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Special Issue "Magnetoelastic Sensors"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 August 2020) | Viewed by 13678

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Dimitris Kouzoudis
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, 265 04 Patra, Greece
Interests: application of different sensor platforms towards monitoring environmental/chem/bio parameters, such as gas concentration, small mass loads, pressure, flow velocity, humidity, and precipitation of biological salts in aqueous solutions, blood coagulation time, and glucose concentration, the use of zeolite films as active sensor layers for the detection of volatile organic compounds
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

 The scope of this Special Issue is to highlight the current advances in the field of magnetoelastic sensors. In particular, the issue invites authors to contribute papers relating to the following topics, as well as other possible topics:

  • Biosensing;
  • Stress, strain, and force sensing;
  • Fluid mechanics parameters sensing;
  • New sensing ideas using magnetoelastic sensors;
  • Optimization and design of magnetoelastic sensors;
  • Theory of operation of magnetoelastic sensors;
  • Design of new magnetoelastic materials useful for sensing;
  • Magnetoelectric sensors based on magnetoelastic materials;
  • Magnetostriction effects related to sensing;
  • Multiparameter sensing and sensor arrays;
  • Magnetostrictive wires and delay lines;
  • Magnetostrictive properties of materials.

Dr. Dimitris Kouzoudis
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Magnetoelastic sensors
  • Magnetostrictive sensors
  • Magnetoelasticity
  • magnetostriction
  • Magnetoelastic materials
  • Magnetoelectric sensors

