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Special Issue "Advanced Sensor Modules for ISO/IEC Compliant Emerging Robots"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Sensors and Robotics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Donghan Kim
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electrical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si 446-701, Korea
Interests: robot navigation; human-robot interaction; service robot; multi-robot system
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Gurvinder Singh Virk
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Engineering, UPES University, Uttarakhand, India;
Endoenergy Systems, Punjab, UK-India
Interests: service robots; climbing and walking robots; wearable exoskeletons; human-robot interaction; robot safety; robot security; robot modularity; human motion intention detection; autonomous robotics; intelligent systems; real-time embedded systems; software engineering
Prof. Dr. Soon-Geul Lee
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si 446-701, Korea
Interests: mobile robot; autonomous navigation; ball-robot; intelligent mechatronics
Dr. Canjun Yang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Zheda Road 38#, Hangzhou, China
Interests: human-robot interaction; underwater robots; wearable robots

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Robotics has been a core pillar in the manufacturing industry for several decades and is a multi-billion Euro industry today. As statistics reveal, growth in the robotics industry continues to be exponential. Since the installation of the first industrial robot in the 1960s, the sector has become established and is now beginning to expand into new service market and other real-world applications; the new scenarios considered require much closer human–robot interactions and complex situations and scenarios to be considered. Today, robotics is no longer a technology for only manufacturing but has evolved to also address much wider range of applications and domains (domestic, collaborative, underwater, hazardous, etc.) where a wide variety of services have to be provided to different end users. This evolution needs new approaches and new regulations to ensure safety of the new service robots that can facilitate the new types of human-robot interactions. New sensors are essential for ensuring the new service robots can be realised, the various safety-related and security-related situations can be successfully achieved and the emerging safety and security requirements complied with.

ISO (especially TC 199 (Safety of machinery) and TC 299 (Robotics)), and IEC (especially, TC44 (Safety of machinery – Electrotechnical aspects), TC 61 Safety of household and similar electrical appliances, TC62 (Electrical equipment in medical practice)) have the goal to develop high quality standards for the safety of robots as the applications grow from the industrial sector to service scenarios in medical and non-medical applications. In addition, international standardisation has sought to foster the growth of robotic markets by introducing standards to harmonise robot terminology, robot performance assessment and promote inter-operability by developing robot modularity concepts.

The standards provide global organizations and individuals with valuable information on how to design and implement approaches to realise robots in an internationally acceptable way. Value is added to the robot investments by providing clear best practices on how to ensure compliant safe installations, as well as providing standardized interfaces and performance criteria. Most of the new approaches rely on ensuring that good sensory information can be obtained to ensure the information provided is reliable and secure and the decision making will meet the new requirements for safety, performance and inter-operability.

In this Special Issue, papers focus on the emerging regulations and the development and integration of new sensors, sensor systems and sensor modules to be used in new scenarios for the robots to be able to achieve the design goals. Practical experimental results are particularly encouraged, as are papers setting advances in the wider context of international standards.

Prof. Dr. Donghan Kim
Prof. Dr. Gurvinder Singh Virk
Prof. Dr. Soon-Geul Lee
Dr. Canjun Yang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Robot Performance Measuring Sensor and Sensor System
  • Sensory issues related to Robotic Safety 
  • International Standards - Robot Terminology and Characteristics - Service Robot Safety - Medical Robot Safety and Essential Performance - Collaborative Industrial Robot Safety - Performance of Service Robot - Modularity for Robotics 
  • Sensors, Sensor Systems and Sensor Modules 
  • Service robot applications 
  • ISO and IEC requirements 
  • Safety-related situations 
  • Security-related situations 
  • Performance assessment 
  • Inter-operability

