Process Metallurgy: From Theory to Application

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Manufacturing Processes and Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 July 2024 | Viewed by 8276

Special Issue Editors

1. School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Suqian University, Suqian 223800, China
2. School of Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819, China
Interests: process metallurgy; welding metallurgy; chemical composition control; chemical thermodynamic modeling; thermodynamics and kinetics of reactions
School of Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819, China
Interests: numerical modelling; non-metallic inclusion; remelting electroslag; physical modelling; solidification
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Metallurgy has been leading the development of human civilization from time immemorial. Mankind has long-known how to extract metals from ores, how to alloy metals to make them suitable for specific needs, and how to prepare high-purity metals and compounds for electronic applications. Nowadays, metallurgy plays vital roles in various industries, such as steelmaking, welding, and high-temperature materials processing, etc. Recent applications of Calphad (Computer Coupling of Phase Diagrams and Thermochemistry) technology are also fostering the development of process metallurgy.

The topics of this Special Issue include, but are not limited to:

  • Process metallurgy;
  • Welding metallurgy;
  • Chemical composition control;
  • Chemical thermodynamic modeling;
  • High-temperature thermophysical properties of flux or slag;
  • High-temperature materials processing optimization for energy and environment;
  • Computer coupling of phase diagrams and thermochemistry (Calphad);
  • Crystallization control and heat treatment;
  • Thermodynamics and kinetics of iron and steelmaking reactions;
  • Continuous casting of ferrous and non-ferrous metals;
  • Materials for power generation;
  • Materials at extreme conditions;
  • Metal/slag recycling.

Dr. Jin Zhang
Dr. Fang Wang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • process metallurgy
  • welding metallurgy
  • flux/slag properties
  • calphad
  • materials processing optimization
  • flux/slag crystallization
  • thermodynamics
  • kinetics
  • metal/slag recycling
  • iron and steelmaking
  • continuous casting
  • composition control

