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Special Issue "Power Schemes for Biosensors and Biomedical Devices"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Biosensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 August 2015)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Hung Cao

Electrical Engineering EECS Department, University of California Irvine, 2200 Engineering Hall, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: MEMS; BioMEMS; Medical Devices; Neural Engineering; Cardiovascular Engineering
Guest Editor
Dr. Yu Zhao

Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology (SIAT) Chinese Academy of Sciences 1068 Xueyuan Avenue Shenzhen University Town Shenzhen, China
E-Mail
Interests: MEMS; BioMEMS; Medical Devices; Implantable devices; Retinal prostheses

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

During the past few decades, we have witnessed tremendous developments concerning applications of biosensors and biomedical devices in healthcare and biological research. The advances of micro/nanofabrication and electronics have dovetailed with innovative biomaterials, so as to enable biocompatible miniaturized sensors and systems with significant improvement in sensitivity, selectivity, longevity, and reliability. Consequently, numerous wearable devices and medical implants have emerged, which significantly enhance human life quality. Nevertheless, most of the devices and systems rely on a stable power source; this reliance presents many practical challenges. Difficulties include size limits, unreachable locations (of implants), and the requirement of monitors to work continuously for the long-term. In this Special Issue, we invite submissions of review articles, original research papers, and short communications covering a broad field of power management, power delivery, and energy harvesting for biosensors, healthcare wearable monitoring devices, and medical implants.

Contributions may include, but are not limited to:

  • Wireless power transfer and energy harvesting for medical implants.
  • Alternative approaches for powering medical implants.
  • Power management in healthcare wearable devices.
  • Power management in remote-sensing biosystems.
  • Low-power biomedical devices and systems.

Dr. Hung Cao
Dr. Yu Zhao
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


Keywords

  • Power management
  • wireless power transfer
  • energy harvesting, telemetry
  • medical implants
  • wearable devices
  • implantable systems
  • battery-less
  • low-power

