Special Issue "Radiation Polymers"

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymer Processing and Performance".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2019.

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Jinhua Chen Website E-Mail
Department of Advanced Functional Materials Research, Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology (QST), 1233 Watanuki-Machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292, Japan
Interests: radiation grafting; polymer electrolyte membrane; ion exchange membrane; polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell; lithium ion battery; radiation polymer; radiation crosslinking
Guest Editor
Dr. Yuji Ueki Website E-Mail
Department of Advanced Functional Materials Research, Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute,National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology (QST), 1233 Watanuki-Machi,Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292, Japan
Interests: radiation grafting; radiation polymerization; graft copolymerization; radiation technology in waste treatment
Guest Editor
Dr. Noriaki Seko Website E-Mail
Department of Advanced Functional Materials Research, Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute,National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology (QST), 1233 Watanuki-Machi,Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292, Japan
Interests: radiation grafting; radiation polymerization,; graft copolymerization; radiation technology in waste treatment

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are very fortunate to have the opportunity to edit a Special Issue named “Radiation Polymers” for publication in Polymers. We hope to bring an inspiring view on current trends and research focus on the radiation effect and radiation technology in the polymer sciences through this Special Issue.

Radiation polymers are a combination of radiation technology and polymer chemistry. Using radiation techniques, polymers can be synthesized, modified, crosslinked, and degraded. The mechanisms of these processes and their applications have recently been studied extensively. This Special Issue covers the present basic and applied research work on radiation technology applied in polymers, and includes the following topics: (1) Radiation grafting for the modification of polymer and polymer materials by monomer graft copolymerization; (2) radiation crosslinking to form three-dimensionally crosslinked polymers and materials; (3) radiation inducing chain scission and degradation for polymer recycling and other applications; (4) radiation-induced polymerization to generate polymers from monomer irradiation; and (5) protection of polymers from radiation and their radiation resistance. Here, irradiation includes gamma rays, electron beam, ion beam, UV, etc. The Special Issue also covers the radiation effect on biopolymers and biomaterials and the methods for the preparation of nanomaterials using radiation technology.

Dr. Jinhua Chen
Dr. Yuji Ueki
Dr. Noriaki Seko
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Polymers is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Radiation grafting
  • Radiation crosslinking
  • Radiation induced scission
  • Radiation polymerization
  • Radiation resistance
  • Ionizing radiation
  • Ion-track membranes
  • Graft copolymerization
  • Radiation chemical effects in polymers
  • Radiation technology and radiation processing
  • Radiation technology for nano materials and hydrogels
  • Radiation technology in waste treatment

