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Open AccessArticle

Field Distortion and Optimization of a Vapor Cell in Rydberg Atom-Based Radio-Frequency Electric Field Measurement

1
National Institute of Metrology, Beijing 100029, China
2
School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100083, China
3
School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, China
4
Institute of Laser Spectroscopy, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2018, 18(10), 3205; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18103205
Received: 13 August 2018 / Revised: 19 September 2018 / Accepted: 19 September 2018 / Published: 22 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors Based on Quantum Phenomena)
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Abstract

Highly excited Rydberg atoms in a room-temperature vapor cell are promising for developing a radio-frequency (RF) electric field (E-field) sensor and relevant measurement standards with high accuracy and sensitivity. The all-optical sensing approach is based on electromagnetically-induced transparency and Autler-Townes splitting induced by the RF E-field. Systematic investigation of measurement uncertainty is of great importance for developing a national measurement standard. The presence of a dielectric vapor cell containing alkali atoms changes the magnitude, polarization, and spatial distribution of the incident RF field. In this paper, the field distortion of rubidium vapor cells is investigated, in terms of both field strength distortion and depolarization. Full-wave numerical simulation and analysis are employed to determine general optimization solutions for minimizing such distortion and validated by measuring the E-field vector distribution inside different vapor cells. This work can improve the accuracy of atom-based RF E-field measurements and contributes to the development of related RF quantum sensors. View Full-Text
Keywords: Rydberg atoms; electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT); radio-frequency (RF) electric field; vapor cell; measurement uncertainty Rydberg atoms; electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT); radio-frequency (RF) electric field; vapor cell; measurement uncertainty
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Song, Z.; Zhang, W.; Wu, Q.; Mu, H.; Liu, X.; Zhang, L.; Qu, J. Field Distortion and Optimization of a Vapor Cell in Rydberg Atom-Based Radio-Frequency Electric Field Measurement. Sensors 2018, 18, 3205.

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