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Article
A Novel NiFe2O4/Paper-Based Magnetoelastic Biosensor to Detect Human Serum Albumin
Sensors 2020, 20(18), 5286; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20185286 - 16 Sep 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1071
Abstract
For the first time, a novel NiFe2O4/paper-based magnetoelastic (ME) biosensor was developed for rapid, sensitive, and portable detection of human serum albumin (HSA). Due to the uniquely magnetoelastic effect of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles and the excellent mechanical [...] Read more.
For the first time, a novel NiFe2O4/paper-based magnetoelastic (ME) biosensor was developed for rapid, sensitive, and portable detection of human serum albumin (HSA). Due to the uniquely magnetoelastic effect of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles and the excellent mechanical properties of the paper, the paper-based ME biosensor transforms the surface stress signal induced by the specific binding of HSA and antibody modified on the paper into the electromagnetic signal. The accumulated binding complex generates a compressive stress on the biosensor surface, resulting in a decrease in the biosensor’s static magnetic permeability, which correlates to the HSA concentrations. To improve the sensitivity of the biosensor, the concentration of NiFe2O4 nanofluid and the impregnated numbers of the NiFe2O4 nanofluid-impregnated papers were optimized. The experimental results demonstrated that the biosensor exhibited a linear response to HSA concentrations ranging from 10 μg∙mL−1 to 200 μg∙mL−1, with a detection limit of 0.43 μg∙mL−1, which is significantly lower than the minimal diagnosis limit of microalbuminuria. The NiFe2O4/paper-based ME biosensor is easy to fabricate, and allows the rapid, highly-sensitive, and selective detection of HSA, providing a valuable analytical device for early monitoring and clinical diagnosis of microalbuminuria and nephropathy. This study shows the successful integration of the paper-based biosensor and the ME sensing analytical method will be a highly-sensitive, easy-to-use, disposable, and portable alternative for point-of-care monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetoelastic Sensors)
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Article
Model for Wireless Magnetoelastic Strain Sensors
Sensors 2020, 20(12), 3557; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20123557 - 23 Jun 2020
Viewed by 895
Abstract
This paper describes a magnetoelastic strain sensor based on the ∆E effect and discusses some materials used in its construction. A polycrystalline Fe–Al–B alloy with good quality magnetoelastic properties was used as the transducer and glued to the test object, either brass [...] Read more.
This paper describes a magnetoelastic strain sensor based on the ∆E effect and discusses some materials used in its construction. A polycrystalline Fe–Al–B alloy with good quality magnetoelastic properties was used as the transducer and glued to the test object, either brass plates or rods of SAE 1010 steel. The strain-dependent magnetic field of the transducer changes the operating point of the resonator, a strip of field-annealed Metglas 2826MB3, resulting in a modification of its resonant frequency. A model was developed to simulate the strain-dependent magnetic field acting on the resonator and thus to calculate curves of resonant frequency vs. deformation. With the help of this model, differences in the shape of the frequency vs. strain curve can be understood. For a sensor with resonant frequency of 60.5 kHz glued to a rod of SAE 1010 steel, a total resonant frequency variation ∆f ~7 kHz was observed for a deformation of 1100 ppm. The geometry of this sensor is especially favorable for the remote monitoring of a steel surface, such as the wires of the tensile armor of a marine riser. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetoelastic Sensors)
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Article
A New Method for the Measurement of the Diffusion Coefficient of Adsorbed Vapors in Thin Zeolite Films, Based on Magnetoelastic Sensors
Sensors 2020, 20(11), 3251; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20113251 - 07 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 938
Abstract
In the current work an experimental method is used in order to calculate the diffusivity D (diffusion coefficient) of various vapors in thin zeolite films. The method is based on adsorption data from magnetoelastic sensors on top of which a zeolite layer was [...] Read more.
In the current work an experimental method is used in order to calculate the diffusivity D (diffusion coefficient) of various vapors in thin zeolite films. The method is based on adsorption data from magnetoelastic sensors on top of which a zeolite layer was synthesized, and the diffusivity is extracted by fitting the data to Fick’s laws of diffusion. In particular, the method is demonstrated for two volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors on two different zeolites, the p-Xylene adsorption in Faujasite type zeolite with D = 1.89 × 10 13   m 2 / s at 120   ° C and the propene adsorption in Linde Type A type zeolite with D = 5.9 × 10 14   m 2 / s at 80   ° C , two diffusion coefficients which are extracted experimentally for first time. Our results are within the order of magnitude of other VOC/zeolite values reported in literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetoelastic Sensors)
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Article
Magnetoelastic Humidity Sensors with TiO2 Nanotube Sensing Layers
Sensors 2020, 20(2), 425; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20020425 - 11 Jan 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1495
Abstract
In this study, TiO2 nanotubes (TiO2-NTs) are coated with a drop-casting method on Fe40Ni38Mo4B18 amorphous ferromagnetic ribbons and the humidity response of the prepared magnetoelastic sensors (MES) is investigated. The synthesis of TiO [...] Read more.
In this study, TiO2 nanotubes (TiO2-NTs) are coated with a drop-casting method on Fe40Ni38Mo4B18 amorphous ferromagnetic ribbons and the humidity response of the prepared magnetoelastic sensors (MES) is investigated. The synthesis of TiO2-NTs is performed using a hydrothermal process. Sample characterization is carried out using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the sensors can measure moisture values in the range of 5% to 95% with very high precision and very low hysteresis. The humidity variation between 5% and 95% shows a change in the sensor resonance frequency of ~3180 Hz, which is a significant change compared to many magnetoelastic humidity sensors developed so far. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetoelastic Sensors)
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Article
An Hourglass-Shaped Wireless and Passive Magnetoelastic Sensor with an Improved Frequency Sensitivity for Remote Strain Measurements
Sensors 2020, 20(2), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20020359 - 08 Jan 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1106
Abstract
The conventional magnetoelastic resonant sensor suffers from a low detecting sensitivity problem. In this study, an hourglass-shaped magnetoelastic resonant sensor was proposed, analyzed, fabricated, and tested. The hourglass-shaped magnetoelastic resonant sensor was composed of an hourglass and a narrow ribbon in the middle. [...] Read more.
The conventional magnetoelastic resonant sensor suffers from a low detecting sensitivity problem. In this study, an hourglass-shaped magnetoelastic resonant sensor was proposed, analyzed, fabricated, and tested. The hourglass-shaped magnetoelastic resonant sensor was composed of an hourglass and a narrow ribbon in the middle. The hourglass and the narrow ribbon increased the detection sensitivity by reducing the connecting stress. The resonant frequency of the sensor was investigated by the finite element method. The proposed sensor was fabricated and experiments were carried out. The tested resonance frequency agreed well with the simulated one. The maximum trust sensitivity of the proposed sensor was 37,100 Hz/strain. The power supply and signal transmission of the proposed sensor were fulfilled via magnetic field in a wireless and passive way due to the magnetostrictive effect. Parametric studies were carried out to investigate the influence of the hourglass shape on the resonant frequency and the output voltage. The hourglass-shaped magnetoelastic resonant sensor shows advantages of high sensitivity, a simple structure, easy fabrication, passiveness, remoteness, and low cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetoelastic Sensors)
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Article
Modelling the Characteristics of Ring-Shaped Magnetoelastic Force Sensor in Mohri’s Configuration
Sensors 2020, 20(1), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20010266 - 02 Jan 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1154
Abstract
Magnetoelastic force sensors exhibit high sensitivity and robustness. One commonly used configuration of force sensor with a ring-shaped core was presented by Mohri at al. In this configuration force is applied in the direction of a diameter of the core. However, due to [...] Read more.
Magnetoelastic force sensors exhibit high sensitivity and robustness. One commonly used configuration of force sensor with a ring-shaped core was presented by Mohri at al. In this configuration force is applied in the direction of a diameter of the core. However, due to inhomogeneous distribution of stresses, model of such sensor has not been presented yet. This paper is filling the gap presenting a new method of modelling the magnetoelastic effect, which is especially suitable for the finite element method. The presented implementation of proposed model is in good agreement with experimental data and creates new possibilities of modelling other devices utilizing magnetoelastic effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetoelastic Sensors)
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Communication
Fabrication and Characterization of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics Containing Magnetostrictive Fe-Co Fibers with Damage Self-Detection Capability
Sensors 2019, 19(22), 4984; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19224984 - 15 Nov 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1251
Abstract
Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) is an excellent choice in the areas where weight reduction is important and multi-functionalization of CFRP, especially by adding sensor capabilities, is a promising approach to realize lightweight battery-free devices in structural health monitoring (SHM). In this study, [...] Read more.
Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) is an excellent choice in the areas where weight reduction is important and multi-functionalization of CFRP, especially by adding sensor capabilities, is a promising approach to realize lightweight battery-free devices in structural health monitoring (SHM). In this study, we fabricated hybrid CFRP with Fe-Co fibers and evaluated the inverse magnetostrictive response characteristics. It was shown that the measured magnetic flux density of the CFRP fluctuates in response to cyclic bending load. It was also revealed that our Fe-Co fiber inserted CFRP has damage self-sensing ability. In addition, it seems that the optimization of design and more experimental and numerical investigation improves the capability of the hybrid CFRP with Fe-Co fiber as sensor composite materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetoelastic Sensors)
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Article
A Passive Magnetoelastic Radiation Sensor
Sensors 2019, 19(22), 4959; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19224959 - 14 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1004
Abstract
A passive gamma detection technology, consisting of a fielded sensor and a separate analysis system, is described. The sensor is a small cylinder, about 2.5 mm in diameter and 15 mm in length. It requires no onboard power sources or physical connections for [...] Read more.
A passive gamma detection technology, consisting of a fielded sensor and a separate analysis system, is described. The sensor is a small cylinder, about 2.5 mm in diameter and 15 mm in length. It requires no onboard power sources or physical connections for power or data transfer, and retains its cumulative response to radiation. The sensor consists of an amorphous magnetoelastic wire held in a longitudinally-stressed state by a radiation-sensitive material. When the radiation-sensitive material is subjected to gamma radiation, it mechanically degrades, relaxing the stress on the wire and lowering the wire’s magnetic permeability. The changes in permeability are observed by switching the magnetic domains in the wire and measuring the reduction in the Faraday voltage as the stress is diminished. The analysis package is built around an excitation-detection coil set and can communicate wirelessly with the sensor through a metallic or nonmetallic barrier at distances up to about 25 mm. The sensor response is linear up to a dose of at least 7 kGy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetoelastic Sensors)
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Article
Size Dependence of the Magnetoelastic Properties of Metallic Glasses for Actuation Applications
Sensors 2019, 19(19), 4296; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19194296 - 04 Oct 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 999
Abstract
We present an exhaustive study of the magnetoelastic properties of 24 strips with different rectangular dimensions, cut from a long ribbon of Metglas® 2826MB3. The strips have a length-to-width ratio R = L/w ranging from 2 to over 20. Significant variations of [...] Read more.
We present an exhaustive study of the magnetoelastic properties of 24 strips with different rectangular dimensions, cut from a long ribbon of Metglas® 2826MB3. The strips have a length-to-width ratio R = L/w ranging from 2 to over 20. Significant variations of the apparent saturation Young’s modulus and the ΔE effect with strip geometry, changing from 160 GPa and 4% for L = 10 mm, w = 5 mm and R = 2, to 164 GPa and 9.6% for L = 35 mm, w = 1.7 mm and R = 20.6, have been observed. In order to obtain the highest values of the ΔE effect, the magnetomechanical coupling coefficient, k, and the quality factor of the resonance, Q, a value R > 14 is needed. The effective anisotropy field Hk*, taken as the minimum of the E(H) curve, and its width ΔH, are not as strongly influenced by the R value, and a value of R > 7 is enough to reach the lowest value. From our measurements we infer that the formerly predicted value of R > 5 needed for a good magnetic and magnetoelastic response of the material must be actually regarded as the lowest limit for this parameter. In fact, we show that the demagnetizing factor N, rather than the length-to-width ratio R, is the parameter that governs the magnetoelastic performance of these strips. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetoelastic Sensors)
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Review