Published Papers (5 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

31 pages, 8482 KiB  
Article
Lean-and-Green Datacentric Engineering in Laser Cutting: Non-Linear Orthogonal Multivariate Screening Using Gibbs Sampling and Pareto Frontier
by Georgia Sembou and George Besseris
Processes 2024, 12(2), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12020377 - 13 Feb 2024
Viewed by 681
Abstract
Metal processing may benefit from innovative lean-and-green datacentric engineering techniques. Broad process improvement opportunities in the efficient usage of materials and energy are anticipated (United Nations Sustainable Development Goals #9, 12). A CO2 laser cutting method is investigated in this study in [...] Read more.
Metal processing may benefit from innovative lean-and-green datacentric engineering techniques. Broad process improvement opportunities in the efficient usage of materials and energy are anticipated (United Nations Sustainable Development Goals #9, 12). A CO2 laser cutting method is investigated in this study in terms of product characteristics (surface roughness (SR)) and process characteristics (energy (EC) and gas consumption (GC) as well as cutting time (CT)). The examined laser cutter controlling factors were as follows: (1) the laser power (LP), (2) the cutting speed (CS), (3) the gas pressure (GP) and, (4) the laser focus length (F). The selected 10mm-thick carbon steel (EN10025 St37-2) workpiece was arranged to have various geometric configurations so as to simulate a variety of real industrial milling demands. Non-linear saturated screening/optimization trials were planned using the Taguchi-type L9(34) orthogonal array. The resulting multivariate dataset was treated using a combination of the Gibbs sampler and the Pareto frontier method in order to approximate the strength of the studied effects and to find a solution that comprises the minimization of all the tested process/product characteristics. The Pareto frontier optimal solution was (EC, GC, CT, SR) = (4.67 kWh, 20.35 Nm3, 21 s, 5.992 μm) for the synchronous screening/optimization of the four characteristics. The respective factorial settings were optimally adjusted at the four inputs (LP, CS, GP, F) located at (4 kW, 1.9 mm/min, 0.75 bar, +2.25 mm). The linear regression analysis was aided by the Gibbs sampler and promoted the laser power and the cutting speed on energy consumption to be stronger effects. Similarly, a strong effect was identified of the cutting speed and the gas pressure on gas consumption as well as a reciprocal effect of the cutting speed on the cutting time. Further industrial explorations may involve more intricate workpiece geometries, burr formation phenomena, and process economics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Process Metallurgy: From Theory to Application)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 4022 KiB  
Article
Experimental Manufacturing of Ferromanganese Alloy from Man-Made Manganese-Containing Wastes
by Aisha Tastanova, Saniya Temirova, Bulat Sukurov, Alla Biryukova and Gulnar Abdykirova
Processes 2023, 11(12), 3328; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11123328 - 29 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 797
Abstract
The results of experiments on manganese pellets based on beneficiated manganese-containing sludge and the melting of ferromanganese alloy with their use are presented. Via beneficiating manganese-containing sludge (16.32% Mn), a concentrate with a manganese content of 35.2% was obtained. The composition of the [...] Read more.
The results of experiments on manganese pellets based on beneficiated manganese-containing sludge and the melting of ferromanganese alloy with their use are presented. Via beneficiating manganese-containing sludge (16.32% Mn), a concentrate with a manganese content of 35.2% was obtained. The composition of the charge used to prepare manganese pellets is proposed, and the conditions affecting their strength are determined. It was established that manganese is present in the composition of calcined pellets in the form of jacobsite MnFe2O4 and hausmannite Mn3O4. The formation of a phase of ferrobustamite (Ca0.79Fe0.21)SiO3, a ferrosilico-calcium binder that helps increase the strength of pellets, was found. Ferromanganese alloy was obtained as a result of the melting of calcined manganese pellets in a high-temperature Tamman-type unit. The Fe-Mn-Si alloy corresponds to the DIN 17 564 as-grade FeMn70Si in terms of manganese (63.76%) and silicon (17.21%) contents. The content of limiting impurity elements—carbon and phosphorus—in ferromanganese alloy is within acceptable limits. The structure of Fe-Mn-Si alloy and slag formed during their smelting process were studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Process Metallurgy: From Theory to Application)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 19946 KiB  
Article
Effects of Deep Cryogenic Treatment and Controlled Rolling on Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of an Ultra-High Strength Steel
by Yongli Chen, Xuejiao Zhou, Yuhua Li and Fei Tan
Processes 2023, 11(5), 1349; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11051349 - 27 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1079
Abstract
The microstructure mechanisms and mechanical properties of 0.23C-1.96Si-1.94Cr-1.93 Mn-0.35 Mo ultra-high strength steel treated by the deep cryogenic treatment at −196 °C were investigated after the steel was hot rolled at different temperatures. Experimental results show that austenitizing zone rolling with a large [...] Read more.
The microstructure mechanisms and mechanical properties of 0.23C-1.96Si-1.94Cr-1.93 Mn-0.35 Mo ultra-high strength steel treated by the deep cryogenic treatment at −196 °C were investigated after the steel was hot rolled at different temperatures. Experimental results show that austenitizing zone rolling with a large reduction in a single pass can comprehensively enhance the mechanical properties due to the high volume of retained austenite and refined lath martensite and bainite. The high strain gradient was suppressed, and tensile strength, yield strength, impact toughness, and total elongation were 2221 MPa, 2017 MPa, 65.5 J, and 16.9%, respectively. In addition, the austenitizing zone rolling can promote the formation of film retained austenite more than dual phase zone rolling, and retained austenite was decreased with an increase in rolling pass in a total rolling reduction of 75%. It is demonstrated that deep cryogenic treatment after austenite zone rolling with a large reduction is the proper method to enhance strength and toughness via refinement strengthening and retained austenite. This work not only reveals that the effects of refinement strengthening and high strain gradients can be markedly improved by deep cryogenic treatment after austenitizing zone rolling with large reduction strategies, but also provides a realistic preparation technology for the exploitation of superior steel applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Process Metallurgy: From Theory to Application)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 4274 KiB  
Article
Advancing Manganese Content Prediction in Submerged Arc Welded Metal: Development of a Multi-Zone Model via the Calphad Technique
by Jin Zhang, Ping Liu and Dan Zhang
Processes 2023, 11(4), 1265; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11041265 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1075
Abstract
Manganese is a vital element in determining the mechanical properties of submerged arc welded metal. To ensure a reliable weld, the equilibrium model has been used for decades to predict and control the manganese content, particularly when MnO-bearing fluxes are applied. However, the [...] Read more.
Manganese is a vital element in determining the mechanical properties of submerged arc welded metal. To ensure a reliable weld, the equilibrium model has been used for decades to predict and control the manganese content, particularly when MnO-bearing fluxes are applied. However, the equilibrium model only considers chemical interactions within the weld pool zone, leading to significant inaccuracies. To address this limitation, we propose a multi-zone model that accounts for all of the essential reaction zones in the submerged arc process via the Calphad technique. The model’s accuracy is verified by predicting the manganese content, the flux oxygen potential, and the neutral point location for the typical MnO-bearing fluxes covering acidic, neutral, and basic fluxes. The results indicate that the multi-zone model offers superior accuracy compared to the equilibrium model, which neglects significant oxygen improvement and alloy evaporation in the droplet zone. Further analysis of thermodynamic data reveals that the multi-zone model provides a more representative depiction of the variation trends in oxygen and manganese contents during the submerged arc welding process compared to the equilibrium model. Furthermore, this model can be utilized in the optimization of the submerged arc welding process, leading to improved quality and efficiency in heavy engineering industries. This study may provide an improved method for predicting the manganese content in welded C-Mn steel and deepen the understanding of manganese transfer mechanisms during the submerged arc welding process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Process Metallurgy: From Theory to Application)
Show Figures

