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Special Issue "Into the Seismic Cycle: Remote Sensing of Ground Deformation and Earthquake Activity"

A special issue of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Remote Sensing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2022) | Viewed by 4079

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Franz Livio
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Dipartimento di Scienza ed Alta Tecnologia, Università degli Studi dell’Insubria, Como, Italy
Interests: earthquake geology; paleoseismology; remote sensing
Dr. Maria Francesca Ferrario
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Dipartimento di Scienza ed Alta Tecnologia, Università degli Studi dell’Insubria, Como, Italy
Interests: surface faulting; earthquake environmental effects
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recent scientific and technical advances in remote sensing techniques for the monitoring of ground deformation have led to significant steps forward in the comprehension of the earthquake phenomenon and in the modelling of crustal deformation induced by tectonic processes. The long-living model of a seismic cycle based on the elastic rebound theory can now be tested through a detailed image of the ground deformation induced by tectonics during coseismic and interseismic phases, with progressively longer time windows covered by satellite imagery and with increasingly more earthquakes imaged by remote sensing. Additionally, a full 3-dimensional solution of ground deformation can finally be obtained thanks to techniques such as differential-LiDAR or resulting from combined geodetic approaches.

With this Special Issue, we compile state-of-the-art research that specifically addresses various aspects of earthquake-related ground deformation: long-term monitoring of interseismic deformation, combined or innovative approaches to obtain a 3-dimensional deformation field, comparison of coseismic deformation with geologic long-term cumulative crustal deformation.  

Review contributions are welcomed as well as papers describing innovative approaches to these issues.

Prof. Dr. Franz Livio
Dr. Maria Francesca Ferrario
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Remote Sensing is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • InSAR
  • Optical imagery correlation
  • LiDAR
  • Earthquake deformation
  • Seismic cycle

