Dual-absorption bands attributable to the excitation of the localized surface plasmons were studied, and the near field distributions were given in both absorption bands associated with the resonances on the upper and inner surfaces of a single metal-coated nanocylinder. Resonance in the second absorption band was sensitive to the refractive index of the background medium and could be useful for the design of refractive index sensors. Also analyzed was a phase-matching condition between the evanescent space-harmonics of the plasmonic grating and the guided modes inside the slab, leading to a strong coupling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plasmonic Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle
Surface Plasmon Resonance Based Temperature Sensors in Liquid Environment
Sensors 2019, 19(15), 3354; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19153354 - 31 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The aim of this work is to measure the temperature variations by analyzing the plasmon signature on a metallic surface that is periodically structured and immersed in a liquid. A change in the temperature of the sample surface induces a modification of the [...] Read more.
The aim of this work is to measure the temperature variations by analyzing the plasmon signature on a metallic surface that is periodically structured and immersed in a liquid. A change in the temperature of the sample surface induces a modification of the local refractive index leading to a shift of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) frequency due to the strong interaction between the evanescent electric field and the metallic surface. The experimental set-up used in this study to detect the refractive index changes is based on a metallic grating permitting a direct excitation of a plasmon wave, leading to a high sensibility, high-temperature range and contactless sensor within a very compact and simple device. The experimental set-up demonstrated that SPR could be used as a non-invasive, high-resolution temperature measurement method for metallic surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plasmonic Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle
Point-of-Care Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor for Stroke Biomarkers NT-proBNP and S100β Using a Functionalized Gold Chip with Specific Antibody
Sensors 2019, 19(11), 2533; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19112533 - 03 Jun 2019
Cited by 9
Abstract
Surface-plasmon-resonance (SPR) is a quantum-electromagnetic phenomenon arising from the interaction of light with free electrons at a metal-dielectric interface. At a specific angle/wavelength of light, the photon’s energy is transferred to excite the oscillation of the free electrons on the surface. A change [...] Read more.
Surface-plasmon-resonance (SPR) is a quantum-electromagnetic phenomenon arising from the interaction of light with free electrons at a metal-dielectric interface. At a specific angle/wavelength of light, the photon’s energy is transferred to excite the oscillation of the free electrons on the surface. A change in the refractive-index (RI) may occur, which is influenced by the analyte concentration in the medium in close contact with the metal surface. SPR has been widely used for the detection of gaseous, liquid, or solid samples. In this study, a functionalized specific SPR chip was designed and used in a novel point-of-care SPR module (PhotonicSys SPR H5) for the detection of the stroke biomarkers NT-proBNP and S100β. These biomarkers have proven to be good for stroke diagnosis, with sensitivity and specificity of >85%. Specific detection was done by binding a biomolecular-recognizing antibody onto the Au SPR-chip. Detection was tested in water and plasma samples. NT-proBNP and S100β were detected in a range of concentrations for stroke, from 0.1 ng/mL to 10 ng/mL. The RI of the blank plasma samples was 1.362412, and the lowest concentration tested for both biomarkers showed a prominent shift in the RI signal (0.25 ng/mL NT-proBNP (1.364215) and S100β (1.364024)). The sensor demonstrated a clinically relevant limit-of-detection of less than ng/mL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plasmonic Sensing)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Improved Detection of Plasmon Waveguide Resonance Using Diverging Beam, Liquid Crystal Retarder, and Application to Lipid Orientation Determination
Sensors 2019, 19(6), 1402; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19061402 - 21 Mar 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Plasmon waveguide resonance (PWR) sensors exhibit narrow resonances at the two orthogonal polarizations, transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM), which are narrower by almost an order of a magnitude than the standard surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and thus the figure of merit [...] Read more.
Plasmon waveguide resonance (PWR) sensors exhibit narrow resonances at the two orthogonal polarizations, transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM), which are narrower by almost an order of a magnitude than the standard surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and thus the figure of merit is enhanced. This fact is useful for measuring optical anisotropy of materials on the surface and determining the orientation of molecules with high resolution. Using the diverging beam approach and a liquid crystal retarder, we present experimental results by simultaneous detection of TE and TM polarized resonances as well as using fast higher contrast serial detection with a variable liquid crystal retarder. While simultaneous detection makes the system simpler, a serial one has the advantage of obtaining a larger contrast of the resonances and thus an improved signal-to-noise ratio. Although the sensitivity of the PWR resonances is smaller than the standard SPR, the angular width is much smaller, and thus the figure of merit is improved. When the measurement methodology has a high enough angular resolution, as is the one presented here, the PWR becomes advantageous over other SPR modes. The possibility of carrying out exact numerical simulations for anisotropic molecules using the 4 × 4 matrix approach brings another advantage of the PWR over SPR on the possibility of extracting the orientation of molecules adsorbed to the surface. High sensitivity of the TE and TM signals to the anisotropic molecules orientation is found here, and comparison to the experimental data allowed detection of the orientation of lipids on the sensor surface. The molecular orientations cannot be fully determined from the TM polarization alone as in standard SPR, which underlines the additional advantage of the PWR technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plasmonic Sensing)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Nanomaterials for Healthcare Biosensing Applications
Sensors 2019, 19(23), 5311; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19235311 - 02 Dec 2019
Cited by 24
Abstract
In recent years, an increasing number of nanomaterials have been explored for their applications in biomedical diagnostics, making their applications in healthcare biosensing a rapidly evolving field. Nanomaterials introduce versatility to the sensing platforms and may even allow mobility between different detection mechanisms. [...] Read more.
