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Special Issue "Flexible Electronics and Sensors"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Hyun-Joong Chung

Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada
Website | E-Mail
Interests: soft materals; hydrogels; elastomers; bioelectronics; energy storage materials
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Tae-il Kim

School of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Korea
Website | E-Mail
Interests: flexible electronics; biomimetics; nanolithography

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Many of real world problems that require flexible electronics and sensor systems demand an installation on or in mechanically soft, or topologically irregular, or constantly moving, objects. One good example is in vivo physiological sensors on skin or inside of the body. The problem is that most  conventional sensors have rigid form factors. The field of “Flexible Electronics and Sensors”, which addresses the solutions to these problems, is an interdisciplinary engineering field that requires a comprehensive understanding of materials science, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, chemistry, and physics at practical levels.

The aim of this Special Issue is to bring together innovative developments in a broad spectrum of flexible electronics and sensor research. Papers addressing the wide range of aspects of this technology are sought, including, but not limited to, recent developments in new active and passive material components for flexible electronics and sensors, fundamental and applied science issues underlying flexible systems and their fabrication, technologies for process integration of flexible electronics and sensors, and studies on real-life applications, including clinical healthcare applications.

Both review articles and original research papers are solicited. There is particular interest in papers envisioning innovative sensor applications that have not been possible with conventional rigid materials and form factors.

Prof. Dr. Hyun-Joong Chung
Prof. Dr. Tae-il Kim
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Flexible electronics and Sensors
  • Stretchable electronics and Sensors
  • Smart materials
  • System integration
  • Device fabrication
  • Application of flexible sensors

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Error Modeling and Experimental Study of a Flexible Joint 6-UPUR Parallel Six-Axis Force Sensor
Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2238; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17102238
Received: 22 July 2017 / Revised: 8 September 2017 / Accepted: 19 September 2017 / Published: 29 September 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (12290 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
By combining a parallel mechanism with integrated flexible joints, a large measurement range and high accuracy sensor is realized. However, the main errors of the sensor involve not only assembly errors, but also deformation errors of its flexible leg. Based on a flexible [...] Read more.
By combining a parallel mechanism with integrated flexible joints, a large measurement range and high accuracy sensor is realized. However, the main errors of the sensor involve not only assembly errors, but also deformation errors of its flexible leg. Based on a flexible joint 6-UPUR (a kind of mechanism configuration where U-universal joint, P-prismatic joint, R-revolute joint) parallel six-axis force sensor developed during the prephase, assembly and deformation error modeling and analysis of the resulting sensors with a large measurement range and high accuracy are made in this paper. First, an assembly error model is established based on the imaginary kinematic joint method and the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) method. Next, a stiffness model is built to solve the stiffness matrix. The deformation error model of the sensor is obtained. Then, the first order kinematic influence coefficient matrix when the synthetic error is taken into account is solved. Finally, measurement and calibration experiments of the sensor composed of the hardware and software system are performed. Forced deformation of the force-measuring platform is detected by using laser interferometry and analyzed to verify the correctness of the synthetic error model. In addition, the first order kinematic influence coefficient matrix in actual circumstances is calculated. By comparing the condition numbers and square norms of the coefficient matrices, the conclusion is drawn theoretically that it is very important to take into account the synthetic error for design stage of the sensor and helpful to improve performance of the sensor in order to meet needs of actual working environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flexible Electronics and Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Fabrication and Characterization of Flexible and Miniaturized Humidity Sensors Using Screen-Printed TiO2 Nanoparticles as Sensitive Layer
Sensors 2017, 17(8), 1854; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17081854
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 24 July 2017 / Accepted: 27 July 2017 / Published: 11 August 2017
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (4399 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper describes the fabrication and the characterization of an original example of a miniaturized resistive-type humidity sensor, printed on flexible substrate in a large-scale manner. The fabrication process involves laser ablation for the design of interdigitated electrodes on PET (Poly-Ethylene Terephthalate) substrate [...] Read more.
