Special Issue "Conductive Polymers 2016"

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2016).

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Changsik Song

Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746, Republic of Korea
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +82-31-299-4567
Fax: +82-31-290-7075
Interests: molecular design; synthesis; conductive polymers; electroconductive hydrogels; photocatalysis; dynamic bondings
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Hyeonseok Yoon

(1) School of Polymer Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University
(2) Department of Polymer Engineering, Graduate School, Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-ro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 61186, South Korea
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +82-62-530-1778
Fax: +82-62-530-1779
Interests: conducting polymers, nanoparticles, composites, sensors, electrochemistry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Conductive polymers have been the subject of research interest for the last several decades since their interesting electronic properties are combined with their flexibility and light weight, and they have been utilized in sensors, actuators, and energy storage and conversion. Recent advances have been made on the control of three-dimensional structures, beyond the basic chemical structures, of conductive polymers in order to create novel functional materials. For example, hierarchically nanostructured conductive polymers have been developed and applied in sensors, supercapacitors, and battery electrodes. The control of higher level structures would also be important in developing conductive polymer-nanoparticle hybrid materials.

This Special Issue aims to report the recent progress of developing functional conductive polymers with novel structures, which can be applied in (but not limited to) sensors, actuators, supercapacitors, and batteries. Both original articles and reviews are welcome.

Dr. Changsik Song
Dr. Hyeonseok Yoon
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Polymers is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


Keywords

  • Conductive polymers
  • Nanostructure
  • Hierarchical structure
  • Polymer–nanoparticle hybrid
  • Sensors
  • Actuators
  • Energy storage

