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Special Issue "Sensors in Dentistry"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 February 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Alireza Sadr
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Restorative Dentistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
Interests: Optical Coherence Tomography; Dental Diagnosis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Dentistry is evolving with the advancement of sensing technologies. Advanced technologies have a range of clinical applications including imaging and sensing tools for the diagnosis and monitoring of health and disease in oral hard and soft tissues as well as digital workflow for treatment planning and fabrication in preventive dentistry, restorative dentistry, endodontics, periodontics, oral surgery, and orthodontics. The recent advances in optical sources and detectors have unique applications for dental research, particularly when it comes to non-destructive testing.

I would like to invite my colleagues from across the world to contribute their expertise, insights, and findings in the form of original research articles and reviews for this Special Issue, entitled “Sensors in Dentistry”. This Special Issue will cover all aspects of clinical and research applications of sensing technologies operating in any region of the electromagnetic spectrum in the field of dentistry. Special attention will be given to 3D and tomographic imaging techniques in the dental field, including but not limited to Optical Coherence Tomography, Micro-Computed Tomography, and Intraoral Scanners. Articles focusing on the development of other cutting-edge sensors and detectors for intraoral use, particularly early detection, are also welcome.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Alireza Sadr
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Optical Coherence Tomography
  • X-Ray Micro-focus Computed Tomography
  • Cone-beam Computed Tomography
  • Ultrasonic Imaging
  • Intraoral Scanners
  • Fluorescent Imaging
  • Early Detection
  • Periodontal Imaging
  • Near Infrared Imaging
  • Oral Cancer Diagnosis
  • Dental Caries Diagnosis
  • Dental Crack Diagnosis

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Accuracy of CAD/CAM Digital Impressions with Different Intraoral Scanner Parameters
Sensors 2020, 20(4), 1157; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20041157 (registering DOI) - 20 Feb 2020
Abstract
The advancement of intraoral scanners has allowed for more efficient workflow in the dental clinical setting. However, limited data exist regarding the accuracy of the digital impressions produced with various scanner settings and scanning approaches. The purpose of this in vitro study was [...] Read more.
The advancement of intraoral scanners has allowed for more efficient workflow in the dental clinical setting. However, limited data exist regarding the accuracy of the digital impressions produced with various scanner settings and scanning approaches. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the accuracy of digital impressions at the crown preparation margin using different scanning resolutions of a specific intraoral scanner system. An all-ceramic crown preparation of a mandibular first molar was constructed in a typodont, and a scan (n = 3) was created with an industrial-grade laboratory scanner (3Shape D2000) as the control. Digital impressions were obtained with an intraoral scanner (3Shape TRIOS 3) under three settings—high resolution (HR), standard resolution (SR), and combined resolution (SHR). Comparative 3D analysis of scans was performed with Geomagic Control X software to measure the discrepancy between intraoral scans and the control scan along the preparation finish line. The scan time and number of images captured per scan were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA, two-way repeated measures ANOVA, Pearson’s correlation, and Dunnett’s T3 test (α = 0.05). Significant differences were observed for scan time and for number of images captured among scan resolution settings (α < 0.05). The scan time for the SR group was, on average, 34.2 s less than the SHR group and 46.5 s less than the HR group. For discrepancy on the finish line, no significant differences were observed among scanning resolutions (HR: 31.5 ± 5.5 μm, SHR: 33.2 ± 3.7 μm, SR: 33.6 ± 3.1 μm). Significant differences in discrepancy were observed among tooth surfaces, with the distal surface showing the highest discrepancies. In conclusion, the resolution of the intra-oral scanner is primarily defined by the system hardware and optimized for default scans. A software high-resolution mode that obtains more data over a longer time may not necessarily benefit the scan accuracy, while the tooth preparation and surface parameters do affect the accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Intelligent Occlusion Stabilization Splint with Stress-Sensor System for Bruxism Diagnosis and Treatment
Sensors 2020, 20(1), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20010089 - 22 Dec 2019
Abstract
Bruxism is a masticatory muscle activity characterized by high prevalence, widespread complications, and serious consequences but without specific guidelines for its diagnosis and treatment. Although occlusal force-based biofeedback therapy is proven to be safe, effective, and with few side effects in improving bruxism, [...] Read more.