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Research

Article
Multi-Robot 2.5D Localization and Mapping Using a Monte Carlo Algorithm on a Multi-Level Surface
Sensors 2021, 21(13), 4588; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21134588 - 04 Jul 2021
Viewed by 494
Abstract
Most indoor environments have wheelchair adaptations or ramps, providing an opportunity for mobile robots to navigate sloped areas avoiding steps. These indoor environments with integrated sloped areas are divided into different levels. The multi-level areas represent a challenge for mobile robot navigation due [...] Read more.
Most indoor environments have wheelchair adaptations or ramps, providing an opportunity for mobile robots to navigate sloped areas avoiding steps. These indoor environments with integrated sloped areas are divided into different levels. The multi-level areas represent a challenge for mobile robot navigation due to the sudden change in reference sensors as visual, inertial, or laser scan instruments. Using multiple cooperative robots is advantageous for mapping and localization since they permit rapid exploration of the environment and provide higher redundancy than using a single robot. This study proposes a multi-robot localization using two robots (leader and follower) to perform a fast and robust environment exploration on multi-level areas. The leader robot is equipped with a 3D LIDAR for 2.5D mapping and a Kinect camera for RGB image acquisition. Using 3D LIDAR, the leader robot obtains information for particle localization, with particles sampled from the walls and obstacle tangents. We employ a convolutional neural network on the RGB images for multi-level area detection. Once the leader robot detects a multi-level area, it generates a path and sends a notification to the follower robot to go into the detected location. The follower robot utilizes a 2D LIDAR to explore the boundaries of the even areas and generate a 2D map using an extension of the iterative closest point. The 2D map is utilized as a re-localization resource in case of failure of the leader robot. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Sensor Modules for ISO/IEC Compliant Emerging Robots)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Multi-robot 3D localization and mapping using a Monte Carlo Algorithm on a multi-level surface
Authors: Vinicio Alejandro Rosas-Cervantes; Quoc-Dong Hoang; Soon-Geul Lee; Jae-Hwan Choi
Affiliation: Kyung Hee University
Abstract: .Mobile robots and autonomous ground vehicles required a robust localization in indoor areas. Multi-robot systems work on even surfaces with a robust response but, if one robot goes into a multi-level area, its the localization could have a poor response if one robot goes into a multi-level area. This study proposes a multi-robot localization using two robots (leader and follower) to do perform a faster fast and robust environment exploration on multi-level areas. The leader robot is equipped with a 3D LIDAR for 3D mapping and a Kinect camera for RGB image acquisition. Using By using the 3D LIDAR, the leader robot gets obtains information for particle localization, with where the particles were sampled from the walls and obstacles tangents. We use employ a convolutional neural network (CNN) on the RGB images for multi-level area detection. Once the leader robot detects a multi-level area, it generates a path and sends a notification to the follower robot to go into the detected area. The follower robot uses utilizes a 2D LIDAR to explore the boundaries of the even areas boundaries and generate a 2D map using an extension of the iterative closest point (ICP). The 2D map is used utilized as a re-localization resource, in case of failure in of the leader robot.

Title: 3D Trajectory Estimation of a Mobile Robot on a Multi-Level Surface with Multi-Modal Fusion of 2D Camera Features and a 3D-LIDAR Point Cloud
Authors: Vinicio Alejandro Rosas-Cervantes; Quoc-Dong Hoang; Soo-Ho Woo; Soon-Geul Lee
Affiliation: Kyung Hee University
Abstract: Nowadays, deep learning is a popular tool for feature recognition and object detection. Integrating diverse sensors allow us to obtain reliable information about the environment. This paper proposes a 3D robot trajectory estimation based on a multi-modal fusion of 2D features extracted from RBG images and 3D features from 3D point clouds. We obtained 2D features using a Faster Region Convolutional Neural Network, and 3D features using the points normal distribution on the 3D point cloud. To validate our results, we compared them with state-of-art techniques to show the feasibility of the proposed method.

Title: A Low-Power Distributed Visual Sensor Network for Real-time Target Localization and Identification Adrian Munteanu
Authors: Rui Zhong; Adrian MUNTEANU; Bruno Cornelis
Affiliation: Central China Normal University
Abstract: A novel low-power distributed Visual Sensor Network (VSN) system is proposed that performs real-time collaborative localization, tracking, and robust target identification. Due to a dynamic triggering mechanism and efficient transmission protocols, communication is organized amongst the nodes themselves rather than being orchestrated by a single sink node, achieving lower congestion and significantly reducing the vulnerability of the overall system. Specifically, early detection of the moving target is achieved through a dynamic triggering mechanism. Different communication protocols are used, depending on the type of data exchanged among nodes. Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) is employed for video communication, while the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Long Range (LoRa) protocol are used for message passing amongst the nodes in the VSN. Through an extensive experimental evaluation, we demonstrate that the proposed distributed VSN brings substantial advantages in terms of accuracy, power savings, and time cost, compared to an equivalent system performing centralized processing.

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