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Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
The Regulation of Osteogenesis Using Electroactive Polypyrrole Films
Polymers 2016, 8(7), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8070258
Received: 24 March 2016 / Revised: 27 June 2016 / Accepted: 5 July 2016 / Published: 13 July 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (11017 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To evaluate the effect of electrical conductivity of biomaterials on osteogenesis, polypyrrole (PPy) was fabricated by oxidative chemical polymerization as substrates for cell culture. Through adjusting the concentrations of monomer and initiator, polypyrrole films with different electrical conductivities were fabricated. These fabricated polypyrrole [...] Read more.
To evaluate the effect of electrical conductivity of biomaterials on osteogenesis, polypyrrole (PPy) was fabricated by oxidative chemical polymerization as substrates for cell culture. Through adjusting the concentrations of monomer and initiator, polypyrrole films with different electrical conductivities were fabricated. These fabricated polypyrrole films are transparent enough for easy optical microscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray spectroscopy and four-point probe were used to assess the microstructures, surface chemical compositions and electrical sheet resistance of films, respectively. Results indicate that higher monomer and initiator concentration leads to highly-branched PPy chains and thus promotes the electron mobility and electrical conductivity. Selected polypyrrole films then were applied for culturing rat bone marrow stromal cells. Cell viability and mineralization assays reveal that not only these films are biocompatible, but also capable of enhancing the calcium deposition into the extra cellular matrix by the differentiated cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conductive Polymers 2016)
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Open AccessArticle
Carbon Microparticles from Organosolv Lignin as Filler for Conducting Poly(Lactic Acid)
Polymers 2016, 8(6), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8060205
Received: 4 April 2016 / Revised: 18 May 2016 / Accepted: 20 May 2016 / Published: 26 May 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (3500 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbon microparticles were produced from organosolv lignin at 2000 °C under argon atmosphere following oxidative thermostabilisation at 250 °C. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, small-angle X-ray scattering, and electro-conductivity measurements revealed that the obtained particles were electrically conductive and were composed of large [...] Read more.
Carbon microparticles were produced from organosolv lignin at 2000 °C under argon atmosphere following oxidative thermostabilisation at 250 °C. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, small-angle X-ray scattering, and electro-conductivity measurements revealed that the obtained particles were electrically conductive and were composed of large graphitic domains. Poly(lactic acid) filled with various amounts of lignin-derived microparticles showed higher tensile stiffness increasing with particle load, whereas strength and extensibility decreased. Electric conductivity was measured at filler loads equal to and greater than 25% w/w. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conductive Polymers 2016)
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and Characterization of PEDOT:P(SS-co-VTMS) with Hydrophobic Properties and Excellent Thermal Stability
Polymers 2016, 8(5), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8050189
Received: 16 February 2016 / Revised: 18 April 2016 / Accepted: 5 May 2016 / Published: 12 May 2016
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (3266 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Hydrophobic and comparatively thermally-stable poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), i.e., poly(styrene sulfonate-co-vinyltrimethoxysilane) (PEDOT:P(SS-co-VTMS)) copolymer was successfully synthesized via the introduction of silane coupling agent into the PSS main chain to form P(SS-co-VTMS) copolymers. PSS and P(SS-co-VMTS) copolymers were [...] Read more.
Hydrophobic and comparatively thermally-stable poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), i.e., poly(styrene sulfonate-co-vinyltrimethoxysilane) (PEDOT:P(SS-co-VTMS)) copolymer was successfully synthesized via the introduction of silane coupling agent into the PSS main chain to form P(SS-co-VTMS) copolymers. PSS and P(SS-co-VMTS) copolymers were successfully synthesized via radical solution polymerization, and PEDOT:P(SS-co-VTMS) was synthesized via Fe+-catalyzed oxidative polymerization. The characterization of PEDOT:P(SS-co-VTMS) was performed through an analysis of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results, water contact angle and optical images. The electrical properties of conductive PEDOT:P(SS-co-VTMS) thin films were evaluated by studying the influence of the VTMS content on the electrical and physical properties. The conductivity of PEDOT:P(SS-co-VTMS) decreased with an increase in the VTMS content, but was close to that of the PEDOT:PSS, 235.9 S·cm−1. The introduction of VTMS into the PSS copolymer improved the mechanical properties and thermal stability and increased the hydrophobicity. The thermal stability test at a temperature over 240 °C indicated that the sheet resistance of PEDOT:PSS increased by 3,012%. The sheet resistance of PEDOT:P(SS-co-VTMS), on the other hand, only increased by 480%. The stability of PEDOT:P(SS-co-VTMS) was six-times higher than that of the reference PEDOT:PSS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conductive Polymers 2016)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Cryomilling CNTs on the Thermal and Electrical Properties of CNT/PMMA Composites
Polymers 2016, 8(5), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8050169
Received: 30 March 2016 / Revised: 19 April 2016 / Accepted: 21 April 2016 / Published: 26 April 2016
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (7579 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, the cryomilling of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was carried out to accomplish better dispersion without using any hazardous chemicals. Accordingly, different samples of CNTs were prepared by varying the milling speed (10, 20, and 25 Hz) and time (5, 10, and [...] Read more.
