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Special Issue "Flexible and Stretchable Piezoelectric Devices for Mechanical Sensing and Energy Harvesting"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Chang Kyu Jeong

Division of Advanced Materials Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 54896, Korea
Website | E-Mail
Interests: materials science; ceramics; polymers; nano chemistry
Guest Editor
Dr. Kwi-Il Park

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea
Website | E-Mail
Interests: energy harvesting; flexible electronics; material science; piezoelectric

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recent developments in the field of flexible and stretchable technologies have accelerated the feasibility of practical uses in various real-life applications, such as smart mobile devices, healthcare sensors, and the Internet of Things (IoT). In particular, self-powered electronic systems based on piezoelectric devices, in formats that are thin, flexible, and even stretchable, have drawn much attention because they could provide permanent, long-lasting, remote use of widespread devices.

Piezoelectric energy harvesting devices that convert the electricity from mechanical energy resources have been considered as a promising candidate for power sources of flexible and stretchable electronic devices without environmental restraints. Mechanical sensors based on piezoelectric materials enable self-powered sensors without additional energy sources.

This Special Issue aims to gather the review articles, as well as original research papers, and to highlight advances in the development, testing, and application of flexible and stretchable mechanical energy harvesting and sensing devices based on piezoelectric materials.

Dr. Chang Kyu Jeong
Dr. Kwi-Il Park
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Flexible
  • Stretchable
  • Wearable
  • Self-powered sensor
  • Flexible electronics
  • Energy harvester
  • Pressure sensor
  • Mechanical sensor
  • Tactile sensor
  • Healthcare
  • Sensor network
  • Internet of things