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Review
A Review of Thin-Film Magnetoelastic Materials for Magnetoelectric Applications
Sensors 2020, 20(5), 1532; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20051532 - 10 Mar 2020
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 3298
Abstract
Since the revival of multiferroic laminates with giant magnetoelectric (ME) coefficients, a variety of multifunctional ME devices, such as sensor, inductor, filter, antenna etc. have been developed. Magnetoelastic materials, which couple the magnetization and strain together, have recently attracted ever-increasing attention due to [...] Read more.
Since the revival of multiferroic laminates with giant magnetoelectric (ME) coefficients, a variety of multifunctional ME devices, such as sensor, inductor, filter, antenna etc. have been developed. Magnetoelastic materials, which couple the magnetization and strain together, have recently attracted ever-increasing attention due to their key roles in ME applications. This review starts with a brief introduction to the early research efforts in the field of multiferroic materials and moves to the recent work on magnetoelectric coupling and their applications based on both bulk and thin-film materials. This is followed by sections summarizing historical works and solving the challenges specific to the fabrication and characterization of magnetoelastic materials with large magnetostriction constants. After presenting the magnetostrictive thin films and their static and dynamic properties, we review micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) and bulk devices utilizing ME effect. Finally, some open questions and future application directions where the community could head for magnetoelastic materials will be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetoelastic Sensors)
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