In this study, the cryomilling of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was carried out to accomplish better dispersion without using any hazardous chemicals. Accordingly, different samples of CNTs were prepared by varying the milling speed (10, 20, and 25 Hz) and time (5, 10, and 15 min) and incorporated into the poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix. The changes of the morphology were analyzed by utilizing a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM). Qualitative analysis of the cryomilled CNTs was carried out using Raman spectroscopy, and their surface area was determined via Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis. Subsequently, thermogravimetric analysis was conducted to evaluate the thermal properties, whereas the surface resistivity and electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness for the electrical conductivity were also examined. It was observed that the composite with Cr-20-10 showed better thermal stability and lower resistivity in comparison to the others because, as the cryomilling time and frequency increased the distribution, dispersion and surface area also increased. Consequently, a better interaction between CNTs and PMMA took place. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conductive Polymers 2016)
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Open AccessArticle
Studies of Grafted and Sulfonated Spiro Poly(isatin-ethersulfone) Membranes by Super Acid-Catalyzed Reaction
Polymers 2016, 8(4), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8040114
Received: 2 February 2016 / Revised: 22 March 2016 / Accepted: 24 March 2016 / Published: 29 March 2016
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Abstract
Spiro poly(isatin-ethersulfone) polymers were prepared from isatin and bis-2,6-dimethylphenoxyphenylsulfone by super acid catalyzed polyhydroxyalkylation reactions. We designed and synthesized bis-2,6-dimethylphenoxyphenylsulfone, which is structured at the meta position steric hindrance by two methyl groups, because this structure minimized crosslinking reaction during super acid catalyzed [...] Read more.
Spiro poly(isatin-ethersulfone) polymers were prepared from isatin and bis-2,6-dimethylphenoxyphenylsulfone by super acid catalyzed polyhydroxyalkylation reactions. We designed and synthesized bis-2,6-dimethylphenoxyphenylsulfone, which is structured at the meta position steric hindrance by two methyl groups, because this structure minimized crosslinking reaction during super acid catalyzed polymerization. In addition, sulfonic acid groups were structured in both side chains and main chains to form better polymer chain morphology and improve proton conductivity. The sulfonation reactions were performed in two steps which are: in 3-bromo-1-propanesulfonic acid potassium salt and in con. sulfuric acid. The membrane morphology was studied by tapping mode atomic force microscope (AFM). The phase difference between the hydrophobic polymer main chain and hydrophilic sulfonated units of the polymer was shown to be the reasonable result of the well phase separated structure. The correlations of proton conductivity, ion exchange capacity (IEC) and single cell performance were clearly described with the membrane morphology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conductive Polymers 2016)
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis of Polyaniline (PANI) in Nano-Reaction Field of Cellulose Nanofiber (CNF), and Carbonization
Polymers 2016, 8(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8020040
Received: 7 January 2016 / Revised: 23 January 2016 / Accepted: 28 January 2016 / Published: 2 February 2016
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (6893 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polymerization of aniline in the presence of cellulose nano-fiber (CNF) is carried out. We used dried CNF, CNF suspension, and CNF treated by enzyme and ultra-sonification to obtain polyaniline (PANI)/CNF as a synthetic polymer/natural nano-polymer composite. The polymerization proceeds on the surface of [...] Read more.
Polymerization of aniline in the presence of cellulose nano-fiber (CNF) is carried out. We used dried CNF, CNF suspension, and CNF treated by enzyme and ultra-sonification to obtain polyaniline (PANI)/CNF as a synthetic polymer/natural nano-polymer composite. The polymerization proceeds on the surface of CNF as a nano-reaction field. Resultant composites show extended effective π-conjugation length because CNF as a reaction field in molecular level produced polymer with expanded coil structure with an aid of orientation effect of CNF. Possibility of PANI β-pleats structure in molecular level of PANI on the CNF is also discussed. SEM observation showed that fine structure is easily obtained by combining PANI with CNF. Carbonization of PANI/CNF allows production of nano-fine form with shape preserved carbonization (SPC). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conductive Polymers 2016)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Conducting Polymer Based Nanobiosensors
Polymers 2016, 8(7), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8070249
Received: 31 May 2016 / Revised: 16 June 2016 / Accepted: 17 June 2016 / Published: 30 June 2016
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (4248 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, conducting polymer (CP) nanomaterials have been used in a variety of fields, such as in energy, environmental, and biomedical applications, owing to their outstanding chemical and physical properties compared to conventional metal materials. In particular, nanobiosensors based on CP nanomaterials [...] Read more.
In recent years, conducting polymer (CP) nanomaterials have been used in a variety of fields, such as in energy, environmental, and biomedical applications, owing to their outstanding chemical and physical properties compared to conventional metal materials. In particular, nanobiosensors based on CP nanomaterials exhibit excellent performance sensing target molecules. The performance of CP nanobiosensors varies based on their size, shape, conductivity, and morphology, among other characteristics. Therefore, in this review, we provide an overview of the techniques commonly used to fabricate novel CP nanomaterials and their biosensor applications, including aptasensors, field-effect transistor (FET) biosensors, human sense mimicking biosensors, and immunoassays. We also discuss prospects for state-of-the-art nanobiosensors using CP nanomaterials by focusing on strategies to overcome the current limitations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conductive Polymers 2016)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Recent Advances in Boron-Containing Conjugated Porous Polymers
