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Special Issue "Applications of Remote Sensing Data in Water Resources Management"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Remote Sensors, Control, and Telemetry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Hyongki Lee
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of Houston, UH NCALM, 5000 Gulf Freeway, Bldg. 4, Rm 216, Houston, TX 77204-5059, USA
Interests: geodesy; remote sensing; hydrology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The fresh water resource is confronted with challenges due to uncoordinated human activity in upstream regions, such as extraction, diversion and dam impoundment of river waters. Due to the planned development, the dry season water level will rise, and the wet season water level will become lower, relative to the current conditions. Furthermore, recent climate extremes, such as heavy rains and droughts, make societies that depend on agriculture, fisheries, and other components more vulnerable to the risks posed by climate change. The common challenge in developing countries is largely due to lack of resilient capacity to manage the water resources under the current socio-economic development pressures and impacts due to natural occurrences. However, the conventional ground networks of river/reservoir level, rainfall and groundwater cannot provide a holistic view of the dynamic state of water resources. Recently, various Earth observing satellite data have been successfully used with their own advantages and disadvantages to characterize and quantify terrestrial water dynamics. It is now urgently needed to use these satellite remote sensing techniques to help regional and national stakeholders enhance resilient capacity toward independent gauging of current and future state of water resources. This Special Issue seeks contribution from studies using historic and operational satellite data such as from radar/laser altimetry, GRACE/GRACE Follow On, Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP), Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), Landsat, MODIS and many others for the sustainable management of vulnerable water resources.

Dr. Hyongki Lee
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Continuous Dynamics Monitoring of Multi-Lake Water Extent Using a Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Fusion Method Based on Two Sets of MODIS Products
Sensors 2019, 19(22), 4873; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19224873 - 08 Nov 2019
Abstract
Due to the widespread presence of noise, such as clouds and cloud shadows, continuous, high spatiotemporal-resolution dynamic monitoring of lake water extents is still limited using remote sensing data. This study aims to take an approach to mapping continuous time series of highly-accurate [...] Read more.
Due to the widespread presence of noise, such as clouds and cloud shadows, continuous, high spatiotemporal-resolution dynamic monitoring of lake water extents is still limited using remote sensing data. This study aims to take an approach to mapping continuous time series of highly-accurate lake water extents. Four lakes from diverse regions of China were selected as cases. In order to reduce the impact of noise and ensure high spatial and temporal resolution of the final results, two sets of MODIS products (including MOD09A1 and MOD13Q1) are used to extract water bodies. This approach mainly comprises preliminary classification, post processing and data fusion. The preliminary classification used the Random Forest (RF) classifier to efficiently and automatically obtain the initial classification results. Post-processing is implemented to repair the classification results affected by noise as much as possible. The processed results of the two sets of products are fused by using the Homologous Data-Based Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Fusion Method (HDSTAFM), which reduces the effect of noise and also improve the temporal and spatial resolution for the final water results. We determined the accuracy using Landsat-based water results, and the values of overall accuracy (OA), user’s accuracy (UA), producer’s accuracy (PA), and kappa coefficients (KC) are mostly greater than 0.9. Good correlation was achieved for a time series of water area and altimetry data, obtained by multiple satellites, and also for water-level data selected from hydrological stations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Remote Sensing Data in Water Resources Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Study on the Quality Control for Periodogram in the Determination of Water Level Using the GNSS-IR Technique
Sensors 2019, 19(20), 4524; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19204524 - 17 Oct 2019
Abstract
A GNSS station, located on the shore of sea and inland waters, and equipped with standard geodetic receivers and antennas, can be used to measure water levels using a technique called GNSS Interferometric Reflectometry (GNSS-IR). The classical GNSS-IR method is based on SNR [...] Read more.