This paper describes the fabrication and the characterization of an original example of a miniaturized resistive-type humidity sensor, printed on flexible substrate in a large-scale manner. The fabrication process involves laser ablation for the design of interdigitated electrodes on PET (Poly-Ethylene Terephthalate) substrate and a screen-printing process for the deposition of the sensitive material, which is based on TiO2 nanoparticles. The laser ablation process was carefully optimized to obtain micro-scale and well-resolved electrodes on PET substrate. A functional paste based on cellulose was prepared in order to allow the precise screen-printing of the TiO2 nanoparticles as sensing material on the top of the electrodes. The current against voltage (I–V) characteristic of the sensor showed good linearity and potential for low-power operation. The results of a humidity-sensing investigation and mechanical testing showed that the fabricated miniaturized sensors have excellent mechanical stability, sensing characteristics, good repeatability, and relatively fast response/recovery times operating at room temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flexible Electronics and Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Parametric Optimization of Lateral NIPIN Phototransistors for Flexible Image Sensors
Sensors 2017, 17(8), 1774; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17081774
Received: 29 June 2017 / Revised: 28 July 2017 / Accepted: 29 July 2017 / Published: 2 August 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2407 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Curved image sensors, which are a key component in bio-inspired imaging systems, have been widely studied because they can improve an imaging system in various aspects such as low optical aberrations, small-form, and simple optics configuration. Many methods and materials to realize a [...] Read more.
Curved image sensors, which are a key component in bio-inspired imaging systems, have been widely studied because they can improve an imaging system in various aspects such as low optical aberrations, small-form, and simple optics configuration. Many methods and materials to realize a curvilinear imager have been proposed to address the drawbacks of conventional imaging/optical systems. However, there have been few theoretical studies in terms of electronics on the use of a lateral photodetector as a flexible image sensor. In this paper, we demonstrate the applicability of a Si-based lateral phototransistor as the pixel of a high-efficiency curved photodetector by conducting various electrical simulations with technology computer aided design (TCAD). The single phototransistor is analyzed with different device parameters: the thickness of the active cell, doping concentration, and structure geometry. This work presents a method to improve the external quantum efficiency (EQE), linear dynamic range (LDR), and mechanical stability of the phototransistor. We also evaluated the dark current in a matrix form of phototransistors to estimate the feasibility of the device as a flexible image sensor. Moreover, we fabricated and demonstrated an array of phototransistors based on our study. The theoretical study and design guidelines of a lateral phototransistor create new opportunities in flexible image sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flexible Electronics and Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Development of Wearable Sheet-Type Shear Force Sensor and Measurement System that is Insusceptible to Temperature and Pressure
Sensors 2017, 17(8), 1752; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17081752
Received: 27 June 2017 / Revised: 28 July 2017 / Accepted: 28 July 2017 / Published: 31 July 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (17726 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A sheet-type shear force sensor and a measurement system for the sensor were developed. The sensor has an original structure where a liquid electrolyte is filled in a space composed of two electrode-patterned polymer films and an elastic rubber ring. When a shear [...] Read more.
A sheet-type shear force sensor and a measurement system for the sensor were developed. The sensor has an original structure where a liquid electrolyte is filled in a space composed of two electrode-patterned polymer films and an elastic rubber ring. When a shear force is applied on the surface of the sensor, the two electrode-patterned films mutually move so that the distance between the internal electrodes of the sensor changes, resulting in current increase or decrease between the electrodes. Therefore, the shear force can be calculated by monitoring the current between the electrodes. Moreover, it is possible to measure two-dimensional shear force given that the sensor has multiple electrodes. The diameter and thickness of the sensor head were 10 mm and 0.7 mm, respectively. Additionally, we also developed a measurement system that drives the sensor, corrects the baseline of the raw sensor output, displays data, and stores data as a computer file. Though the raw sensor output was considerably affected by the surrounding temperature, the influence of temperature was drastically decreased by introducing a simple arithmetical calculation. Moreover, the influence of pressure simultaneously decreased after the same calculation process. A demonstrative measurement using the sensor revealed the practical usefulness for on-site monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flexible Electronics and Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle A Stretchable Pressure-Sensitive Array Based on Polymer Matrix
Sensors 2017, 17(7), 1571; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17071571
Received: 6 May 2017 / Revised: 21 June 2017 / Accepted: 29 June 2017 / Published: 5 July 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (3785 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Herein, a flexible 6 × 6 pressure-sensitive array (based on the PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) porous substrate) was designed. We have developed a facile method to fabricate the porous substrate, by a single-step operation using the sugar-template method. This strategy effectively diminishes the complexity of [...] Read more.