Polymers 2016, 8(5), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8050191
Received: 12 April 2016 / Revised: 5 May 2016 / Accepted: 9 May 2016 / Published: 12 May 2016
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (4991 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Porous polymers, integrating the advantages of porous materials and conventional polymers, have been well developed and exhibited tremendous attention in the fields of material, chemistry and biology. Of these, boron-containing conjugated porous polymers, featuring tunable geometric structures, unique Lewis acid boron centers and [...] Read more.
Porous polymers, integrating the advantages of porous materials and conventional polymers, have been well developed and exhibited tremendous attention in the fields of material, chemistry and biology. Of these, boron-containing conjugated porous polymers, featuring tunable geometric structures, unique Lewis acid boron centers and very rich physical properties, such as high specific surface, chargeable scaffold, strong photoluminescence and intramolecular charge transfer, have emerged as one of the most promising functional materials for optoelectronics, catalysis and sensing, etc. Furthermore, upon thermal treatment, some of them can be effectively converted to boron-doped porous carbon materials with good electrochemical performance in energy storage and conversion, extensively enlarging the applicable scope of such kinds of polymers. In this review, the synthetic approaches, structure analyses and various applications of the boron-containing conjugated porous polymers reported very recently are summarized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conductive Polymers 2016)
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Open AccessReview
Conductive Elastomers for Stretchable Electronics, Sensors and Energy Harvesters
Polymers 2016, 8(4), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8040123
Received: 10 March 2016 / Revised: 30 March 2016 / Accepted: 31 March 2016 / Published: 5 April 2016
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (8687 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There have been a wide variety of efforts to develop conductive elastomers that satisfy both mechanical stretchability and electrical conductivity, as a response to growing demands on stretchable and wearable devices. This article reviews the important progress in conductive elastomers made in three [...] Read more.
There have been a wide variety of efforts to develop conductive elastomers that satisfy both mechanical stretchability and electrical conductivity, as a response to growing demands on stretchable and wearable devices. This article reviews the important progress in conductive elastomers made in three application fields of stretchable technology: stretchable electronics, stretchable sensors, and stretchable energy harvesters. Diverse combinations of insulating elastomers and non-stretchable conductive materials have been studied to realize optimal conductive elastomers. It is noted that similar material combinations and similar structures have often been employed in different fields of application. In terms of stretchability, cyclic operation, and overall performance, fields such as stretchable conductors and stretchable strain/pressure sensors have achieved great advancement, whereas other fields like stretchable memories and stretchable thermoelectric energy harvesting are in their infancy. It is worth mentioning that there are still obstacles to overcome for the further progress of stretchable technology in the respective fields, which include the simplification of material combination and device structure, securement of reproducibility and reliability, and the establishment of easy fabrication techniques. Through this review article, both the progress and obstacles associated with the respective stretchable technologies will be understood more clearly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conductive Polymers 2016)
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Open AccessReview
Recent Advances in Nanostructured Conducting Polymers: from Synthesis to Practical Applications
Polymers 2016, 8(4), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8040118
Received: 3 March 2016 / Revised: 19 March 2016 / Accepted: 25 March 2016 / Published: 31 March 2016
Cited by 52 | PDF Full-text (7879 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Conducting polymers (CPs) have been widely studied to realize advanced technologies in various areas such as chemical and biosensors, catalysts, photovoltaic cells, batteries, supercapacitors, and others. In particular, hybridization of CPs with inorganic species has allowed the production of promising functional materials with [...] Read more.
Conducting polymers (CPs) have been widely studied to realize advanced technologies in various areas such as chemical and biosensors, catalysts, photovoltaic cells, batteries, supercapacitors, and others. In particular, hybridization of CPs with inorganic species has allowed the production of promising functional materials with improved performance in various applications. Consequently, many important studies on CPs have been carried out over the last decade, and numerous researchers remain attracted to CPs from a technological perspective. In this review, we provide a theoretical classification of fabrication techniques and a brief summary of the most recent developments in synthesis methods. We evaluate the efficacy and benefits of these methods for the preparation of pure CP nanomaterials and nanohybrids, presenting the newest trends from around the world with 205 references, most of which are from the last three years. Furthermore, we also evaluate the effects of various factors on the structures and properties of CP nanomaterials, citing a large variety of publications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conductive Polymers 2016)
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