In recent years, an increasing number of nanomaterials have been explored for their applications in biomedical diagnostics, making their applications in healthcare biosensing a rapidly evolving field. Nanomaterials introduce versatility to the sensing platforms and may even allow mobility between different detection mechanisms. The prospect of a combination of different nanomaterials allows an exploitation of their synergistic additive and novel properties for sensor development. This paper covers more than 290 research works since 2015, elaborating the diverse roles played by various nanomaterials in the biosensing field. Hence, we provide a comprehensive review of the healthcare sensing applications of nanomaterials, covering carbon allotrope-based, inorganic, and organic nanomaterials. These sensing systems are able to detect a wide variety of clinically relevant molecules, like nucleic acids, viruses, bacteria, cancer antigens, pharmaceuticals and narcotic drugs, toxins, contaminants, as well as entire cells in various sensing media, ranging from buffers to more complex environments such as urine, blood or sputum. Thus, the latest advancements reviewed in this paper hold tremendous potential for the application of nanomaterials in the early screening of diseases and point-of-care testing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plasmonic Sensing)
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Open AccessReview
Optical Interrogation Techniques for Nanophotonic Biochemical Sensors
Sensors 2019, 19(19), 4287; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19194287 - 03 Oct 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
The manipulation of light via nanoengineered surfaces has excited the optical community in the past few decades. Among the many applications enabled by nanophotonic devices, sensing has stood out due to their capability of identifying miniscule refractive index changes. In particular, when free-space [...] Read more.
The manipulation of light via nanoengineered surfaces has excited the optical community in the past few decades. Among the many applications enabled by nanophotonic devices, sensing has stood out due to their capability of identifying miniscule refractive index changes. In particular, when free-space propagating light effectively couples into subwavelength volumes created by nanostructures, the strongly-localized near-fields can enhance light’s interaction with matter at the nanoscale. As a result, nanophotonic sensors can non-destructively detect chemical species in real-time without the need of exogenous labels. The impact of such nanophotonic devices on biochemical sensor development became evident as the ever-growing research efforts in the field started addressing many critical needs in biomedical sciences, such as low-cost analytical platforms, simple quantitative bioassays, time-resolved sensing, rapid and multiplexed detection, single-molecule analytics, among others. In this review, the optical transduction methods used to interrogate optical resonances of nanophotonic sensors will be highlighted. Specifically, the optical methodologies used thus far will be evaluated based on their capability of addressing key requirements of the future sensor technologies, including miniaturization, multiplexing, spatial and temporal resolution, cost and sensitivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plasmonic Sensing)
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Open AccessReview
Carbon-Based Nanomaterials for Plasmonic Sensors: A Review
Sensors 2019, 19(16), 3536; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19163536 - 13 Aug 2019
Cited by 15
Abstract
The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique is a remarkable tool, with applications in almost every area of science and technology. Sensing is the foremost and majorly explored application of SPR technique. The last few decades have seen a surge in SPR sensor research [...] Read more.
The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique is a remarkable tool, with applications in almost every area of science and technology. Sensing is the foremost and majorly explored application of SPR technique. The last few decades have seen a surge in SPR sensor research related to sensitivity enhancement and innovative target materials for specificity. Nanotechnological advances have augmented the SPR sensor research tremendously by employing nanomaterials in the design of SPR-based sensors, owing to their manifold properties. Carbon-based nanomaterials, like graphene and its derivatives (graphene oxide (GO)), (reduced graphene oxide (rGO)), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and their nanocomposites, have revolutionized the field of sensing due to their extraordinary properties, such as large surface area, easy synthesis, tunable optical properties, and strong compatible adsorption of biomolecules. In SPR based sensors carbon-based nanomaterials have been used to act as a plasmonic layer, as the sensitivity enhancement material, and to provide the large surface area and compatibility for immobilizing various biomolecules, such as enzymes, DNA, antibodies, and antigens, in the design of the sensing layer. In this review, we report the role of carbon-based nanomaterials in SPR-based sensors, their current developments, and challenges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plasmonic Sensing)
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