Herein, a flexible 6 × 6 pressure-sensitive array (based on the PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) porous substrate) was designed. We have developed a facile method to fabricate the porous substrate, by a single-step operation using the sugar-template method. This strategy effectively diminishes the complexity of the preparation process, as well as the device structure. The electrical resistivity of the stretchable array demonstrates the negative piezo resistive coefficient (NPRC) under 0–100 kpa. Moreover, the pressure-sensitive array reveals a high sensitivity and low delay time (<0.5 s) to the applied forces. Therefore, the pressure distribution could be easily recognized by testing its conductivity changes. Besides, these signal data can be collected into the upper computer, with the purpose of tracking and analyzing the azimuth of the applied loading. This cost-effective micro array has a broad application prospect for fabricating the tactile sensor, artificial skin, and human-computer interfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flexible Electronics and Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Paper as Active Layer in Inkjet-Printed Capacitive Humidity Sensors
Sensors 2017, 17(7), 1464; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17071464
Received: 21 May 2017 / Revised: 19 June 2017 / Accepted: 20 June 2017 / Published: 22 June 2017
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1300 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An inkjet-printed relative humidity sensor based on capacitive changes which responds to different humidity levels in the environment is presented in this work. The inkjet-printed silver interdigitated electrodes configuration on the paper substrate allowed for the fabrication of a functional proof-of-concept of the [...] Read more.
An inkjet-printed relative humidity sensor based on capacitive changes which responds to different humidity levels in the environment is presented in this work. The inkjet-printed silver interdigitated electrodes configuration on the paper substrate allowed for the fabrication of a functional proof-of-concept of the relative humidity sensor, by using the paper itself as a sensing material. The sensor sensitivity in terms of relative humidity changes was calculated to be around 2 pF/RH %. The response time against different temperature steps from 3 to 85 °C was fairly constant (about 4–5 min), and it was considered fast for the aimed application, a smart label. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flexible Electronics and Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Simultaneous Detection of Static and Dynamic Signals by a Flexible Sensor Based on 3D Graphene
Sensors 2017, 17(5), 1069; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17051069
Received: 19 March 2017 / Revised: 19 April 2017 / Accepted: 21 April 2017 / Published: 8 May 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5676 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A flexible acoustic pressure sensor was developed based on the change in electrical resistance of three-dimensional (3D) graphene change under the acoustic waves action. The sensor was constructed by 3D graphene foam (GF) wrapped in flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Tuning forks and human physiological [...] Read more.
A flexible acoustic pressure sensor was developed based on the change in electrical resistance of three-dimensional (3D) graphene change under the acoustic waves action. The sensor was constructed by 3D graphene foam (GF) wrapped in flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Tuning forks and human physiological tests indicated that the acoustic pressure sensor can sensitively detect the deformation and the acoustic pressure in real time. The results are of significance to the development of graphene-based applications in the field of health monitoring, in vitro diagnostics, advanced therapies, and transient pressure detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flexible Electronics and Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Integrated Flexible Electronic Devices Based on Passive Alignment for Physiological Measurement
Sensors 2017, 17(4), 889; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17040889
Received: 14 February 2017 / Revised: 5 April 2017 / Accepted: 15 April 2017 / Published: 18 April 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (12766 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study proposes a simple method of fabricating flexible electronic devices using a metal template for passive alignment between chip components and an interconnect layer, which enabled efficient alignment with high accuracy. An electrocardiogram (ECG) sensor was fabricated using 20 µm thick polyimide [...] Read more.
This study proposes a simple method of fabricating flexible electronic devices using a metal template for passive alignment between chip components and an interconnect layer, which enabled efficient alignment with high accuracy. An electrocardiogram (ECG) sensor was fabricated using 20 µm thick polyimide (PI) film as a flexible substrate to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method. The interconnect layer was fabricated by a two-step photolithography process and evaporation. After applying solder paste, the metal template was placed on top of the interconnect layer. The metal template had rectangular holes at the same position as the chip components on the interconnect layer. Rectangular hole sizes were designed to account for alignment tolerance of the chips. Passive alignment was performed by simply inserting the components in the holes of the template, which resulted in accurate alignment with positional tolerance of less than 10 µm based on the structural design, suggesting that our method can efficiently perform chip mounting with precision. Furthermore, a fabricated flexible ECG sensor was easily attachable to the curved skin surface and able to measure ECG signals from a human subject. These results suggest that the proposed method can be used to fabricate epidermal sensors, which are mounted on the skin to measure various physiological signals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flexible Electronics and Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle How to Make Reliable, Washable, and Wearable Textronic Devices
Sensors 2017, 17(4), 673; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17040673
Received: 9 February 2017 / Revised: 16 March 2017 / Accepted: 20 March 2017 / Published: 24 March 2017
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (18300 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, the washability of wearable textronic (textile-electronic) devices has been studied. Two different approaches aiming at designing, producing, and testing robust washable and reliable smart textile systems are presented. The common point of the two approaches is the use of flexible [...] Read more.