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Amphoteric Ion Exchange Membranes Prepared by Preirradiation-Induced Emulsion Graft Copolymerization for Vanadium Redox Flow Battery
Polymers 2019, 11(9), 1482; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11091482 - 11 Sep 2019
Abstract
A series of poly(vinylidene difluoride)-based amphoteric ion exchange membranes (AIEMs) were prepared by preirradiation-induced graft copolymerization of styrene and dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate in an aqueous emulsion media followed by solution casting, sulfonation, and protonation. The effects of absorbed dose and comonomer concentration on grafting [...] Read more.
A series of poly(vinylidene difluoride)-based amphoteric ion exchange membranes (AIEMs) were prepared by preirradiation-induced graft copolymerization of styrene and dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate in an aqueous emulsion media followed by solution casting, sulfonation, and protonation. The effects of absorbed dose and comonomer concentration on grafting yield (GY) were investigated. The highest GY of 44.5% at a low comonomer concentration of 0.9 M could be achieved. FTIR, TGA, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the successful grafting and sulfonation of the as-prepared AIEMs. Properties of the AIEMs such as water uptake, ion exchange capacity (IEC), ionic conductivity, and crossover behavior of VO2+ ions prepared by this novel technique were systematically investigated and compared with those of the commercial Nafion 115 membrane. It was found that at a GY of 28.4%, the AIEMs showed higher IEC and conductivity, lower permeability of VO2+ ions, and a longer time to maintain open circuit voltage than Nafion 115, which was attributed to their high GY and elaborate amphoteric structure. Consequently, this work has paved the way for the development of green and low-cost AIEMs with good performance for vanadium redox flow battery applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiation Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Simplified Radiation-Induced Emulsion Graft Polymerization Method and Its Application to the Fabrication of a Heavy Metal Adsorbent
Polymers 2019, 11(8), 1373; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11081373 - 20 Aug 2019
Abstract
A simplified radiation-induced emulsion graft polymerization (SREG) method is proposed. This method involves a convenient and easy degassing process of a monomer solution using a commercially available sealed glass jar. A loaded weight on the lid of the jar was used to control [...] Read more.
A simplified radiation-induced emulsion graft polymerization (SREG) method is proposed. This method involves a convenient and easy degassing process of a monomer solution using a commercially available sealed glass jar. A loaded weight on the lid of the jar was used to control the jar’s internal pressure as the degassing of the monomer solution took place using a vacuum pump. The degassing method was highly reproducible, resulting from no bumping of the monomer solution. The initial grafting velocity was proportional to the absorbed doses of pre-irradiation between 5 and 20 kGy. This result indicates that dissolved oxygen was sufficiently eliminated from the monomer solution at such a level where the remaining oxygen had little effect on the grafting reaction at a dose of 5 kGy. The method was then applied to the fabrication of a heavy metal adsorbent that possessed a sufficient adsorption capacity of Co(II) ions. The SREG method is applicable to the fabrication of a wide variety of functional graft polymers because high-dose-rate gamma-ray radiation and expensive experimental equipment are not necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiation Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle
Cleavage of the Graft Bonds in PVDF–g–St Films by Boiling Xylene Extraction and the Determination of the Molecular Weight of the Graft Chains
Polymers 2019, 11(7), 1098; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11071098 - 28 Jun 2019
Abstract
To determine the molecular weight of graft chains in grafted films, the polystyrene graft chains of PVDF–g–St films synthesized by a pre-irradiation graft method are cleaved and separated by boiling xylene extraction. The analysis of the extracted material and the residual [...] Read more.
To determine the molecular weight of graft chains in grafted films, the polystyrene graft chains of PVDF–g–St films synthesized by a pre-irradiation graft method are cleaved and separated by boiling xylene extraction. The analysis of the extracted material and the residual films by FTIR, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analyses indicates that most graft chains are removed from the PVDF–g–St films within 72 h of extraction time. Furthermore, the molecular weight of the residual films decreases quickly within 8 h of extraction and then remains virtually unchanged up to 72 h after extraction time. The degradation is due to the cleavage of graft bonds, which is mainly driven by the thermal degradation and the swelling of graft chains in solution. This allows determination of the molecular weight of graft chains by GPC analysis of the extracted material. The results indicate that the PVDF–g–St prepared in this study has the structure where one or two graft chains hang from each PVDF backbone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiation Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle
Anisotropy of Thin Foils Obtained from Microwave-Irradiated Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Aqueous Solutions
Polymers 2019, 11(6), 1072; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11061072 - 21 Jun 2019
Abstract
In this paper, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) foils of comparable thickness were obtained by using 10 wt % PVA aqueous solutions exposed to microwave (MW) radiations for different times. The main goal of this paper is to identify the effects of MW irradiation on [...] Read more.
In this paper, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) foils of comparable thickness were obtained by using 10 wt % PVA aqueous solutions exposed to microwave (MW) radiations for different times. The main goal of this paper is to identify the effects of MW irradiation on the induced optical birefringence of PVA stretched foils, since it is known that the changes in the chemical and physical properties of polymers induced by radiations can influence the asymmetry of their molecular structures from which the birefringence of polymers derives. The efficiency of the MW oven was estimated, and the contribution of sensible and latent heat and heat loss to the absorbed energy was discussed. The effects of MW irradiation, in terms of absorbed energy, were evidenced by using FTIR spectra analysis, contact angle measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, and induced optical birefringence. The dehydration (cross-linking) of PVA in aqueous solution and the dependence of the anisotropy on the absorbed MW energy, stretching ratio, and the type of hydrogen bonds formed are discussed in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiation Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle
Fabrication of Cotton Linter-Based Adsorbents by Radiation Grafting Polymerization for Humic Acid Removal from Aqueous Solution
Polymers 2019, 11(6), 962; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11060962 - 02 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Two kinds of cotton linter-based adsorbents were synthesized by grafting dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) on cotton linter via radiation grafting polymerization, followed by further quaternization (QCL) or protonation (PCL). The effect of radiation dose and monomer concentration on grafting yield was optimized. The synthesized [...] Read more.
Two kinds of cotton linter-based adsorbents were synthesized by grafting dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) on cotton linter via radiation grafting polymerization, followed by further quaternization (QCL) or protonation (PCL). The effect of radiation dose and monomer concentration on grafting yield was optimized. The synthesized adsorbents were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The adsorption behaviors of the two adsorbents toward humic acid (HA) were investigated and discussed. pH effect studies showed that QCL was pH-independent, whereas PCL was just suitable for HA adsorption with pH < 6. The adsorption kinetics of the PCL and QCL adsorbent for HA removal were better described by pseudo-second-order kinetic mode and reached equilibrium in 40 min. The adsorption isotherms of the PCL and QCL adsorbent were well fitted with both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models, for which adsorption capacity reached 250 mg/g and 333 mg/g at pH 6, respectively. XPS analysis revealed the ratio of two amino group species at different pH, suggesting that the interaction mechanism of the adsorbent and HA was electrostatic adsorption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiation Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle
Facile Preparation of EVOH-Based Amphoteric Ion Exchange Membrane Using Radiation Grafting Technique: A Preliminary Investigation on Its Application for Vanadium Redox Flow Battery
Polymers 2019, 11(5), 843; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11050843 - 10 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
A novel amphoteric ion exchange membrane (AIEM) was successfully prepared by one-step radiation grafting of sodium styrene sulfonate (SSS) and dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) onto ethylene-vinylalcohol copolymer (EVOH) powder and sequent transferring into film by casting method. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), thermal gravimetric [...] Read more.
A novel amphoteric ion exchange membrane (AIEM) was successfully prepared by one-step radiation grafting of sodium styrene sulfonate (SSS) and dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) onto ethylene-vinylalcohol copolymer (EVOH) powder and sequent transferring into film by casting method. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA) and elemental analysis testified SSS and DMAEMA were successfully grafted onto EVOH. The ion exchange capacity, water uptake and proton conductivity of the resulting AIEM increased with grafting yield (GY). At the GY of 40.9%, the permeability of vanadium ions of AIEM was 3.98 × 10−7 cm2 min−1, which was better than Nafion117 membrane. Furthermore, the cost of this AIEM is much lower than that of Nafion117 membrane. This work provided a low cost and simple method for fabrication of the ion exchange membrane for vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). Meanwhile, it also provided a new direction for the application of EVOH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiation Polymers)
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