Multifunctional Polymer Composites Reinforced with Carbon Materials—Structure, Properties and Application

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymer Composites and Nanocomposites".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (5 April 2023) | Viewed by 6849

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Polish Academy of Sciences, Centre of Polymer and Carbon Materials, M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 34 street, 41-819 Zabrze, Poland
Interests: carbon porous materials; graphene structures; metal oxide–graphene hybrids; carbon-based aerogels; polymer matrix; conductive polymer composites; carbon–polymer composites; thermomechanical characteristics; structure–properties relationship

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Guest Editor
Polish Academy of Sciences, Centre of Polymer and Carbon Materials, M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 34 street, 41-819 Zabrze, Poland
Interests: X-ray diffraction; energy harvesting; ferroelectrics; ceramic nanoparticles; polymer matrix composites; carbon–polymer composites; ceramic–polymer composites
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent decades, carbon-containing polymer composites have emerged as attractive multifunctional materials for both well-known and new applications, for example, in aerospace and automotive innovations, construction industries, electronic and microelectronic devices such as electromagnetic interference shielding protection, as a potential candidate for sliding and/or high-friction tribological applications, and many others. In addition to carbon fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRP), widely used in practice, special attention is focused on polymers reinforced with particulate carbon materials. All potential applications require composites characterized by a low density and high strength, resulting in a lower mass of final construction and enhanced performance. Regarding the wide applications of these materials, which are also in constant development, the performance improvements and recycling of carbon–polymer composites are strongly investigated both in academia and the industry.

This Special Issue allows research scientists, engineers and asset managers to promote their scientific and technical advancements in the field of carbon-polymer composites via the submission of papers. This Special Issue invites both original research articles and critical reviews on the most recent advancements in carbon-reinforced polymer composites. Special attention will be paid to the following topics:

  • Carbon nanoparticles, nanotubes and nanofibers for polymers;
  • Carbon fiber reinforcements;
  • Graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide and functionalized graphene structures dedicated for polymers;
  • Porous carbon materials and carbon–carbon composites as polymer filler;
  • Metal–carbon, metal oxide–carbon hybrid materials applied in polymers;
  • Composites based on thermoplastic and thermoset polymer matrix;
  • New processing techniques and optimization studies;
  • Electrically and thermally conductive polymer composites with carbon materials;
  • Polymer composites containing carbon materials dedicated for tribological applications;
  • Recycling of carbon reinforcement, e.g., carbon fibers or particles and carbon–polymer composites.

Dr. Urszula Szeluga
Dr. Marcin Godzierz
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Polymers is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • carbon materials
  • porous carbons
  • graphene and graphene-based hybrid structures
  • graphene aerogels
  • carbon fibers
  • multifunctional carbon–polymer composites
  • composite processing
  • structure–properties relationships
  • conductive polymer composite materials
  • aerospace, automotive, construction materials
  • wear and friction properties
  • recycling procedures of carbon filled polymer composites

