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Unobtrusive Antennas and Sensors for Next-Generation Wireless Sensing Applications

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Electronic Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2023) | Viewed by 8489

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Wireless Sensor Network Group, Micro and Nanoelectronics Research Centre, Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, T12R5CP Cork, Ireland
Interests: wearable antennas and sensors; flexible antennas; ultra-wideband antennas; reconfigurable antennas; unconventional materials-based antennas
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
1. College of Science and Engineering, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia
2. School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia
Interests: wearable antennas; reconfigurable antennas; microwave absorbers; 3D printed antennas

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Guest Editor
School of Electrical and Data Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia
Interests: antennas; flexible antennas; high gain antennas; wearable antennas; reconfigurable antennas

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Guest Editor
School of Electrical and Data Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2007, Australia
Interests: electromagnetic and antenna engineering; satellite communications; space communications; implantable antennas and devices

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, the research and development of antenna and sensor technology has undergone an enormous amount of growth, with prospective applications ranging across all domains of society, from healthcare to industrial automation to space exploration. In creating sophisticated wireless sensing platforms, demand is emerging for flexible, inconspicuous, and highly integrated antennas and sensors that retain the versatility of conventional PCB-based counterparts. For instance, visually unnoticeable and mechanically flexible antennas and sensors are of vitally importance in body-centric applications for their improved esthetic appeal and comfort which allows for truly unobtrusive real-time sensing and communication systems. This becomes particularly critical when there is a crucial need to hide the devices for example in the case of remote monitoring of people suffering from mental illness and dementia, defense and security industries. Besides wearable applications, flexible transparent antennas and sensors come with the additional benefit that they can be installed on pre-existing infrastructure, such as window glasses, automobile windshields, display devices, and solar cells, which can be highly desirable for IoT, where high-performance integrated sensing and communication networks are needed. Apart from optical transparency, there is also the utilization of textiles and embroidery technique which enables an integration of antennas and sensors into wearers’ clothing, thus allowing for the realization of futuristic, personalized, body-worn applications.

To advance the state of the art, we solicit original research contributions focused on the development of unobtrusive antennas and sensors, including but not limited to novel techniques in design, materials and manufacturing processes, and application and system demonstrations.

Dr. Roy Simorangkir
Dr. Shengjian Chen
Dr. Abu Sadat Md Sayem
Prof. Dr. Karu P. Esselle
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • advance manufacturing
  • composite materials
  • conformal antennas/sensors
  • embroidered antennas/sensors
  • epidermal antennas/sensors
  • flexible antennas/sensors
  • Graphene-based antennas/sensors
  • Nanoparticles-based antennas/sensors
  • Polymers-based antennas/sensors
  • reconfigurable antennas
  • remote sensing
  • smart textiles
  • telehealth
  • textiles antennas/sensors
  • transparent antennas/sensors
  • wireless body area network (WBAN)
  • water antennas

