Biological Activities and Constituents of Plant-Derived Natural Products and Their Application—II

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Phytochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2024 | Viewed by 6819

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Guest Editor
Natural Product Informatics Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Gangneung 25451, Republic of Korea
Interests: phytochemistry; phytochemicals; bioactive compounds; natural product isolation
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Natural products have been investigated to alleviate disease since early human history and utilized in pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, cosmetics, fine chemicals, and nutraceuticals. Indeed, natural products are extremely rich sources of biomolecules useful for multiple applications. Of these, plant-derived natural products have been one of the most important ones and continue to be the source and inspiration for a substantial fraction to improve quality of life. Currently, approximately 350,000 species of plants are believed to exist, and a third have been discovered, but only a few have been investigated chemically or biologically; therefore, studies on diverse plants are a vital necessity. Additionally, with recent technological advances accelerating the emergence of new screening systems, there is a need to rapidly identify novel lead compounds. We believe a significant portion of these leads could continue to be from natural products, especially plants.

For all these reasons, this Special Issue aims to invite researchers to contribute original articles and review articles that provide evidence for the constituents and pharmacological properties of diverse plants. To ensure the quality of this Special Issue, each article should include phytochemical and biological information on plant extracts.

Dr. Jaeyoung Kwon
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • plant extracts
  • phytochemistry
  • phytochemicals
  • bioactive compounds
  • natural medicines