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 10539 KiB  
Article
Synergistic Effect of Partial Replacement of Carbon Black by Palm Kernel Shell Biochar in Carboxylated Nitrile Butadiene Rubber Composites
by Zafirah Zainal Abidin, Siti Nur Liyana Mamauod, Ahmad Zafir Romli, Siti Salina Sarkawi and Nahrul Hayawin Zainal
Polymers 2023, 15(4), 943; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15040943 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1649
Abstract
With the rapid development of the palm oil-related industry, this has resulted in the high production of palm oil waste. The increasing amount of palm oil waste has become an alarming issue in which researchers have carried out studies that this palm oil [...] Read more.
With the rapid development of the palm oil-related industry, this has resulted in the high production of palm oil waste. The increasing amount of palm oil waste has become an alarming issue in which researchers have carried out studies that this palm oil waste has the potential to be used as a biomass source. Carbon black (CB) is the most preferred reinforcing filler in the rubber industry but it has a disadvantage where CB is carcinogenic and a petroleum-based product. Hence CB is less sustainable. Palm kernel shell (PKS) derived from palm oil waste can be turned into palm kernel shell biochar (PKSBc) which can potentially be a value-added, sustainable biofiller as reinforcement in rubber composites. In this study, PKSBc is hybridized with CB (N660) at different loading ratios to be filled in carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber (XNBR). This study aims to elucidate the effect of the varying ratios of hybrid CB/PKSBc on the rheological properties, abrasion resistance, and hardness of XNBR composites. In this study, both CB and PKSBc are incorporated into XNBR and were then cured with sulphur. The composites were prepared by using a two-roll mill. Different compositions of hybrid CB/PKSBc were incorporated. The rheological properties and physicomechanical properties, such as abrasion resistance and hardness of the vulcanizates, were investigated. Based on the results, as the loading ratio of PKSBc in hybrid CB/PKSBc increases, the cure time decreases, and the cure rate index increases. The abrasion resistance and hardness values of vulcanizates were maintained by the high loading of PKSBc which was due to the porous structure of PKSBc as shown in the morphological analysis of PKSBc. The pores of PKSBc provided mechanical interlocking to reduce volume loss and maintain the hardness of vulcanizates when subjected to force. With this, PKSBc is proven to be a semi-reinforcing filler that could not only act as a co-filler to existing commercialized CB, but PKSBc could also fully substitute CB as reinforcement in rubber, specifically XNBR as it is able to provide high abrasion resistance and hardness to the rubber composites. This would mean the performance of PKSBc is comparable with CB (N660) when it comes to maintaining the physicomechanical properties of XNBR composites in terms of abrasion resistance and hardness. Therefore, this approach of using eco-friendly filler derived from palm oil agricultural waste (PKSBc) can reduce the abundance of palm oil waste, be a sustainable alternative to act as a co-filler in hybrid CB/PKSBc to decrease the usage of CB, and helps to enhance the quality of existing rubber-based products. Full article
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18 pages, 9338 KiB  
Article
Polylactide/Carbon Black Segregated Composites for 3D Printing of Conductive Products
by Olha Masiuchok, Maksym Iurzhenko, Roman Kolisnyk, Yevgen Mamunya, Marcin Godzierz, Valeriy Demchenko, Dmytro Yermolenko and Andriy Shadrin
Polymers 2022, 14(19), 4022; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14194022 - 26 Sep 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1892
Abstract
One of the most important directions in the development of additive manufacturing or three-dimensional (3D) printing technologies is the creation of functional materials, which allow not only prototyping but also the manufacturing of products with functional properties. In this paper, poly-lactide acid (PLA) [...] Read more.
One of the most important directions in the development of additive manufacturing or three-dimensional (3D) printing technologies is the creation of functional materials, which allow not only prototyping but also the manufacturing of products with functional properties. In this paper, poly-lactide acid (PLA) /carbon black (CB) composites with segregated (ordered) structure have been created. Computer simulation based on the Mamunya geometrical model showed that the CB content within φ = 2.5–5 vol.% in the polylactide matrix leads to the formation of a continuous electrically conductive phase with an increase of electrical conductivity σdc above the percolation threshold. The simulation results were experimentally confirmed by optical microscopy and studies of the electrical conductivity of the composites. It was found that increasing CB content from φ = 1 vol.% to φ = 7 vol.% in the composites causes insignificant (due to the segregated structure) phase changes in the polylactide matrix and improves the thermal properties of composites. Electrically conductive filaments for Fused Deposition 3D Printing (FDM) were developed from PLA/CB composites and then 3D printed. A correlation between the electrical conductivity σdc and the CB content φ for base composites, filaments produced from them, and final 3D samples, has been found. Conductivity varies within σdc = 3.1·10−11 − 10·10−3 S/cm for the filaments and σdc = 3.6·10−11 − 8.1·10−4 S/cm for the final 3D-products. Full article
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13 pages, 2848 KiB  
Article
The Use of Carbon Fibers Recovered by Pyrolysis from End-of-Life Wind Turbine Blades in Epoxy-Based Composite Panels
by Jakub Smoleń, Piotr Olesik, Jakub Jała, Andrzej Adamcio, Klaudia Kurtyka, Marcin Godzierz, Rafał Kozera, Mateusz Kozioł and Anna Boczkowska
Polymers 2022, 14(14), 2925; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14142925 - 19 Jul 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2408
Abstract
This work is devoted to evaluating the effectiveness of the recovery of carbon fibers from end-of-life wind turbine blades in the pyrolysis process, and the use of those fibers in the production of flat composite panels. The recovery of carbon fibers from wind [...] Read more.
This work is devoted to evaluating the effectiveness of the recovery of carbon fibers from end-of-life wind turbine blades in the pyrolysis process, and the use of those fibers in the production of flat composite panels. The recovery of carbon fibers from wind turbine blades uses a pyrolysis process at 500–600 °C in a non-oxidizing atmosphere, in such a way that makes it possible to preserve the shape and dimensions of the fibers. Using recycled carbon fibers, flat CFRP sheets with epoxy resin matrix were produced by pressing. Seven different series of samples were tested, which differed in fiber length, fiber orientation, and pressure holding time. The results obtained on the recycled fibers were compared to the original carbon fibers, cut to corresponding lengths. Additionally, one of the series was reinforced with a biaxial fabric. The most favorable pressing parameters are empirically found to be pre-pressing 2 MPa (10 min), and further pressing at a pressure of 7 MPa until the resin completely cross-linked (about 120 min). A number of tests were carried out to demonstrate the usefulness of pyrolytic fibers, including tensile strength of carbon fibers, bending strength, SEM observations, FT-IR, and Raman spectroscopy. The tests carried out on the carbon fibers show that the pyrolysis process used leaves about 2% of the matrix on the surface of the fiber, and the tensile strength of the fibers drops by about 20% compared to the new carbon fibers. The research results show that the use of the recycled carbon fibers in the production of flat composite plates is reliable, and their mechanical properties do not differ significantly from plates made of corresponding original carbon fibers. Composite panels with the pyrolytic fibers (274 MPa) show up to a 35% higher flexural strength than similarly produced panels with the original new carbon fibers (203 MPa), which means that the panels can be used in the production of elements for footbridges, bridges, pipelines, or structural elements of buildings and roofing. Full article
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