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Low-Cost Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Fault Diagnosis & Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 9300

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Civil Engineering, Castilla-La Mancha University, Ciudad Real, Spain
Interests: composite structures; building information modelling; health monitoring; bridges; cable-stayed bridges; structural system identification; historical structures; simulation of construction processes
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Commercial monitoring systems allow very accurate measurements for structural health monitoring applications. However, these systems are also traditionally associated with high costs, which might restrict their use in traditional buildings. Nowadays, low-cost solutions (based on sensors or computer vision techniques) stand as an efficient alternative to commercial monitoring systems. In light of the above information, the aim of this Special Issue is to increase knowledge of low-cost solutions for structural health monitoring. Applications to the structural, thermal, and environmental performance of civil engineering structures and buildings will be considered, as well as those connecting low-cost sensor information with construction methodologies (such as Building Information Modelling (BIM) and Lean), as well as new technologies (such as augmented, virtual reality and unmanned aerial vehicles).

Dr. Jose Antonio Lozano-Galant
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • structural health monitoring
  • low-cost sensors
  • arduino
  • computer vision tools
  • RasberryPI
  • structures
  • structural monitoring
  • thermal monitoring
  • environmental monitoring
  • Building Information Modelling (BIM)
  • unmanned aerial vehicles
  • augmented and virtual reality

Published Papers (5 papers)