In this paper, the washability of wearable textronic (textile-electronic) devices has been studied. Two different approaches aiming at designing, producing, and testing robust washable and reliable smart textile systems are presented. The common point of the two approaches is the use of flexible conductive PCB in order to interface the miniaturized rigid (traditional) electronic devices to conductive threads and tracks within the textile flexible fabric and to connect them to antenna, textile electrodes, sensors, actuators, etc. The first approach consists in the use of TPU films (thermoplastic polyurethane) that are deposited by the press under controlled temperature and pressure parameters in order to protect the conductive thread and electrical contacts. The washability of conductive threads and contact resistances between flexible PCB and conductive threads are tested. The second approach is focused on the protection of the whole system—composed of a rigid electronic device, flexible PCB, and textile substrate—by a barrier made of latex. Three types of prototypes were realized and washed. Their reliabilities are studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flexible Electronics and Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Patient Posture Monitoring System Based on Flexible Sensors
Sensors 2017, 17(3), 584; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17030584
Received: 9 February 2017 / Revised: 9 March 2017 / Accepted: 10 March 2017 / Published: 13 March 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1346 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Monitoring patients using vision cameras can cause privacy intrusion problems. In this paper, we propose a patient position monitoring system based on a patient cloth with unobtrusive sensors. We use flexible sensors based on polyvinylidene fluoride, which is a flexible piezoelectric material. Theflexiblesensorsareinsertedintopartsclosetothekneeandhipoftheloosepatientcloth. [...] Read more.
Monitoring patients using vision cameras can cause privacy intrusion problems. In this paper, we propose a patient position monitoring system based on a patient cloth with unobtrusive sensors. We use flexible sensors based on polyvinylidene fluoride, which is a flexible piezoelectric material. Theflexiblesensorsareinsertedintopartsclosetothekneeandhipoftheloosepatientcloth. We measure electrical signals from the sensors caused by the piezoelectric effect when the knee and hip in the cloth are bent. The measured sensor outputs are transferred to a computer via Bluetooth. We use a custom-made program to detect the position of the patient through a rule-based algorithm and the sensor outputs. The detectable postures are based on six human motions in and around a bed. The proposed system can detect the patient positions with a success rate over 88 percent for three patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flexible Electronics and Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Fully Printed Flexible Single-Chip RFID Tag with Light Detection Capabilities
Sensors 2017, 17(3), 534; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17030534
Received: 23 January 2017 / Revised: 5 March 2017 / Accepted: 6 March 2017 / Published: 8 March 2017
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (2141 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A printed passive radiofrequency identification (RFID) tag in the ultra-high frequency band for light and temperature monitoring is presented. The whole tag has been manufactured by printing techniques on a flexible substrate. Antenna and interconnects are realized with silver nanoparticles via inkjet printing. [...] Read more.
A printed passive radiofrequency identification (RFID) tag in the ultra-high frequency band for light and temperature monitoring is presented. The whole tag has been manufactured by printing techniques on a flexible substrate. Antenna and interconnects are realized with silver nanoparticles via inkjet printing. A sprayed photodetector performs the light monitoring, whereas temperature measurement comes from an in-built sensor in the silicon RFID chip. One of the advantages of this system is the digital read-out and transmission of the sensors information on the RFID tag that ensures reliability. Furthermore, the use of printing techniques allows large-scale manufacturing and the direct fabrication of the tag on the desired surface. This work proves for the first time the feasibility of the embedment of large-scale organic photodetectors onto inkjet printed RFID tags. Here, we solve the problem of integration of different manufacturing techniques to develop an optimal final sensor system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flexible Electronics and Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle A Soft Sensor-Based Three-Dimensional (3-D) Finger Motion Measurement System
Sensors 2017, 17(2), 420; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17020420
Received: 20 December 2016 / Revised: 30 January 2017 / Accepted: 10 February 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (10194 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, a soft sensor-based three-dimensional (3-D) finger motion measurement system is proposed. The sensors, made of the soft material Ecoflex, comprise embedded microchannels filled with a conductive liquid metal (EGaln). The superior elasticity, light weight, and sensitivity of soft sensors allows [...] Read more.