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Modelling and Laboratory Tests of the Temperature Influence on the Efficiency of the Energy Harvesting System Based on MFC Piezoelectric Transducers
Sensors 2019, 19(7), 1558; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19071558
Received: 9 March 2019 / Revised: 27 March 2019 / Accepted: 27 March 2019 / Published: 31 March 2019
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Abstract
Macro Fibre Composites (MFC) are very effective piezoelectric transducers that, among others, can be used as elements of energy harvesting systems. The possibility to generate electric energy, for example, from mechanical vibrations in order to power electrical elements that could not be powered [...] Read more.
Macro Fibre Composites (MFC) are very effective piezoelectric transducers that, among others, can be used as elements of energy harvesting systems. The possibility to generate electric energy, for example, from mechanical vibrations in order to power electrical elements that could not be powered in another way (using wires or batteries) is a great solution. However, such a kind of systems has to be designed by considering all phenomena that could occur during the exploitation of the system. One of those phenomena is the temperature fluctuation during the device operation. In the presented research work, a mathematical model of the energy harvesting system based on MFC transducers is proposed. The mathematical model was validated by laboratory tests conducted on a laboratory stand equipped with a universal mechanical testing machine (Instron Electropuls 10000) and a thermal chamber. During the tests, the samples were subjected to cyclic excitation simulating the operation of the system in various environmental conditions by forcing changes in the system operation temperature with the constant conditions of its excitation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dual-Structured Flexible Piezoelectric Film Energy Harvesters for Effectively Integrated Performance
Sensors 2019, 19(6), 1444; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19061444
Received: 7 February 2019 / Revised: 15 March 2019 / Accepted: 20 March 2019 / Published: 24 March 2019
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Abstract
Improvement of energy harvesting performance from flexible thin film-based energy harvesters is essential to accomplish future self-powered electronics and sensor systems. In particular, the integration of harvesting signals should be established as a single device configuration without complicated device connections or expensive methodologies. [...] Read more.
Improvement of energy harvesting performance from flexible thin film-based energy harvesters is essential to accomplish future self-powered electronics and sensor systems. In particular, the integration of harvesting signals should be established as a single device configuration without complicated device connections or expensive methodologies. In this research, we study the dual-film structures of the flexible PZT film energy harvester experimentally and theoretically to propose an effective principle for integrating energy harvesting signals. Laser lift-off (LLO) processes are used for fabrication because this is known as the most efficient technology for flexible high-performance energy harvesters. We develop two different device structures using the multistep LLO: a stacked structure and a double-faced (bimorph) structure. Although both structures are well demonstrated without serious material degradation, the stacked structure is not efficient for energy harvesting due to the ineffectively applied strain to the piezoelectric film in bending. This phenomenon stems from differences in position of mechanical neutral planes, which is investigated by finite element analysis and calculation. Finally, effectively integrated performance is achieved by a bimorph dual-film-structured flexible energy harvester. Our study will foster the development of various structures in flexible energy harvesters towards self-powered sensor applications with high efficiency. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Damage Detection Performance of the Electromechanical Impedance (EMI) Technique with Various Attachment Methods on Glass Fibre Composite Plates
Sensors 2019, 19(5), 1000; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19051000
Received: 22 January 2019 / Revised: 21 February 2019 / Accepted: 21 February 2019 / Published: 26 February 2019
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Abstract
Composite materials such as glass and carbon fibre composites have become popular and the preferred choice in various applications due to their many advantages such as corrosion resistance, design flexibility, high strength and light weight. Combining materials with different mechanical properties make composites [...] Read more.
Composite materials such as glass and carbon fibre composites have become popular and the preferred choice in various applications due to their many advantages such as corrosion resistance, design flexibility, high strength and light weight. Combining materials with different mechanical properties make composites more difficult to evaluate where the damage mechanisms for composites are more complex than traditional materials such as steel. A relatively new non-destructive testing (NDT) method known as the electromechanical impedance (EMI) technique has been studied by various researchers, but the damage detection performance of the method on composite structures still requires more investigations before it can be accepted for field application, especially in aerospace industry due to the high standard of safety. In this paper, the detection capabilities and performance of the EMI technique subjected to different PZT attachment methods have been investigated. To this end, glass fibre composite plates with various attachment methods for the sensor have been prepared and detection of common defects such as delamination and crack with the EMI technique under study has been performed. The performance of each attachment method for identifying different damage types has been analysed and finite element analysis (FEA) was carried out for verification of the experimental results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Modeling and Efficiency Analysis of a Piezoelectric Energy Harvester Based on the Flow Induced Vibration of a Piezoelectric Composite Pipe
Sensors 2018, 18(12), 4277; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18124277
Received: 11 November 2018 / Revised: 29 November 2018 / Accepted: 30 November 2018 / Published: 5 December 2018
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Abstract
This paper proposes and investigates a piezoelectric energy harvesting system based on the flow induced vibration of a piezoelectric composite cantilever pipe. Dynamic equations for the proposed energy harvester are derived considering the fluid-structure interaction and piezoelectric coupling vibration. Linear global stability analysis [...] Read more.
This paper proposes and investigates a piezoelectric energy harvesting system based on the flow induced vibration of a piezoelectric composite cantilever pipe. Dynamic equations for the proposed energy harvester are derived considering the fluid-structure interaction and piezoelectric coupling vibration. Linear global stability analysis of the fluid-solid-electric coupled system is done using the numerical continuation method to find the neutrally stable vibration mode of the system. A measure of the energy harvesting efficiency of the system is proposed and analyzed. A series of simulations are conducted to throw light upon the influences of mass ratio, dimensionless electromechanical coupling, and dimensionless connected resistance upon the critical reduced velocity and the normalized energy harvesting efficiency. The results provide useful guidelines for the practical design of piezoelectric energy harvester based on fluid structure interaction and indicate some future topics to be investigated to optimize the device performance. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview Electro-Active Paper as a Flexible Mechanical Sensor, Actuator and Energy Harvesting Transducer: A Review
Sensors 2018, 18(10), 3474; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18103474
Received: 5 September 2018 / Revised: 27 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 October 2018 / Published: 15 October 2018
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Abstract
Electro-active paper (EAPap) is a cellulose-based smart material that has shown promising results in a variety of smart applications (e.g., vibration sensor, piezo-speaker, bending actuator) with the merits of being flexible, lightweight, fracture tolerant, biodegradable, naturally abundant, cheap, biocompatible, and with the ability [...] Read more.
Electro-active paper (EAPap) is a cellulose-based smart material that has shown promising results in a variety of smart applications (e.g., vibration sensor, piezo-speaker, bending actuator) with the merits of being flexible, lightweight, fracture tolerant, biodegradable, naturally abundant, cheap, biocompatible, and with the ability to form hybrid nanocomposites. This paper presents a review of the characterization and application of EAPap as a flexible mechanical vibration/strain sensor, bending actuator, and vibration energy harvester. The working mechanism of EAPap is explained along with the various parameters and factors that influence the sensing, actuation, and energy harvesting capabilities of EAPap. Although the piezoelectricity of EAPap is comparable to that of commercially available polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), EAPap has the preferable merits in terms of natural abundance and ample capacity of chemical modification. The article would provide guidelines for the characterization and application of EAPap in mechanical sensing, actuation, and vibration energy scavenging, along with the possible limitations and future research prospects. Full article
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