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Wireless Low-Power Integrated Basal-Body-Temperature Detection Systems Using Teeth Antennas in the MedRadio Band
Sensors 2015, 15(11), 29467-29477; https://doi.org/10.3390/s151129467
Received: 15 July 2015 / Revised: 10 November 2015 / Accepted: 17 November 2015 / Published: 20 November 2015
PDF Full-text (1983 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study proposes using wireless low power thermal sensors for basal-body-temperature detection using frequency modulated telemetry devices. A long-term monitoring sensor requires low-power circuits including a sampling circuit and oscillator. Moreover, temperature compensated technologies are necessary because the modulated frequency might have additional [...] Read more.
This study proposes using wireless low power thermal sensors for basal-body-temperature detection using frequency modulated telemetry devices. A long-term monitoring sensor requires low-power circuits including a sampling circuit and oscillator. Moreover, temperature compensated technologies are necessary because the modulated frequency might have additional frequency deviations caused by the varying temperature. The temperature compensated oscillator is composed of a ring oscillator and a controlled-steering current source with temperature compensation, so the output frequency of the oscillator does not drift with temperature variations. The chip is fabricated in a standard Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) 0.18-μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, and the chip area is 0.9 mm2. The power consumption of the sampling amplifier is 128 µW. The power consumption of the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) core is less than 40 µW, and the output is −3.04 dBm with a buffer stage. The output voltage of the bandgap reference circuit is 1 V. For temperature measurements, the maximum error is 0.18 °C with a standard deviation of ±0.061 °C, which is superior to the required specification of 0.1 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Schemes for Biosensors and Biomedical Devices)
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Open AccessArticle
Concept Design for a 1-Lead Wearable/Implantable ECG Front-End: Power Management
Sensors 2015, 15(11), 29297-29315; https://doi.org/10.3390/s151129297
Received: 15 July 2015 / Revised: 9 November 2015 / Accepted: 13 November 2015 / Published: 19 November 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2266 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Power supply quality and stability are critical for wearable and implantable biomedical applications. For this reason we have designed a reconfigurable switched-capacitor DC-DC converter that, aside from having an extremely small footprint (with an active on-chip area of only 0.04 mm2), [...] Read more.
Power supply quality and stability are critical for wearable and implantable biomedical applications. For this reason we have designed a reconfigurable switched-capacitor DC-DC converter that, aside from having an extremely small footprint (with an active on-chip area of only 0.04 mm2), uses a novel output voltage control method based upon a combination of adaptive gain and discrete frequency scaling control schemes. This novel DC-DC converter achieves a measured output voltage range of 1.0 to 2.2 V with power delivery up to 7.5 mW with 75% efficiency. In this paper, we present the use of this converter as a power supply for a concept design of a wearable (15 mm × 15 mm) 1-lead ECG front-end sensor device that simultaneously harvests power and communicates with external receivers when exposed to a suitable RF field. Due to voltage range limitations of the fabrication process of the current prototype chip, we focus our analysis solely on the power supply of the ECG front-end whose design is also detailed in this paper. Measurement results show not just that the power supplied is regulated, clean and does not infringe upon the ECG bandwidth, but that there is negligible difference between signals acquired using standard linear power-supplies and when the power is regulated by our power management chip. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Schemes for Biosensors and Biomedical Devices)
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Open AccessArticle
Wireless Power Transfer for Autonomous Wearable Neurotransmitter Sensors
Sensors 2015, 15(9), 24553-24572; https://doi.org/10.3390/s150924553
Received: 1 August 2015 / Accepted: 18 September 2015 / Published: 23 September 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (892 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we report a power management system for autonomous and real-time monitoring of the neurotransmitter L-glutamate (L-Glu). A low-power, low-noise, and high-gain recording module was designed to acquire signal from an implantable flexible L-Glu sensor fabricated by micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS)-based processes. [...] Read more.
In this paper, we report a power management system for autonomous and real-time monitoring of the neurotransmitter L-glutamate (L-Glu). A low-power, low-noise, and high-gain recording module was designed to acquire signal from an implantable flexible L-Glu sensor fabricated by micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS)-based processes. The wearable recording module was wirelessly powered through inductive coupling transmitter antennas. Lateral and angular misalignments of the receiver antennas were resolved by using a multi-transmitter antenna configuration. The effective coverage, over which the recording module functioned properly, was improved with the use of in-phase transmitter antennas. Experimental results showed that the recording system was capable of operating continuously at distances of 4 cm, 7 cm and 10 cm. The wireless power management system reduced the weight of the recording module, eliminated human intervention and enabled animal experimentation for extended durations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Schemes for Biosensors and Biomedical Devices)
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Open AccessArticle
Temperature and Humidity Sensor Powered by an Individual Microbial Fuel Cell in a Power Management System
Sensors 2015, 15(9), 23126-23144; https://doi.org/10.3390/s150923126
Received: 3 June 2015 / Revised: 1 September 2015 / Accepted: 3 September 2015 / Published: 11 September 2015
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (623 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are of increasing interest as bioelectrochemical systems for decomposing organic materials and converting chemical energy into electricity. The main challenge for this technology is that the low power and voltage of the devices restricts the use of MFCs in [...] Read more.
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are of increasing interest as bioelectrochemical systems for decomposing organic materials and converting chemical energy into electricity. The main challenge for this technology is that the low power and voltage of the devices restricts the use of MFCs in practical applications. In this paper, a power management system (PMS) is developed to store the energy and export an increased voltage. The designed PMS successfully increases the low voltage generated by an individual MFC to a high potential of 5 V, capable of driving a wireless temperature and humidity sensor based on nRF24L01 data transmission modules. With the PMS, MFCs can intermittently power the sensor for data transmission to a remote receiver. It is concluded that even an individual MFC can supply the energy required to power the sensor and telemetry system with the designed PMS. The presented PMS can be widely used for unmanned environmental monitoring such as wild rivers, lakes, and adjacent water areas, and offers promise for further advances in MFC technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Schemes for Biosensors and Biomedical Devices)
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Open AccessArticle
Towards Low Energy Atrial Defibrillation
Sensors 2015, 15(9), 22378-22400; https://doi.org/10.3390/s150922378
