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Special Issue "Sensors Based on Quantum Phenomena"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Jean-Philippe Tetienne
Website
Guest Editor
Australian Research Council DECRA Fellow, School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia
Interests: quantum sensing; magnetometry; spin qubits; nitrogen-vacancy centre in diamond; nanomagnetism; two-dimensional materials; scanning probe microscopy; plasmonics
Dr. Liam T. Hall
Website
Guest Editor
Research Fellow, School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia
Interests: quantum sensing; quantum information; magnetometry; biomagnetism; spin qubits; spin baths; nitrogen-vacancy centre in diamond; magnetic resonance; hyperpolarisation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Quantum sensing is a rapidly-growing field of research, which seeks to harness the novel properties and behaviour of quantum mechanical systems and phenomena to create the next generation of sensors. Such approaches have, thus far, led to the realisation of sensors exhibiting enhanced sensitivity and/or spatial resolution compared to conventional sensors, as well as the discovery of exciting new sensing modalities. Quantum sensors have been implemented using a variety of physical platforms, from atomic vapours and trapped ions, to superconducting circuits and semiconductor spin qubits, allowing precise measurements of quantities as diverse as time, frequency, acceleration, rotation, force, magnetic field, electric field, and temperature.

In order to highlight some of the latest advances in the field of quantum sensing, we would like to invite you to submit a manuscript to our upcoming Special Issue, “Sensors Based on Quantum Phenomena”, to be published in mid-2018. We welcome submissions of both original research papers and review articles covering any aspect of quantum sensing, with a particular emphasis on experimental implementations of quantum sensors for real-world applications.

Dr. Jean-Philippe Tetienne
Dr. Liam T. Hall
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • quantum sensors
  • decoherence
  • entanglement
  • qubit
  • quantum metrology
  • spin
  • magnetic resonance
  • relaxometry
  • noise spectroscopy
  • magnetometry
  • thermometry
  • electrometry
  • nitrogen-vacancy centre in diamond