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

30 pages, 6504 KiB  
Article
Risk Assessment and Experimental Light-Balloon Deployment of a Stratospheric Vertical VLF Transmitter
by Tomasz Aleksander Miś and Józef Modelski
Sensors 2023, 23(3), 1073; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23031073 - 17 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1701
Abstract
This paper discusses the risks associated with an aerostat-supported stratospheric (unanchored) balloon mission equipped with a long vertical antenna and a very low frequency radio transmitter. The risks have been grouped into four main types and applicable mitigation methods have been presented to [...] Read more.
This paper discusses the risks associated with an aerostat-supported stratospheric (unanchored) balloon mission equipped with a long vertical antenna and a very low frequency radio transmitter. The risks have been grouped into four main types and applicable mitigation methods have been presented to provide a sufficient level of safety and reliability to such a balloon mission. An experimental mission consistent with this analysis, based on the described theoretical VLF propagation approach, has been prepared and launched, and is operating at 14.2 kHz with a vertical antenna of a total length of 400 m and a total payload of max. 4 kg. The maximum altitude reached 29,164 m. The experiment’s signal has been registered in numerous locations in Europe; the results are compared with numerical analysis employing a hypothesis of an apparent transmitting frequency decrease with the rise of the transmitter’s altitude. The numerical analysis explains the behavior of the experimental signal and remains generally consistent with the hypothesis. Full article
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11 pages, 4358 KiB  
Article
Wideband RCS Reduction by Single-Layer Phase Gradient Modulated Surface
by Yousef Azizi, Mohammad Soleimani, Seyed-Hasan Sedighy and Ladislau Matekovits
Sensors 2022, 22(19), 7108; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22197108 - 20 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1350
Abstract
This paper deals with the design and fabrication of an unpretentious (single-layer, without any lump element) broadband (97%, 11.3–32.3 GHz) radar cross-section reduction (RCSR) modulated surface (MS). The proposed structure uses sinusoidal modulation gap sizes between square patches within square unit cells to [...] Read more.
This paper deals with the design and fabrication of an unpretentious (single-layer, without any lump element) broadband (97%, 11.3–32.3 GHz) radar cross-section reduction (RCSR) modulated surface (MS). The proposed structure uses sinusoidal modulation gap sizes between square patches within square unit cells to form a phase gradient that plays an effective role in improving the RCSR bandwidth. An MS with dimensions of 250 × 250 mm2, consisting of 40 × 40 unit cells with a period of 6 mm printed on a RO4003C (lossy) substrate of 0.06λLF (λLF being the wavelength at the lower frequency) thickness, has been prototyped. The MS has square patch (SP) unit cells with seven different gap sizes. A genetic algorithm (GA)-based fine-tuning has been implemented to further increase the performances of the structure. Measurements on it have been conducted considering both mono- and bi-static arrangements and for oblique incidences for both TM and TE polarization tests. A good agreement between simulation and measurement results proves the validity of the design criteria. Full article
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28 pages, 12331 KiB  
Article
In-Flight Electromagnetic Compatibility of Airborne Vertical VLF Antennas
by Tomasz Aleksander Miś and Józef Modelski
Sensors 2022, 22(14), 5302; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22145302 - 15 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1599
Abstract
Long-wire very low frequency antennas, when lifted up on high altitudes by an aerostat, move through different atmospheric layers and interact with them electrically in a more intense way in comparison with aircraft flights. Such interactions manifest themselves in the form of electrical [...] Read more.
Long-wire very low frequency antennas, when lifted up on high altitudes by an aerostat, move through different atmospheric layers and interact with them electrically in a more intense way in comparison with aircraft flights. Such interactions manifest themselves in the form of electrical changes in the clouds and corona discharges excited on the antenna wire, which may increase the risk of mechanical damages and transmitter overload. In order to investigate the interactions between the different types of clouds and a long balloon-borne antenna wire, two theoretical models were developed and compared with results from an experimental balloon flight directly through a storm front. Based on the theoretical and experimental results, the most accurate model proposed was chosen, as well as a set of basic requirements for the balloon-borne VLF antenna system, reducing the risk of failure during operation in highly electrically active atmospheric environments. Full article
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19 pages, 6808 KiB  
Article
Fully Textile Dual-Band Logo Antenna for IoT Wearable Devices
by Gabriela Lachezarova Atanasova, Blagovest Nikolaev Atanasov and Nikolay Todorov Atanasov
Sensors 2022, 22(12), 4516; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22124516 - 15 Jun 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2816
Abstract
In recent years, the interest in the Internet of Things (IoT) has been growing because this technology bridges the gap between the physical and virtual world, by connecting different objects and people through communication networks, in order to improve the quality of life. [...] Read more.
In recent years, the interest in the Internet of Things (IoT) has been growing because this technology bridges the gap between the physical and virtual world, by connecting different objects and people through communication networks, in order to improve the quality of life. New IoT wearable devices require new types of antennas with unique shapes, made on unconventional substrates, which can be unobtrusively integrated into clothes and accessories. In this paper, we propose a fully textile dual-band logo antenna integrated with a reflector for application in IoT wearable devices. The proposed antenna’s radiating elements have been shaped to mimic the logo of South-West University “Neofit Rilski” for an unobtrusive integration in accessories. A reflector has been mounted on the opposite side of the textile substrate to reduce the radiation from the wearable antenna and improve its robustness against the loading effect from nearby objects. Two antenna prototypes were fabricated and tested in free space as well as on three different objects (human body, notebook, and laptop). Moreover, in the two frequency ranges of interest a radiation efficiency of 25–38% and 62–90% was achieved. Moreover, due to the reflector, the maximum local specific-absorption rate, which averaged over 10 g mass in the human-body phantom, was found to be equal to 0.5182 W/kg at 2.4 GHz and 0.16379 W/kg at 5.47 GHz. Additionally, the results from the performed measurement-campaign collecting received the signal-strength indicator and packet loss for an off-body scenario in real-world use, demonstrating that the backpack-integrated antenna prototype can form high-quality off-body communication channels. Full article
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