A GNSS station, located on the shore of sea and inland waters, and equipped with standard geodetic receivers and antennas, can be used to measure water levels using a technique called GNSS Interferometric Reflectometry (GNSS-IR). The classical GNSS-IR method is based on SNR data and LSP spectrum analysis method. In order to promote the application of GNSS-IR, the accuracy of the results needs to be further improved, and quality control needs to be achieved better. Classical quality control methods include denoising filtering based on data source SNR; post-processing filtering based on results; morphological analysis based on parameters, such as the ratio of the maximum peak value to the background noise mean, the ratio of the maximum peak to the sub-peak, and the amplitude of the maximum peak. All three methods have the problem of correct frequency extraction under multiple approximate peak conditions. This paper focuses on the performance analysis of three methods of quality control for two situations with real examples, summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of each method, and discusses the measures in applications. Considering the limitations in the threshold setting for the third method, a new quality control method combining multiple parameters and external constraints is proposed. This method is more flexible, especially in dealing with a periodogram with multiple similar peaks, breaking through the premise that the frequency corresponding to the maximum peak is the correct frequency, and validated in two different environments. The experimental results show that the proposed method can improve the accuracy of the measured water level while ensuring the amount of the results. It eliminates the gross errors effectively and uses the data efficiently. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Remote Sensing Data in Water Resources Management)
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Open AccessArticle
An Effective Low-Cost Remote Sensing Approach to Reconstruct the Long-Term and Dense Time Series of Area and Storage Variations for Large Lakes
Sensors 2019, 19(19), 4247; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19194247 - 30 Sep 2019
Abstract
Inland lakes are essential components of hydrological and biogeochemical water cycles, as well as indispensable water resources for human beings. To derive the long-term and continuous trajectory of lake inundation area changes is increasingly significant. Since it helps to understand how they function [...] Read more.
Inland lakes are essential components of hydrological and biogeochemical water cycles, as well as indispensable water resources for human beings. To derive the long-term and continuous trajectory of lake inundation area changes is increasingly significant. Since it helps to understand how they function in the global water cycle and how they are impacted by climate change and human activities. Employing optical satellite images, as an important means of lake mapping, has been widely used in the monitoring of lakes. It is well known that one of the obvious difficulties of traditional remote sensing-based mapping methods lies in the tremendous labor and computing costs for delineating the large lakes (e.g., Caspian Sea). In this study, a novel approach of reconstructing long-term and high-frequency time series of inundation areas of large lakes is proposed. The general idea of this method is to obtain the lake inundation area at any specific observation date by referring to the mapping relationship of the water occurrence frequency (WOF) of the selected shoreline segment at relatively slight terrains and lake areas based on the pre-established lookup table. The lookup table to map the links of the WOF and lake areas is derived from the Joint Research Centre (JRC)Global Surface Water (GSW) dataset accessed in Google Earth Engine (GEE). We select five large lakes worldwide to reconstruct their long time series (1984–2018) of inundation areas using this method. The time series of lake volume variation are analyzed, and the qualitative investigations of these lake changes are eventually discussed by referring to previous studies. The results based on the case of North Aral Sea show that the mean relative error between estimated area and actually mapped value is about 0.85%. The mean R2 of all the five lakes is 0.746, which indicates that the proposed method can produce the robust estimates of area time series for these large lakes. This research sheds new light on mapping large lakes at considerably deducted time and labor costs, and be effectively applicable in other large lakes in regional and global scales. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Remote Sensing Data in Water Resources Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Bridging Terrestrial Water Storage Anomaly During GRACE/GRACE-FO Gap Using SSA Method: A Case Study in China
Sensors 2019, 19(19), 4144; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19194144 - 24 Sep 2019
Abstract
The terrestrial water storage anomaly (TWSA) gap between the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and its follow-on mission (GRACE-FO) is now a significant issue for scientific research in high-resolution time-variable gravity fields. This paper proposes the use of singular spectrum analysis (SSA) [...] Read more.