In this study, a soft sensor-based three-dimensional (3-D) finger motion measurement system is proposed. The sensors, made of the soft material Ecoflex, comprise embedded microchannels filled with a conductive liquid metal (EGaln). The superior elasticity, light weight, and sensitivity of soft sensors allows them to be embedded in environments in which conventional sensors cannot. Complicated finger joints, such as the carpometacarpal (CMC) joint of the thumb are modeled to specify the location of the sensors. Algorithms to decouple the signals from soft sensors are proposed to extract the pure flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction joint angles. The performance of the proposed system and algorithms are verified by comparison with a camera-based motion capture system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flexible Electronics and Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle A Fully Transparent Flexible Sensor for Cryogenic Temperatures Based on High Strength Metallurgical Graphene
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17010051
Received: 13 October 2016 / Revised: 28 November 2016 / Accepted: 12 December 2016 / Published: 28 December 2016
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (4269 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Low-temperature electronics operating in below zero temperatures or even below the lower limit of the common −65 to 125 °C temperature range are essential in medical diagnostics, in space exploration and aviation, in processing and storage of food and mainly in scientific research, [...] Read more.
Low-temperature electronics operating in below zero temperatures or even below the lower limit of the common −65 to 125 °C temperature range are essential in medical diagnostics, in space exploration and aviation, in processing and storage of food and mainly in scientific research, like superconducting materials engineering and their applications—superconducting magnets, superconducting energy storage, and magnetic levitation systems. Such electronic devices demand special approach to the materials used in passive elements and sensors. The main goal of this work was the implementation of a fully transparent, flexible cryogenic temperature sensor with graphene structures as sensing element. Electrodes were made of transparent ITO (Indium Tin Oxide) or ITO/Ag/ITO conductive layers by laser ablation and finally encapsulated in a polymer coating. A helium closed-cycle cryostat has been used in measurements of the electrical properties of these graphene-based temperature sensors under cryogenic conditions. The sensors were repeatedly cooled from room temperature to cryogenic temperature. Graphene structures were characterized using Raman spectroscopy. The observation of the resistance changes as a function of temperature indicates the potential use of graphene layers in the construction of temperature sensors. The temperature characteristics of the analyzed graphene sensors exhibit no clear anomalies or strong non-linearity in the entire studied temperature range (as compared to the typical carbon sensor). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flexible Electronics and Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle The Design and Characterization of a Flexible Tactile Sensing Array for Robot Skin
Sensors 2016, 16(12), 2001; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16122001
Received: 12 September 2016 / Revised: 10 November 2016 / Accepted: 22 November 2016 / Published: 25 November 2016
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (4352 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, a flexible tactile sensing array based on a capacitive mechanism was designed, fabricated, and characterized for sensitive robot skin. A device with 8 × 8 sensing units was composed of top and bottom flexible polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) substrates with copper (Cu) [...] Read more.
In this study, a flexible tactile sensing array based on a capacitive mechanism was designed, fabricated, and characterized for sensitive robot skin. A device with 8 × 8 sensing units was composed of top and bottom flexible polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) substrates with copper (Cu) electrodes, a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) dielectric layer, and a bump contact layer. Four types of microstructures (i.e., pyramids and V-shape grooves) atop a PDMS dielectric layer were well-designed and fabricated to enhance tactile sensitivity. The optimal sensing unit achieved a high sensitivity of 35.9%/N in a force range of 0–1 N. By incorporating a tactile feedback control system, the flexible sensing array as the sensitive skin of a robotic manipulator demonstrated a potential capability of robotic obstacle avoidance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flexible Electronics and Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Design and Evaluation of Novel Textile Wearable Systems for the Surveillance of Vital Signals
Sensors 2016, 16(10), 1573; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16101573
Received: 30 June 2016 / Revised: 16 September 2016 / Accepted: 20 September 2016 / Published: 24 September 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (5456 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article addresses the design, development, and evaluation of T-shirt prototypes that embed novel textile sensors for the capture of cardio and respiratory signals. The sensors are connected through textile interconnects to either an embedded custom-designed data acquisition and transmission unit or to [...] Read more.
This article addresses the design, development, and evaluation of T-shirt prototypes that embed novel textile sensors for the capture of cardio and respiratory signals. The sensors are connected through textile interconnects to either an embedded custom-designed data acquisition and transmission unit or to snap fastener terminals for connection to external monitoring devices. The performance of the T-shirt prototype is evaluated in terms of signal-to-noise ratio amplitude and signal interference caused by baseline wander and motion artefacts, through laboratory tests with subjects in standing and walking conditions. Performance tests were also conducted in a hospital environment using a T-shirt prototype connected to a commercial three-channel Holter monitoring device. The textile sensors and interconnects were realized with the assistance of an industrial six-needle digital embroidery tool and their resistance to wear addressed with normalized tests of laundering and abrasion. The performance of these wearable systems is discussed, and pathways and methods for their optimization are highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flexible Electronics and Sensors)
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