Bruxism is a masticatory muscle activity characterized by high prevalence, widespread complications, and serious consequences but without specific guidelines for its diagnosis and treatment. Although occlusal force-based biofeedback therapy is proven to be safe, effective, and with few side effects in improving bruxism, its mechanism and key technologies remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to research a real-time, quantitative, intelligent, and precise force-based biofeedback detection device based on artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms for the diagnosis and treatment of bruxism. Stress sensors were integrated and embedded into a resin-based occlusion stabilization splint by using a layering technique (sandwich method). The sensor system mainly consisted of a pressure signal acquisition module, a main control module, and a server terminal. A machine learning algorithm was leveraged for occlusal force data processing and parameter configuration. This study implemented a sensor prototype system from scratch to fully evaluate each component of the intelligent splint. Experiment results showed reasonable parameter metrics for the sensors system and demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed scheme for bruxism treatment. The intelligent occlusion stabilization splint with a stress sensor system is a promising approach to bruxism diagnosis and treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Near-Infrared Imaging of Artificial Enamel Caries Lesions with a Scanning Fiber Endoscope
Sensors 2019, 19(6), 1419; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19061419 - 22 Mar 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Several studies have shown that near-infrared imaging has great potential for the detection of dental caries lesions. A miniature scanning fiber endoscope (SFE) operating at near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths was developed and used in this study to test whether the device could be used [...] Read more.
Several studies have shown that near-infrared imaging has great potential for the detection of dental caries lesions. A miniature scanning fiber endoscope (SFE) operating at near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths was developed and used in this study to test whether the device could be used to discriminate demineralized enamel from sound enamel. Varying depths of artificial enamel caries lesions were prepared on 20 bovine blocks with smooth enamel surfaces. Samples were imaged with a SFE operating in the reflectance mode at 1310-nm and 1460-nm in both wet and dry conditions. The measurements acquired by the SFE operating at 1460-nm show significant difference between the sound and the demineralized enamel. There was a moderate positive correlation between the SFE measurements and micro-CT measurements, and the NIR SFE was able to detect the presence of demineralization with high sensitivity (0.96) and specificity (0.85). This study demonstrates that the NIR SFE can be used to detect early demineralization from sound enamel. In addition, the NIR SFE can differentiate varying severities of demineralization. With its very small form factor and maneuverability, the NIR SFE should allow clinicians to easily image teeth from multiple viewing angles in real-time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Dentistry)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Microcomputed Tomography Evaluation of Root Dentin Caries Prevention by Topical Fluorides and Potassium Iodide
Sensors 2019, 19(4), 874; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19040874 - 20 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The mineral content of dental hard tissues has traditionally been measured by destructive tests such as transverse microradiography. Microfocus X-ray computed tomography (micro CT) has enabled non-destructive 3D assessment of tooth demineralization. This study compared the preventive effects of silver diammine fluoride (SDF) [...] Read more.
The mineral content of dental hard tissues has traditionally been measured by destructive tests such as transverse microradiography. Microfocus X-ray computed tomography (micro CT) has enabled non-destructive 3D assessment of tooth demineralization. This study compared the preventive effects of silver diammine fluoride (SDF) and potassium iodide (KI) in comparison with fluoride varnish. SDF has been known to arrest caries but darkens the tooth. KI creates a precipitate with SDF that reduces the discoloration, but its effects on SDF efficacy in terms of preventing demineralization of at-risk root dentin surfaces is unknown. Bovine root dentin blocks were randomly distributed into four groups and subjected to a pretreatment in each group (n = 8); Control: deionized water (DIW); F-Varnish: 5% sodium fluoride varnish: 38% Saforide; SDF+KI: SDF followed by saturated solution of KI in DIW. The treated dentin was subjected to 8 cycles of demineralization (pH 5) for 14 h and remineralization in artificial saliva (pH 7) for 10 h. Specimens were then scanned for 12 min using micro CT at 73 KV and 1012 µA with 8.3 μm resolution. The 3D images were analyzed in Amira software to calculate lesion depth (LD), surface layer mineral density (SL) and mineral loss (ΔZ) for each specimen. One-way ANOVA with Bonferroni posthoc showed that there was a statistically significant difference between Control and all three other groups for all parameters (P < 0.001), however, there was no statistical difference among F-Varnish, SDF and SDF+KI (P > 0.05). Single application of F-Varnish, SDF and SDF+KI showed comparable preventive effects against root dentin demineralization. Application of KI did not affect anti-demineralization properties of SDF in this study. Micro CT is a quick and effective method for objective and high-resolution characterization of dentin caries lesions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Dentistry)
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