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Article
Source Geometry and Causes of the 2019 Ms6.0 Changning Earthquake in Sichuan, China Based on InSAR
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(9), 2082; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14092082 - 26 Apr 2022
Viewed by 526
Abstract
On 17 June 2019, an Ms6.0 earthquake occurred in Changning, Sichuan, China (Changning event), which was the largest earthquake on record within 50 km of the area. It attracted great attention as the area has the largest shale gas production in China as [...] Read more.
On 17 June 2019, an Ms6.0 earthquake occurred in Changning, Sichuan, China (Changning event), which was the largest earthquake on record within 50 km of the area. It attracted great attention as the area has the largest shale gas production in China as well as significant mineral salt production. Using the Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), we extract the coseismic deformation of the Changning event and two earlier Ms > 5.0 earthquakes which occurred in the same region (16 December 2018 Ms5.7 and 3 January 2019 Ms5.3) from the Sentinel-1 and ALOS2 data. We use nonlinear and linear methods to invert the fault models of the three earthquakes based on the deformation fields. The final model shows that the Changning event was caused by a fault with left-lateral strike and thrust slip. The strike is 124.3° with a dip angle of 43.4°. The seismic moment obtained by inversion is 5.28 × 1017 Nm, corresponding to Mw 5.78. Based on the fault models, we analyze the cause of the Changning earthquake considering the local tectonic setting, Coulomb stress change, mining, and fluid injection. We consider that the event may be related to salt mining. The two earlier Ms > 5.0 earthquakes may also play an important role in advancing the Changning earthquake. Full article
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Article
Surface Deformation Associated with the 22 August 1902 Mw 7.7 Atushi Earthquake in the Southwestern Tian Shan, Revealed from Multiple Remote Sensing Data
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(7), 1663; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14071663 - 30 Mar 2022
Viewed by 461
Abstract
The 22 August 1902 Mw 7.7 Atushi earthquake is the most disastrous seismic event in the southwestern Tian Shan. However, the spatial distribution of surface rupture zones as well as the geometric feature of surface deformation remain unclear, and the seismogenic fault is [...] Read more.
The 22 August 1902 Mw 7.7 Atushi earthquake is the most disastrous seismic event in the southwestern Tian Shan. However, the spatial distribution of surface rupture zones as well as the geometric feature of surface deformation remain unclear, and the seismogenic fault is still controversial. Based on geologic and geomorphic interpretations of multiple remote sensing imaging data, high-resolution DEM data derived from UAV imaging complemented by field investigations, we mapped two sub-parallel NEE-trending surface rupture zones with a total length of 108 km. In addition, ~60 km and ~48 km surface rupture zones are distributed along the pre-existing Atushi fault (ATF) and the Keketamu fault (KTF), respectively. The surface deformations are mainly characterized as bedrock scarp, hanging wall collapse scarp, pressure ridge, and thrust-related fold scarps along the two south-dipping thrust faults, which are defined as the seismogenic structure of the 1902 Mw 7.7 Atushi earthquake. Thus, we proposed the cascading-rupture model to explain the multiple rupture zones generated by the 1902 Mw 7.7 Atushi earthquake. Moreover, the multiple advanced remote sensing mapping techniques can provide a promising approach to recover the geometric and geomorphic features of the surface deformation caused by large seismic events in the arid and semi-arid regions. Full article
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Article
Coseismic Deformation Mechanisms of the 2021 Ms 6.4 Yangbi Earthquake, Yunnan Province, Using InSAR Observations
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(19), 3961; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13193961 - 02 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1084
Abstract
At 21:48 on 21 May 2021, an Ms 6.4 earthquake occurred in Yangbi County, Dali Prefecture, Yunnan Province. At present, uncertainty remains regarding the source parameters and deformation mechanism of the Yangbi earthquake. In this study, we determine fault geometry and slip distribution [...] Read more.
At 21:48 on 21 May 2021, an Ms 6.4 earthquake occurred in Yangbi County, Dali Prefecture, Yunnan Province. At present, uncertainty remains regarding the source parameters and deformation mechanism of the Yangbi earthquake. In this study, we determine fault geometry and slip distribution of the earthquake by InSAR analysis. Then, the Coulomb stress loading caused by the Yangbi earthquake is further analyzed. The results show that the moment magnitude of the Yangbi earthquake was Mw 6.14. The slip mainly occurred at depths of 3–13 km, with a maximum slip of approximately 61 cm at a depth of 6.98 km. The Yangbi earthquake was triggered by a blind fault in the NW-SE in the west parallel to the Weixi-Weishan Fault and its seismogenic fault exhibits strike-slip displacement. A large number of aftershocks were distributed along the fault rupture surface where the Coulomb stress increases. As the depth of the crust increases, the area where the Coulomb stress increases in the Yangbi earthquake, decreases. The occurrence of this earthquake also caused a significant increase in the Coulomb stress in the southeastern section of the Weixi-Weishan Faul. We should pay more attention to its seismic hazards. Full article
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Article
Shortcut Faults and Lateral Spreading Activated in a Pull-Apart Basin by the 2018 Palu Earthquake, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(15), 2939; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13152939 - 27 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1064
Abstract
Our understanding of pull-apart basins and their fault systems has been enhanced by analog experiments and simulations. However, there has been scarce interest to compare the faults that bound pull-apart basins with surface ruptures during earthquakes. In this study, we investigated the effects [...] Read more.
Our understanding of pull-apart basins and their fault systems has been enhanced by analog experiments and simulations. However, there has been scarce interest to compare the faults that bound pull-apart basins with surface ruptures during earthquakes. In this study, we investigated the effects of a 2018 earthquake (Mw 7.5) on a pull-apart basin in the Palu–Koro fault system, Sulawesi Island, Indonesia, using geomorphic observations on digital elevation models and optical correlation with pre- and post-earthquake satellite images. A comparison of active fault traces determined by geomorphology with the locations of surface ruptures from the 2018 earthquake shows that some of the boundary faults of the basin are inactive and that active faulting has shifted to basin-shortcut faults and relay ramps. We also report evidence of lateral spreading, in which alluvial fan materials moved around the end of the alluvial fan. These phenomena may provide insights for anticipating the location of future surface ruptures in pull-apart basins. Full article
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