Figure 1

29 pages, 8409 KiB  
Article
Lean-and-Green Strength Performance Optimization of a Tube-to-Tubesheet Joint for a Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchanger Using Taguchi Methods and Random Forests
by Panagiotis Boulougouras and George Besseris
Processes 2023, 11(4), 1211; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11041211 - 14 Apr 2023
Viewed by 3767
Abstract
The failing tube-to-tubesheet joint is identified as a primary quality defect in the fabrication of a shell-and-tube heat exchanger. Operating in conditions of high pressure and temperature, a shell-and-tube heat exchanger may be susceptible to leakage around faulty joints. Owing to the ongoing [...] Read more.
The failing tube-to-tubesheet joint is identified as a primary quality defect in the fabrication of a shell-and-tube heat exchanger. Operating in conditions of high pressure and temperature, a shell-and-tube heat exchanger may be susceptible to leakage around faulty joints. Owing to the ongoing low performance of the adjacent tube-to-tubesheet expansion, the heat exchanger eventually experiences malfunction. A quality improvement study on the assembly process is necessary in order to delve into the tight-fitting of the tube-to-tubesheet joint. We present a non-linear screening and optimization study of the tight-fitting process of P215NL (EN 10216-4) tube samples on P265GH (EN 10028-2) tubesheet specimens. A saturated fractional factorial scheme was implemented to screen and optimize the tube-to-tubesheet expanded-joint performance by examining the four controlling factors: (1) the clearance, (2) the number of grooves, (3) the groove depth, and (4) the tube wall thickness reduction. The adopted ‘green’ experimental tactic required duplicated tube-push-out test trials to form the ‘lean’ joint strength response dataset. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression analysis were subsequently employed in implementing the Taguchi approach to accomplish the multifactorial non-linear screening classification and the optimal setting adjustment of the four investigated controlling factors. It was found that the tube-wall thickness reduction had the highest influence on joint strength (55.17%) and was followed in the screening hierarchy by the number of grooves (at 30.47%). The groove depth (at 7.20%) and the clearance (at 6.84%) were rather weaker contributors, in spite of being evaluated to be statistically significant. A confirmation run showed that the optimal joint strength prediction was adequately estimated. Besides exploring the factorial hierarchy with statistical methods, an algorithmic (Random Forest) approach agreed with the leading effects line-up (the tube wall thickness and the number of grooves) and offered an improved overall prediction for the confirmation-run test dataset. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Process Metallurgy: From Theory to Application)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop