Ways/Opportunities of Decontamination Processes of Surface Moulds and Mycotoxins

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Biological Processes and Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2023) | Viewed by 15242

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department for Veterinary Public Health, Croatian Veterinary Institute, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Interests: microbiological safety of food and feed

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department for Veterinary Public Health, Croatian Veterinary Institute, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Interests: chemical contaminants in food and feed; mycotoxins; analytical methods; climate changes
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Many fungal species grow on the surface of different substrates and cause processes which often contribute to spoilage, alterations of technological properties, modifications of material nutritive value, the development of mycosis and allergy agents, and the production of mycotoxins. Mycotoxins are a group of secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi which may contaminate food, feed, or raw materials used in their production, thus causing mycotoxicoses in livestock, domestic animals, and humans. Taking into account their often co-occurrence as also toxic and synergistic effects in the body, investigations of surface moulds and mycotoxins are of huge public health importance. The genera of mycotoxigenic fungi are mainly represented by Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Alternaria. The production process of mycotoxins is stimulated by certain environmental factors and therefore the extent of contamination differs with geographical location, implemented agricultural methods and conditions, as well as the susceptibility of commodities to the penetration of fungi during storage and processing periods. Among the hundreds of known mycotoxins, special attention is paid to aflatoxins, ochratoxins, and the Fusarium mycotoxins fumonisin, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol (DON), and T-2/HT-2 toxin, as they contaminate many different types of foodstuffs of plant and animal origin and occur all over the world. Previous research suggests that elevated carbon dioxide concentration, the increase of temperatures, and the occurrence of extreme droughts and rainy periods have a significant impact on mould growth and the appearance of mycotoxins. Therefore, because of the huge economic losses and health hazards which can be caused by toxicogenic moulds and mycotoxins, it is of great importance to develop nonharmful methods for their elimination or decontamination in agriculture and industry.

This Special Issue on “Ways/Opportunities of Decontamination Processes of Surface Moulds and Mycotoxins” aims to present novel advances in the knowledge of processes of mycotoxinogenic mould distribution and mycotoxin production, as well as their control and elimination from food and feed. Topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Conditions of surface moulds growth and possibilities of their removal;
  • Environmental and other conditions for mycotoxins production;
  • Mycotoxin co-occurrence and synergistic effects in humans and animals;
  • The development of nonharmful methods for mycotoxin control and elimination from food and feed.

text

Dr. Manuela Zadravec
Prof. Jelka Pleadin
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • moulds
  • mycotoxins
  • mycotoxin production
  • mycotoxin elimination
  • decontamination
  • implementation of nonharmful methods

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 466 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Binding of Selected Mycotoxin Deactivators and Aflatoxin M1 on the Content of Selected Micronutrients in Milk
by Zeljka Pavlek, Jasna Bosnir, Zeljka Kuharic, Aleksandar Racz, Ivan Jurak, Dario Lasic, Ksenija Markov, Zeljko Jakopovic and Jadranka Frece
Processes 2022, 10(11), 2431; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10112431 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1822
Abstract
Milk containing aflatoxin M1 (ATM1) in quantities above 0.05 µg/kg is considered unsuitable for consumption. It is possible to use mycotoxin deactivators that bind aflatoxin M1 and allow the further use of milk. The study aimed to examine the impact of selected mycotoxin [...] Read more.
Milk containing aflatoxin M1 (ATM1) in quantities above 0.05 µg/kg is considered unsuitable for consumption. It is possible to use mycotoxin deactivators that bind aflatoxin M1 and allow the further use of milk. The study aimed to examine the impact of selected mycotoxin deactivators (beta-glucan from yeast and oats, and live and dead lactic acid bacteria) on the nutritional composition of milk after binding to aflatoxin M1 intentionally added to milk. The study used consumption milk with 2.8% milk fat intentionally contaminated with aflatoxin M1. Furthermore, 0.05% and 0.1% solutions of beta-glucan from yeast and beta-glucan from oats were added to the contaminated milk, as well as live and dead lactic acid. Concentrations of Na, K, Mg, and Ca were monitored at the zero hour of binding of mycotoxin deactivators and ATM1, after 2 h of binding, and after 4 and 24 h of binding. The largest deviations were found in Na, K, and Mg, while the minimum changes were observed in Ca. Live lactic acid bacteria were found to have the least impact on micronutrients, except in Na (difference = 40, p = 0.029, GES = 0.083), where the 0.1% solution from oats had the least impact on micronutrient content. The results of this study suggest that it is best to use live lactic acid bacteria where the different duration of action regarding nutrients, with the possible exception of Na, is not relevant, which indicates that, when using this mycotoxin deactivator, milk contaminated with ATM1 can be further used. Full article
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Review

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11 pages, 303 KiB  
Review
Infection Control Measures against Candidaauris in Healthcare Facilities
by Wadha A. Alfouzan, Rita Dhar, Jasim Alabbad and Ali A. Rabaan
Processes 2022, 10(8), 1625; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10081625 - 17 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2380
Abstract
Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant yeast with high mortality rate, especially in patients with underlying co-morbidities. It has been known to contaminate the environment and colonize human skin for prolonged periods in healthcare settings leading to difficult-to-control outbreaks. However, there is limited [...] Read more.
Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant yeast with high mortality rate, especially in patients with underlying co-morbidities. It has been known to contaminate the environment and colonize human skin for prolonged periods in healthcare settings leading to difficult-to-control outbreaks. However, there is limited literature on the efficacy of different disinfectants/antiseptics, which can effectively decontaminate the environment and decolonize patients to prevent the spread of C. auris. This review highlights recommendations available in the literature for detection and control of C. auris in healthcare settings. Detection of C. auris by biochemical and automated methods has often been misleading. Availability of C. auris-specific PCR can prove to be a more reliable technique for detection of C. auris. Control measures for transmission of C. auris include use of registered hospital grade disinfectant active against Clostridium difficile cleaning the environment and equipment and chlorhexidine for decolonization of patients. Hand hygiene using soap and water, followed by use of alcohol-based hand sanitizer for maximal disinfection, is recommended for healthcare workers. Full article
23 pages, 1214 KiB  
Review
Biocontrol Methods in Avoidance and Downsizing of Mycotoxin Contamination of Food Crops
by Manuela Zadravec, Ksenija Markov, Tina Lešić, Jadranka Frece, Danijela Petrović and Jelka Pleadin
Processes 2022, 10(4), 655; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10040655 - 28 Mar 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3865
Abstract
By increasing the resistance of seeds against abiotic and biotic stress, the possibility of cereal mold contamination and hence the occurrence of secondary mold metabolites mycotoxins decreases. The use of biological methods of seed treatment represents a complementary strategy, which can be implemented [...] Read more.
By increasing the resistance of seeds against abiotic and biotic stress, the possibility of cereal mold contamination and hence the occurrence of secondary mold metabolites mycotoxins decreases. The use of biological methods of seed treatment represents a complementary strategy, which can be implemented as an environmental-friendlier approach to increase the agricultural sustainability. Whereas the use of resistant cultivars helps to reduce mold growth and mycotoxin contamination at the very beginning of the production chain, biological detoxification of cereals provides additional weapons against fungal pathogens in the later stage. Most efficient techniques can be selected and combined on an industrial scale to reduce losses and boost crop yields and agriculture sustainability, increasing at the same time food and feed safety. This paper strives to emphasize the possibility of implementation of biocontrol methods in the production of resistant seeds and the prevention and reduction in cereal mycotoxin contamination. Full article
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17 pages, 721 KiB  
Review
Mycotoxins—Prevention, Detection, Impact on Animal Health
by Jagoda Kępińska-Pacelik and Wioletta Biel
Processes 2021, 9(11), 2035; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9112035 - 14 Nov 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 6006
Abstract
Mycotoxins are defined as secondary metabolites of some species of mold fungi. They are present in many foods consumed by animals. Moreover, they most often contaminate products of plant and animal origin. Fungi of genera Fusarium, Aspergillus, and Penicillum are most [...] Read more.
Mycotoxins are defined as secondary metabolites of some species of mold fungi. They are present in many foods consumed by animals. Moreover, they most often contaminate products of plant and animal origin. Fungi of genera Fusarium, Aspergillus, and Penicillum are most often responsible for the production of mycotoxins. They release toxic compounds that, when properly accumulated, can affect many aspects of breeding, such as reproduction and immunity, as well as the overall liver detoxification performance of animals. Mycotoxins, which are chemical compounds, are extremely difficult to remove due to their natural resistance to mechanical, thermal, and chemical factors. Modern methods of analysis allow the detection of the presence of mycotoxins and determine the level of contamination with them, both in raw materials and in foods. Various food processes that can affect mycotoxins include cleaning, grinding, brewing, cooking, baking, frying, flaking, and extrusion. Most feeding processes have a variable effect on mycotoxins, with those that use high temperatures having the greatest influence. Unfortunately, all these processes significantly reduce mycotoxin amounts, but they do not completely eliminate them. This article presents the risks associated with the presence of mycotoxins in foods and the methods of their detection and prevention. Full article
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