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14 pages, 8093 KiB  
Article
A Low-Cost Lightweight Deflectometer with an Arduino-Based Signal Interpretation Kit to Evaluate Soil Modulus
by Huyen-Tram Nguyen, Yunje Lee, Jaehun Ahn, Taek Hee Han and Jun Kil Park
Sensors 2023, 23(24), 9710; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23249710 - 8 Dec 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1192
Abstract
This research presents an innovative solution aimed at addressing the cost and accessibility challenges associated with soil stiffness analysis in construction projects. Traditional lightweight deflectometer (LWD) systems have limitations due to their high cost and proprietary nature, prompting the need for a more [...] Read more.
This research presents an innovative solution aimed at addressing the cost and accessibility challenges associated with soil stiffness analysis in construction projects. Traditional lightweight deflectometer (LWD) systems have limitations due to their high cost and proprietary nature, prompting the need for a more widely accessible technology. To fulfill this purpose, a low-cost, open-source LWD onboard sensor signal interpretation system, utilizing Electro-Mechanical and Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) technology-based sensors in conjunction with an Arduino® Uno and ADS1262 Breakout Board, has been developed. This system efficiently processes raw signal data into deflection and force units, enabling precise soil property analysis. Thorough enhancements, calibration, and alignment procedures have been applied and validated through field tests, which have produced highly satisfactory results. By significantly reducing costs while maintaining accuracy, this developed system has the potential to popularize quality control and assurance practices in the construction industry. This open-source approach not only enhances affordability but also broadens accessibility, making soil property analysis more efficient and attainable for a wider range of construction projects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low-Cost Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring)
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25 pages, 20987 KiB  
Article
Toward Structural Health Monitoring with the MyShake Smartphone Network
by Sarina C. Patel, Selim Günay, Savvas Marcou, Yuancong Gou, Utpal Kumar and Richard M. Allen
Sensors 2023, 23(21), 8668; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23218668 - 24 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 807
Abstract
The field of structural health monitoring (SHM) faces a fundamental challenge related to accessibility. While analytical and empirical models and laboratory tests can provide engineers with an estimate of a structure’s expected behavior under various loads, measurements of actual buildings require the installation [...] Read more.
The field of structural health monitoring (SHM) faces a fundamental challenge related to accessibility. While analytical and empirical models and laboratory tests can provide engineers with an estimate of a structure’s expected behavior under various loads, measurements of actual buildings require the installation and maintenance of sensors to collect observations. This is costly in terms of power and resources. MyShake, the free seismology smartphone app, aims to advance SHM by leveraging the presence of accelerometers in all smartphones and the wide usage of smartphones globally. MyShake records acceleration waveforms during earthquakes. Because phones are most typically located in buildings, a waveform recorded by MyShake contains response information from the structure in which the phone is located. This represents a free, potentially ubiquitous method of conducting critical structural measurements. In this work, we present preliminary findings that demonstrate the efficacy of smartphones for extracting the fundamental frequency of buildings, benchmarked against traditional accelerometers in a shake table test. Additionally, we present seven proof-of-concept examples of data collected by anonymous and privately owned smartphones running the MyShake app in real buildings, and assess the fundamental frequencies we measure. In all cases, the measured fundamental frequency is found to be reasonable and within an expected range in comparison with several commonly used empirical equations. For one irregularly shaped building, three separate measurements made over the course of four months fall within 7% of each other, validating the accuracy of MyShake measurements and illustrating how repeat observations can improve the robustness of the structural health catalog we aim to build. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low-Cost Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring)
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27 pages, 11736 KiB  
Article
Advanced Video-Based Processing for Low-Cost Damage Assessment of Buildings under Seismic Loading in Shaking Table Tests
by Antonino Cataldo, Ivan Roselli, Vincenzo Fioriti, Fernando Saitta, Alessandro Colucci, Angelo Tatì, Felice Carlo Ponzo, Rocco Ditommaso, Canio Mennuti and Alessandro Marzani
Sensors 2023, 23(11), 5303; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23115303 - 2 Jun 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1637
Abstract
This paper explores the potential of a low-cost, advanced video-based technique for the assessment of structural damage to buildings caused by seismic loading. A low-cost, high-speed video camera was utilized for the motion magnification processing of footage of a two-story reinforced-concrete frame building [...] Read more.
This paper explores the potential of a low-cost, advanced video-based technique for the assessment of structural damage to buildings caused by seismic loading. A low-cost, high-speed video camera was utilized for the motion magnification processing of footage of a two-story reinforced-concrete frame building subjected to shaking table tests. The damage after seismic loading was estimated by analyzing the dynamic behavior (i.e., modal parameters) and the structural deformations of the building in magnified videos. The results using the motion magnification procedure were compared for validation of the method of the damage assessment obtained through analyses of conventional accelerometric sensors and high-precision optical markers tracked using a passive 3D motion capture system. In addition, 3D laser scanning to obtain an accurate survey of the building geometry before and after the seismic tests was carried out. In particular, accelerometric recordings were also processed and analyzed using several stationary and nonstationary signal processing techniques with the aim of analyzing the linear behavior of the undamaged structure and the nonlinear structural behavior during damaging shaking table tests. The proposed procedure based on the analysis of magnified videos provided an accurate estimate of the main modal frequency and the damage location through the analysis of the modal shapes, which were confirmed using advanced analyses of the accelerometric data. Consequently, the main novelty of the study was the highlighting of a simple procedure with high potential for the extraction and analysis of modal parameters, with a special focus on the analysis of the modal shape’s curvature, which provides accurate information on the location of the damage in a structure, while using a noncontact and low-cost method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low-Cost Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring)
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12 pages, 2722 KiB  
Article
RF Line-Element Filters for Structural-Health-Monitoring Applications
by Idris Musa and John Hedley
Sensors 2022, 22(22), 8908; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22228908 - 18 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1478
Abstract
RF-based sensors are an attractive option for structural-health-monitoring applications, due to the ease of access of interrogating such sensors. However, in most work, only scalar quantities are measured, giving no indication of the direction of strain or displacements. In this paper, a novel [...] Read more.
RF-based sensors are an attractive option for structural-health-monitoring applications, due to the ease of access of interrogating such sensors. However, in most work, only scalar quantities are measured, giving no indication of the direction of strain or displacements. In this paper, a novel approach to displacement sensing is presented, in which relative displacements are tracked in all three degrees of freedom. The sensor design is based on a pair of coupled line-element filters whose frequency-dependent forward-power transfer is sensitive to relative positions between the two filters. Multiple features in the S21 parameter are used to differentiate displacement direction. Gold-based devices were fabricated on quartz substrates, and characterised through vector-network-analyzer measurements. Results demonstrate uncoupled sensitivities of −1.41 MHz/mm, −1.74 MHz/mm and 12.23 MHz/mm for x, y and z displacements, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low-Cost Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring)
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35 pages, 7335 KiB  
Systematic Review
Low-Cost Sensors Technologies for Monitoring Sustainability and Safety Issues in Mining Activities: Advances, Gaps, and Future Directions in the Digitalization for Smart Mining
by Carlos Cacciuttolo, Valentina Guzmán, Patricio Catriñir, Edison Atencio, Seyedmilad Komarizadehasl and Jose Antonio Lozano-Galant
Sensors 2023, 23(15), 6846; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23156846 - 1 Aug 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3300
Abstract
Nowadays, monitoring aspects related to sustainability and safety in mining activities worldwide are a priority, to mitigate socio-environmental impacts, promote efficient use of water, reduce carbon footprint, use renewable energies, reduce mine waste, and minimize the risks of accidents and fatalities. In this [...] Read more.
Nowadays, monitoring aspects related to sustainability and safety in mining activities worldwide are a priority, to mitigate socio-environmental impacts, promote efficient use of water, reduce carbon footprint, use renewable energies, reduce mine waste, and minimize the risks of accidents and fatalities. In this context, the implementation of sensor technologies is an attractive alternative for the mining industry in the current digitalization context. To have a digital mine, sensors are essential and form the basis of Industry 4.0, and to allow a more accelerated, reliable, and massive digital transformation, low-cost sensor technology solutions may help to achieve these goals. This article focuses on studying the state of the art of implementing low-cost sensor technologies to monitor sustainability and safety aspects in mining activities, through the review of scientific literature. The methodology applied in this article was carried out by means of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and generating science mapping. For this, a methodological procedure of three steps was implemented: (i) Bibliometric analysis as a quantitative method, (ii) Systematic review of literature as a qualitative method, and (iii) Mixed review as a method to integrate the findings found in (i) and (ii). Finally, according to the results obtained, the main advances, gaps, and future directions in the implementation of low-cost sensor technologies for use in smart mining are exposed. Digital transformation aspects for data measurement with low-cost sensors by real-time monitoring, use of wireless network systems, artificial intelligence, machine learning, digital twins, and the Internet of Things, among other technologies of the Industry 4.0 era are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low-Cost Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring)
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