Received: 9 June 2015 / Revised: 25 August 2015 / Accepted: 31 August 2015 / Published: 3 September 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1462 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A wireless powered implantable atrial defibrillator consisting of a battery driven hand-held radio frequency (RF) power transmitter (ex vivo) and a passive (battery free) implantable power receiver (in vivo) that enables measurement of the intracardiac impedance (ICI) during internal [...] Read more.
A wireless powered implantable atrial defibrillator consisting of a battery driven hand-held radio frequency (RF) power transmitter (ex vivo) and a passive (battery free) implantable power receiver (in vivo) that enables measurement of the intracardiac impedance (ICI) during internal atrial defibrillation is reported. The architecture is designed to operate in two modes: Cardiac sense mode (power-up, measure the impedance of the cardiac substrate and communicate data to the ex vivo power transmitter) and cardiac shock mode (delivery of a synchronised very low tilt rectilinear electrical shock waveform). An initial prototype was implemented and tested. In low-power (sense) mode, >5 W was delivered across a 2.5 cm air-skin gap to facilitate measurement of the impedance of the cardiac substrate. In high-power (shock) mode, >180 W (delivered as a 12 ms monophasic very-low-tilt-rectilinear (M-VLTR) or as a 12 ms biphasic very-low-tilt-rectilinear (B-VLTR) chronosymmetric (6ms/6ms) amplitude asymmetric (negative phase at 50% magnitude) shock was reliably and repeatedly delivered across the same interface; with >47% DC-to-DC (direct current to direct current) power transfer efficiency at a switching frequency of 185 kHz achieved. In an initial trial of the RF architecture developed, 30 patients with AF were randomised to therapy with an RF generated M-VLTR or B-VLTR shock using a step-up voltage protocol (50–300 V). Mean energy for successful cardioversion was 8.51 J ± 3.16 J. Subsequent analysis revealed that all patients who cardioverted exhibited a significant decrease in ICI between the first and third shocks (5.00 Ω (SD(σ) = 1.62 Ω), p < 0.01) while spectral analysis across frequency also revealed a significant variation in the impedance-amplitude-spectrum-area (IAMSA) within the same patient group (|∆(IAMSAS1-IAMSAS3)[1 Hz − 20 kHz] = 20.82 Ω-Hz (SD(σ) = 10.77 Ω-Hz), p < 0.01); both trends being absent in all patients that failed to cardiovert. Efficient transcutaneous power transfer and sensing of ICI during cardioversion are evidenced as key to the advancement of low-energy atrial defibrillation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Schemes for Biosensors and Biomedical Devices)
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Open AccessArticle
A Low-Power and Portable Biomedical Device for Respiratory Monitoring with a Stable Power Source
Sensors 2015, 15(8), 19618-19632; https://doi.org/10.3390/s150819618
Received: 13 June 2015 / Revised: 4 July 2015 / Accepted: 30 July 2015 / Published: 11 August 2015
Cited by 79 | PDF Full-text (858 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Continuous respiratory monitoring is an important tool for clinical monitoring. Associated with the development of biomedical technology, it has become more and more important, especially in the measuring of gas flow and CO2 concentration, which can reflect the status of the patient. In [...] Read more.
Continuous respiratory monitoring is an important tool for clinical monitoring. Associated with the development of biomedical technology, it has become more and more important, especially in the measuring of gas flow and CO2 concentration, which can reflect the status of the patient. In this paper, a new type of biomedical device is presented, which uses low-power sensors with a piezoresistive silicon differential pressure sensor to measure gas flow and with a pyroelectric sensor to measure CO2 concentration simultaneously. For the portability of the biomedical device, the sensors and low-power measurement circuits are integrated together, and the airway tube also needs to be miniaturized. Circuits are designed to ensure the stability of the power source and to filter out the existing noise. Modulation technology is used to eliminate the fluctuations at the trough of the waveform of the CO2 concentration signal. Statistical analysis with the coefficient of variation was performed to find out the optimal driving voltage of the pressure transducer. Through targeted experiments, the biomedical device showed a high accuracy, with a measuring precision of 0.23 mmHg, and it worked continuously and stably, thus realizing the real-time monitoring of the status of patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Schemes for Biosensors and Biomedical Devices)
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Open AccessArticle
A High Performance Delta-Sigma Modulator for Neurosensing
Sensors 2015, 15(8), 19466-19486; https://doi.org/10.3390/s150819466
Received: 14 June 2015 / Revised: 30 July 2015 / Accepted: 4 August 2015 / Published: 7 August 2015
PDF Full-text (1423 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recorded neural data are frequently corrupted by large amplitude artifacts that are triggered by a variety of sources, such as subject movements, organ motions, electromagnetic interferences and discharges at the electrode surface. To prevent the system from saturating and the electronics from malfunctioning [...] Read more.
Recorded neural data are frequently corrupted by large amplitude artifacts that are triggered by a variety of sources, such as subject movements, organ motions, electromagnetic interferences and discharges at the electrode surface. To prevent the system from saturating and the electronics from malfunctioning due to these large artifacts, a wide dynamic range for data acquisition is demanded, which is quite challenging to achieve and would require excessive circuit area and power for implementation. In this paper, we present a high performance Delta-Sigma modulator along with several design techniques and enabling blocks to reduce circuit area and power. The modulator was fabricated in a 0.18-µm CMOS process. Powered by a 1.0-V supply, the chip can achieve an 85-dB peak signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratio (SNDR) and an 87-dB dynamic range when integrated over a 10-kHz bandwidth. The total power consumption of the modulator is 13 µW, which corresponds to a figure-of-merit (FOM) of 45 fJ/conversion step. These competitive circuit specifications make this design a good candidate for building high precision neurosensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Schemes for Biosensors and Biomedical Devices)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Power Approaches for Implantable Medical Devices
Sensors 2015, 15(11), 28889-28914; https://doi.org/10.3390/s151128889
Received: 30 August 2015 / Revised: 15 October 2015 / Accepted: 6 November 2015 / Published: 13 November 2015
Cited by 67 | PDF Full-text (1900 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Implantable medical devices have been implemented to provide treatment and to assess in vivo physiological information in humans as well as animal models for medical diagnosis and prognosis, therapeutic applications and biological science studies. The advances of micro/nanotechnology dovetailed with novel biomaterials have [...] Read more.
Implantable medical devices have been implemented to provide treatment and to assess in vivo physiological information in humans as well as animal models for medical diagnosis and prognosis, therapeutic applications and biological science studies. The advances of micro/nanotechnology dovetailed with novel biomaterials have further enhanced biocompatibility, sensitivity, longevity and reliability in newly-emerged low-cost and compact devices. Close-loop systems with both sensing and treatment functions have also been developed to provide point-of-care and personalized medicine. Nevertheless, one of the remaining challenges is whether power can be supplied sufficiently and continuously for the operation of the entire system. This issue is becoming more and more critical to the increasing need of power for wireless communication in implanted devices towards the future healthcare infrastructure, namely mobile health (m-Health). In this review paper, methodologies to transfer and harvest energy in implantable medical devices are introduced and discussed to highlight the uses and significances of various potential power sources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Schemes for Biosensors and Biomedical Devices)
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