The terrestrial water storage anomaly (TWSA) gap between the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and its follow-on mission (GRACE-FO) is now a significant issue for scientific research in high-resolution time-variable gravity fields. This paper proposes the use of singular spectrum analysis (SSA) to predict the TWSA derived from GRACE. We designed a case study in six regions in China (North China Plain (NCP), Southwest China (SWC), Three-River Headwaters Region (TRHR), Tianshan Mountains Region (TSMR), Heihe River Basin (HRB), and Lishui and Wenzhou area (LSWZ)) using GRACE RL06 data from January 2003 to August 2016 for inversion, which were compared with Center for Space Research (CSR), Helmholtz-Centre Potsdam-German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)’s Mascon (Mass Concentration) RL05, and JPL’s Mascon RL06. We evaluated the accuracy of SSA prediction on different temporal scales based on the correlation coefficient (R), Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), and root mean square error (RMSE), which were compared with that of an auto-regressive and moving average (ARMA) model. The TWSA from September 2016 to May 2019 were predicted using SSA, which was verified using Mascon RL06, the Global Land Data Assimilation System model, and GRACE-FO results. The results show that: (1) TWSA derived from GRACE agreed well with Mascon in most regions, with the highest consistency with Mascon RL06 and (2) prediction accuracy of GRACE in TRHR and SWC was higher. SSA reconstruction improved R, NSE, and RMSE compared with those of ARMA. The R values for predicting TWS in the six regions using the SSA method were 0.34–0.98, which was better than those for ARMA (0.26–0.97), and the RMSE values were 0.03–5.55 cm, which were better than the 2.29–5.11 cm RMSE for ARMA as a whole. (3) The SSA method produced better predictions for obvious periodic and trending characteristics in the TWSA in most regions, whereas the detailed signal could not be effectively predicted. (4) The predicted TWSA from September 2016 to May 2019 were basically consistent with Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) results, and the predicted TWSA during June 2018 to May 2019 agreed well with GRACE-FO results. The research method in this paper provides a reference for bridging the gap in the TWSA between GRACE and GRACE-FO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Remote Sensing Data in Water Resources Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Detecting Water Diversion Fingerprints in the Danjiangkou Reservoir from Satellite Gravimetry and Altimetry Data
Sensors 2019, 19(16), 3510; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19163510 - 10 Aug 2019
Abstract
The Danjiangkou Reservoir (DJKR) is the freshwater source for the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project in China, and its water level and storage changes are important for water resource management. To maximize the potential capacity of the Gravity Recovery and [...] Read more.
The Danjiangkou Reservoir (DJKR) is the freshwater source for the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project in China, and its water level and storage changes are important for water resource management. To maximize the potential capacity of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, an improved Lagrange multiplier method (ILMM) is first proposed to detect terrestrial water storage anomalies (TWSA) in the small-scale basin (DJKR). Moreover, for the first time, water diversion fingerprints are proposed to analyze the spatiotemporal pattern of the TWSA in the DJKR. The results indicate that the increased water level and storage signals due to the DJKR impoundment in 2014 can be effectively detected by using the ILMM, and they agree well with the results from altimetry and in situ data. Additionally, the water diversion fingerprints due to the DJKR impoundment are inferred, and describe the progression of spatiotemporal variability in water storage. The results show that water storage decreased in the upper Hanjiang River and increased in the DJKR as well as to the east of it during the period 2013–2015. Our research provides a scientific decision-making basis for monitoring the water resources of the DJKR and managing the South-to-North Water Diversion Project. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Remote Sensing Data in Water Resources Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Improved Remotely Sensed Total Basin Discharge and Its Seasonal Error Characterization in the Yangtze River Basin
Sensors 2019, 19(15), 3386; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19153386 - 01 Aug 2019
Abstract
Total basin discharge is a critical component for the understanding of surface water exchange at the land–ocean interface. A continuous decline in the number of global hydrological stations over the past fifteen years has promoted the estimation of total basin discharge using remote [...] Read more.