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Field Distortion and Optimization of a Vapor Cell in Rydberg Atom-Based Radio-Frequency Electric Field Measurement
Sensors 2018, 18(10), 3205; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18103205 - 22 Sep 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Highly excited Rydberg atoms in a room-temperature vapor cell are promising for developing a radio-frequency (RF) electric field (E-field) sensor and relevant measurement standards with high accuracy and sensitivity. The all-optical sensing approach is based on electromagnetically-induced transparency and Autler-Townes splitting induced by [...] Read more.
Highly excited Rydberg atoms in a room-temperature vapor cell are promising for developing a radio-frequency (RF) electric field (E-field) sensor and relevant measurement standards with high accuracy and sensitivity. The all-optical sensing approach is based on electromagnetically-induced transparency and Autler-Townes splitting induced by the RF E-field. Systematic investigation of measurement uncertainty is of great importance for developing a national measurement standard. The presence of a dielectric vapor cell containing alkali atoms changes the magnitude, polarization, and spatial distribution of the incident RF field. In this paper, the field distortion of rubidium vapor cells is investigated, in terms of both field strength distortion and depolarization. Full-wave numerical simulation and analysis are employed to determine general optimization solutions for minimizing such distortion and validated by measuring the E-field vector distribution inside different vapor cells. This work can improve the accuracy of atom-based RF E-field measurements and contributes to the development of related RF quantum sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors Based on Quantum Phenomena)
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Open AccessArticle
Modelling of Cavity Optomechanical Magnetometers
Sensors 2018, 18(5), 1558; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18051558 - 14 May 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Cavity optomechanical magnetic field sensors, constructed by coupling a magnetostrictive material to a micro-toroidal optical cavity, act as ultra-sensitive room temperature magnetometers with tens of micrometre size and broad bandwidth, combined with a simple operating scheme. Here, we develop a general recipe for [...] Read more.
Cavity optomechanical magnetic field sensors, constructed by coupling a magnetostrictive material to a micro-toroidal optical cavity, act as ultra-sensitive room temperature magnetometers with tens of micrometre size and broad bandwidth, combined with a simple operating scheme. Here, we develop a general recipe for predicting the field sensitivity of these devices. Several geometries are analysed, with a highest predicted sensitivity of 180 p T / Hz at 28 μ m resolution limited by thermal noise in good agreement with previous experimental observations. Furthermore, by adjusting the composition of the magnetostrictive material and its annealing process, a sensitivity as good as 20 p T / Hz may be possible at the same resolution. This method paves a way for future design of magnetostrictive material based optomechanical magnetometers, possibly allowing both scalar and vectorial magnetometers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors Based on Quantum Phenomena)
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Open AccessArticle
Proximity-Induced Artefacts in Magnetic Imaging with Nitrogen-Vacancy Ensembles in Diamond
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1290; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041290 - 23 Apr 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
Magnetic imaging with ensembles of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centres in diamond is a recently developed technique that allows for quantitative vector field mapping. Here we uncover a source of artefacts in the measured magnetic field in situations where the magnetic sample is placed in [...] Read more.
Magnetic imaging with ensembles of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centres in diamond is a recently developed technique that allows for quantitative vector field mapping. Here we uncover a source of artefacts in the measured magnetic field in situations where the magnetic sample is placed in close proximity (a few tens of nm) to the NV sensing layer. Using magnetic nanoparticles as a test sample, we find that the measured field deviates significantly from the calculated field, in shape, amplitude and even in sign. By modelling the full measurement process, we show that these discrepancies are caused by the limited measurement range of NV sensors combined with the finite spatial resolution of the optical readout. We numerically investigate the role of the stand-off distance to identify an artefact-free regime, and discuss an application to ultrathin materials. This work provides a guide to predict and mitigate proximity-induced artefacts that can arise in NV-based wide-field magnetic imaging, and also demonstrates that the sensitivity of these artefacts to the sample can make them a useful tool for magnetic characterisation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors Based on Quantum Phenomena)
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Open AccessArticle
The Response of HeLa Cells to Fluorescent NanoDiamond Uptake
Sensors 2018, 18(2), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18020355 - 26 Jan 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
Fluorescent nanodiamonds are promising probes for nanoscale magnetic resonance measurements. Their physical properties predict them to have particularly useful applications in intracellular analysis. Before using them in intracellular experiments however, it should be clear whether diamond particles influence cell biology. While cytotoxicity has [...] Read more.
Fluorescent nanodiamonds are promising probes for nanoscale magnetic resonance measurements. Their physical properties predict them to have particularly useful applications in intracellular analysis. Before using them in intracellular experiments however, it should be clear whether diamond particles influence cell biology. While cytotoxicity has already been ruled out in previous studies, we consider the non-fatal influence of fluorescent nanodiamonds on the formation of reactive oxygen species (an important stress indicator and potential target for intracellular sensing) for the first time. We investigated the influence of different sizes, shapes and concentrations of nanodiamonds on the genetic and protein level involved in oxidative stress-related pathways of the HeLa cell, an important model cell line in research. The changes in viability of the cells and the difference in intracellular levels of free radicals, after diamond uptake, are surprisingly small. At lower diamond concentrations, the cellular metabolism cannot be distinguished from that of untreated cells. This research supports the claims of non-toxicity and includes less obvious non-fatal responses. Finally, we give a handhold concerning the diamond concentration and size to use for non-toxic, intracellular measurements in favour of (cancer) research in HeLa cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors Based on Quantum Phenomena)
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Open AccessArticle
Sensitivity to Heavy-Metal Ions of Unfolded Fullerene Quantum Dots
Sensors 2017, 17(11), 2614; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17112614 - 14 Nov 2017
Cited by 23
Abstract
A novel type of graphene-like quantum dots, synthesized by oxidation and cage-opening of C60 buckminsterfullerene, has been studied as a fluorescent and absorptive probe for heavy-metal ions. The lattice structure of such unfolded fullerene quantum dots (UFQDs) is distinct from that of [...] Read more.
A novel type of graphene-like quantum dots, synthesized by oxidation and cage-opening of C60 buckminsterfullerene, has been studied as a fluorescent and absorptive probe for heavy-metal ions. The lattice structure of such unfolded fullerene quantum dots (UFQDs) is distinct from that of graphene since it includes both carbon hexagons and pentagons. The basic optical properties, however, are similar to those of regular graphene oxide quantum dots. On the other hand, UFQDs behave quite differently in the presence of heavy-metal ions, in that multiple sensitivity to Cu2+, Pb2+ and As(III) was observed through comparable quenching of the fluorescent emission and different variations of the transmittance spectrum. By dynamic light scattering measurements and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images we confirmed, for the first time in metal sensing, that this response is due to multiple complexation and subsequent aggregation of UFQDs. Nonetheless, the explanation of the distinct behaviour of transmittance in the presence of As(III) and the formation of precipitate with Pb2+ require further studies. These differences, however, also make it possible to discriminate between the three metal ions in view of the implementation of a selective multiple sensor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors Based on Quantum Phenomena)
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Open AccessLetter
Real-Space Probing of the Local Magnetic Response of Thin-Film Superconductors Using Single Spin Magnetometry
Sensors 2018, 18(11), 3790; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18113790 - 06 Nov 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
We report on direct, real-space imaging of the stray magnetic field above a micro-scale disc of a thin film of the high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7−δ (YBCO) using scanning single spin magnetometry. Our experiments yield a direct measurement of [...] Read more.
We report on direct, real-space imaging of the stray magnetic field above a micro-scale disc of a thin film of the high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7−δ (YBCO) using scanning single spin magnetometry. Our experiments yield a direct measurement of the sample’s London penetration depth and allow for a quantitative reconstruction of the supercurrents flowing in the sample as a result of Meissner screening. These results show the potential of scanning single spin magnetometry for studies of the nanoscale magnetic properties of thin-film superconductors, which could be readily extended to elevated temperatures or magnetic fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors Based on Quantum Phenomena)
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