In recent years, an increasing number of nanomaterials have been explored for their applications in biomedical diagnostics, making their applications in healthcare biosensing a rapidly evolving field. Nanomaterials introduce versatility to the sensing platforms and may even allow mobility between different detection mechanisms. The prospect of a combination of different nanomaterials allows an exploitation of their synergistic additive and novel properties for sensor development. This paper covers more than 290 research works since 2015, elaborating the diverse roles played by various nanomaterials in the biosensing field. Hence, we provide a comprehensive review of the healthcare sensing applications of nanomaterials, covering carbon allotrope-based, inorganic, and organic nanomaterials. These sensing systems are able to detect a wide variety of clinically relevant molecules, like nucleic acids, viruses, bacteria, cancer antigens, pharmaceuticals and narcotic drugs, toxins, contaminants, as well as entire cells in various sensing media, ranging from buffers to more complex environments such as urine, blood or sputum. Thus, the latest advancements reviewed in this paper hold tremendous potential for the application of nanomaterials in the early screening of diseases and point-of-care testing.
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