Total basin discharge is a critical component for the understanding of surface water exchange at the land–ocean interface. A continuous decline in the number of global hydrological stations over the past fifteen years has promoted the estimation of total basin discharge using remote sensing. Previous remotely sensed total basin discharge of the Yangtze River basin, expressed in terms of runoff, was estimated via the water balance equation, using a combination of remote sensing and modeled data products of various qualities. Nevertheless, the modeled data products are presented with large uncertainties and the seasonal error characteristics of the remotely sensed total basin discharge have rarely been investigated. In this study, we conducted total basin discharge estimation of the Yangtze River Basin, based purely on remotely sensed data. This estimation considered the period between January 2003 and December 2012 at a monthly temporal scale and was based on precipitation data collected from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, evapotranspiration data collected from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite, and terrestrial water storage data collected from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite. A seasonal accuracy assessment was performed to detect poor performances and highlight any deficiencies in the modeled data products derived from the discharge estimation. Comparison of our estimated runoff results based purely on remotely sensed data, and the most accurate results of a previous study against the observed runoff revealed a Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) of 0.89 and 0.74, and a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 11.69 mm/month and 14.30 mm/month, respectively. We identified some deficiencies in capturing the maximum and the minimum of runoff rates during both summer and winter, due to an underestimation and overestimation of evapotranspiration, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Remote Sensing Data in Water Resources Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Inversion of Lake Bathymetry through Integrating Multi-Temporal Landsat and ICESat Imagery
Sensors 2019, 19(13), 2896; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19132896 - 30 Jun 2019
Abstract
Lake bathymetry provides valuable information for lake basin planning and treatment, lake watershed erosion and siltation management, water resource planning, and environmental protection. Lake bathymetry has been surveyed with sounding techniques, including single-beam and multi-beam sonar sounding, and unmanned ship sounding. Although these [...] Read more.
Lake bathymetry provides valuable information for lake basin planning and treatment, lake watershed erosion and siltation management, water resource planning, and environmental protection. Lake bathymetry has been surveyed with sounding techniques, including single-beam and multi-beam sonar sounding, and unmanned ship sounding. Although these techniques have high accuracy, most of them require long survey cycles and entail a high degree of difficulty. On the contrary, optical remote sensing inversion methods are easy to implement, but tend to provide less accurate bathymetry measures, especially when applied to turbid waters. The present study, therefore, aims to improve the accuracy of bathymetry measurements through integrating Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery, the Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite’s Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (ICESat/GLAS) data, and water level data measured at hydrological stations. First, the boundaries of a lake at multiple dates were derived using water extraction, initial boundary extraction, and Landsat Thematic Mapper/Enhanced Thematic Mapper (TM/ETM+) strip removal processing techniques. Second, ICESat/GLAS data were introduced to obtain additional topographic information of a lake. The striped topography of a lake’s area was then obtained through eliminating and correcting erroneous points and interpolating the values of unknown points. Third, the entire bathymetry of the lake was obtained through interpolating water level values of lake boundary points in various dates. Experiments show that accurate bathymetry (±1 m) can be successfully derived. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Remote Sensing Data in Water Resources Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation on Perceptron Learning for Water Region Estimation Using Large-Scale Multispectral Images
Sensors 2018, 18(12), 4333; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18124333 - 07 Dec 2018
Abstract
Land cover classification and investigation of temporal changes are considered to be common applications of remote sensing. Water/non-water region estimation is one of the most fundamental classification tasks, analyzing the occurrence of water on the Earth’s surface. However, common remote sensing practices such [...] Read more.
Land cover classification and investigation of temporal changes are considered to be common applications of remote sensing. Water/non-water region estimation is one of the most fundamental classification tasks, analyzing the occurrence of water on the Earth’s surface. However, common remote sensing practices such as thresholding, spectral analysis, and statistical approaches are not sufficient to produce a globally adaptable water classification. The aim of this study is to develop a formula with automatically derived tuning parameters using perceptron neural networks for water/non-water region estimation, which we call the Perceptron-Derived Water Formula (PDWF), using Landsat-8 images. Water/non-water region estimates derived from PDWF were compared with three different approaches—Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI), Automatic Water Extraction Index (AWEI), and Deep Convolutional Neural Network—using various case studies. Our proposed method outperforms all three approaches, showing a significant improvement in water/non-water region estimation. PDWF performance is consistently better even in cases of challenging conditions such as low reflectance due to hill shadows, building-shadows, and dark soils. Moreover, our study implemented a sunglint correction to adapt water/non-water region estimation over sunglint-affected pixels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Remote Sensing Data in Water Resources Management)
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