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Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 1133 KiB  
Article
Chaenomelin, a New Phenolic Glycoside, and Anti-Helicobacter pylori Phenolic Compounds from the Leaves of Salix chaenomeloides
by Kyung Ah Kim, Dong-Min Kang, Yoon-Joo Ko, Moon-Jin Ra, Sang-Mi Jung, Jeong-Nam Yu, Mi-Jeong Ahn and Ki Hyun Kim
Plants 2024, 13(5), 701; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants13050701 - 29 Feb 2024
Viewed by 668
Abstract
Salix chaenomeloides Kimura, commonly known as pussy willow, is a deciduous shrub and tree belonging to the Salicaceae family. The genus Salix spp. has been known as a healing herb for the treatment of fever, inflammation, and pain relief. The current study aimed [...] Read more.
Salix chaenomeloides Kimura, commonly known as pussy willow, is a deciduous shrub and tree belonging to the Salicaceae family. The genus Salix spp. has been known as a healing herb for the treatment of fever, inflammation, and pain relief. The current study aimed to investigate the potential bioactive natural products from S. chaenomeloides leaves and evaluate their antibacterial activity against Helicobacter pylori. A phytochemical investigation of the ethanol (EtOH) extract of S. chaenomeloides leaves led to the isolation of 13 phenolic compounds (113) from the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction, which showed antibacterial activity against H. pylori strain 51. The chemical structure of a new phenolic glycoside, chaenomelin (1), was established by a detailed analysis of 1D and 2D (1H-1H correlation spectroscopy (COSY), heteronuclear single-quantum coherence (HSQC), and heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation (HMBC)) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (HR-ESIMS), and chemical reactions. The other known compounds were identified as 5-O-trans-p-coumaroyl quinic acid methyl ester (2), tremulacin (3), citrusin C (4), benzyl 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-7-hydroxybenzoate (5), tremuloidin (6), 1-[O-β-d-glucopyranosyl(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranosyl]oxy-2-phenol (7), arbutin cinnamate (8), tremulacinol (9), catechol (10), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (11), kaempferol 3-rutinoside (12), and narcissin (13), based on the comparison of their NMR spectra with the reported data and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis. The isolated compounds were evaluated for antibacterial activity against H. pylori strain 51. Among the isolates, 1-[O-β-d-glucopyranosyl(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranosyl]oxy-2-phenol (7) and arbutin cinnamate (8) exhibited antibacterial activity against H. pylori strain 51, with inhibitions of 31.4% and 33.9%, respectively, at a final concentration of 100 μM. These results were comparable to that of quercetin (38.4% inhibition), which served as a positive control. Generally, these findings highlight the potential of the active compounds 7 and 8 as antibacterial agents against H. pylori. Full article
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13 pages, 4548 KiB  
Article
Glycolipids Derived from the Korean Endemic Plant Aruncus aethusifolius Inducing Glucose Uptake in Mouse Skeletal Muscle C2C12 Cells
by Jong Gwon Baek, Do Hwi Park, Ngoc Khanh Vu, Charuvaka Muvva, Hoseong Hwang, Sungmin Song, Hyeon-Seong Lee, Tack-Joong Kim, Hak Cheol Kwon, Keunwan Park, Ki Sung Kang and Jaeyoung Kwon
Plants 2024, 13(5), 608; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants13050608 - 23 Feb 2024
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Abstract
Aruncus spp. has been used as a traditional folk medicine worldwide for its anti-inflammatory, hemostatic, and detoxifying properties. The well-known species A. dioicus var. kamtschaticus has long been used for multifunctional purposes in Eastern Asia. Recently, it was reported that its extract has [...] Read more.
Aruncus spp. has been used as a traditional folk medicine worldwide for its anti-inflammatory, hemostatic, and detoxifying properties. The well-known species A. dioicus var. kamtschaticus has long been used for multifunctional purposes in Eastern Asia. Recently, it was reported that its extract has antioxidant and anti-diabetic effects. In this respect, it is likely that other Aruncus spp. possess various biological activities; however, little research has been conducted thus far. The present study aims to biologically identify active compounds against diabetes in the Korean endemic plant A. aethusifolius and evaluate the underlying mechanisms. A. aethusifolius extract enhanced glucose uptake without toxicity to C2C12 cells. A bioassay-guided isolation of A. aethusifolius yielded two pure compounds, and their structures were characterized as glycolipid derivatives, gingerglycolipid A, and (2S)-3-linolenoylglycerol-O-β-d-galactopyranoside by an interpretation of nuclear magnetic resonance and high-resolution mass spectrometric data. Both compounds showed glucose uptake activity, and both compounds increased the phosphorylation levels of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). Gingerglycolipid A docked computationally into the active site of IRS-1, AMPK1, AMPK2, and PPARγ (−5.8, −6.9, −6.8, and −6.8 kcal/mol). Full article
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15 pages, 1914 KiB  
Article
Triterpenoidal Saponins from the Leaves of Aster koraiensis Offer Inhibitory Activities against SARS-CoV-2
by Ji-Young Kim, Tai Young Kim, So-Ri Son, Suyeon Yellena Kim, Jaeyoung Kwon, Hak Cheol Kwon, C. Justin Lee and Dae Sik Jang
Plants 2024, 13(2), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants13020303 - 19 Jan 2024
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Abstract
Triterpenoidal saponins have been reported to be able to restrain SARS-CoV-2 infection. To isolate antiviral compounds against SARS-CoV-2 from the leaves of Aster koraiensis, we conducted multiple steps of column chromatography. We isolated six triperpenoidal saponins from A. koraiensis leaves, including [...] Read more.
Triterpenoidal saponins have been reported to be able to restrain SARS-CoV-2 infection. To isolate antiviral compounds against SARS-CoV-2 from the leaves of Aster koraiensis, we conducted multiple steps of column chromatography. We isolated six triperpenoidal saponins from A. koraiensis leaves, including three unreported saponins. Their chemical structures were determined using HR-MS and NMR data analyses. Subsequently, we tested the isolates to assess their ability to impede the entry of the SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus (pSARS-CoV-2) into ACE2+ H1299 cells and found that five of the six isolates displayed antiviral activity with an IC50 value below 10 μM. Notably, one unreported saponin, astersaponin J (1), blocks pSARS-CoV-2 in ACE2+ and ACE2/TMPRSS2+ cells with similar IC50 values (2.92 and 2.96 μM, respectively), without any significant toxic effect. Furthermore, our cell-to-cell fusion and SARS-CoV-2 Spike-ACE2 binding assays revealed that astersaponin J inhibits membrane fusion, thereby blocking both entry pathways of SARS-CoV-2 while leaving the interaction between the SARS-CoV-2 Spike and ACE2 unaffected. Overall, this study expands the list of antiviral saponins by introducing previously undescribed triterpenoidal saponins isolated from the leaves of A. koraiensis, thereby corroborating the potency of triterpenoid saponins in impeding SARS-CoV-2 infection. Full article
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12 pages, 4492 KiB  
Article
3‴-O-Foliamenthoyl-Rutin, a New Flavonoid Glycoside from the Roots of Nymphoides peltata
by Tae-Young Kim, Bum Soo Lee, Beom-Geun Jo, Seong Pil Heo, Min-Ji Keem, Taek-Hwan Kwon, Su-Nam Kim, Ki Hyun Kim and Min Hye Yang
Plants 2023, 12(24), 4083; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12244083 - 06 Dec 2023
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Abstract
Nymphoides peltata (Menyanthaceae) has been used as a medicinal herb in traditional medicines to treat conditions such as strangury, polyuria, swelling, and as a diuretic and antipyretic. In our ongoing research to discover novel structural and/or biological natural products in natural resources, five [...] Read more.
Nymphoides peltata (Menyanthaceae) has been used as a medicinal herb in traditional medicines to treat conditions such as strangury, polyuria, swelling, and as a diuretic and antipyretic. In our ongoing research to discover novel structural and/or biological natural products in natural resources, five flavonoids, quercetin (1), quercitrin (2), isoquercetin (3), quercetin-3-O-vicianoside (4), and rutin (5), as well as a new flavonoid glycoside, 3‴-O-foliamenthoyl-rutin (6), were isolated from the MeOH extract of N. peltata roots. The chemical structure of the new compound (6) was determined by analyzing 1D and 2D NMR spectra and high-resolution (HR) electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (ESIMS), along with a chemical reaction. The wound-healing activities of the isolated compounds (16) were evaluated using a HaCaT cell scratch test. Among the isolates, isoquercetin (3), quercetin-3-O-vicianoside (4), and 3‴-O-foliamenthoyl-rutin (6) promoted HaCaT cell migration over scratch wounds, with compound 4 being the most effective. Our findings provide experimental data supporting the potential of quercetin-3-O-vicianoside (4) as a wound-healing agent. Full article
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13 pages, 2315 KiB  
Article
Global Natural Products Social (GNPS)-Based Molecular-Networking-Guided Isolation of Phenolic Compounds from Ginkgo biloba Fruits and the Identification of Estrogenic Phenolic Glycosides
by Chen Huo, Quynh Nhu Nguyen, Akida Alishir, Moon-Jin Ra, Sang-Mi Jung, Jeong-Nam Yu, Hui-Jeong Gwon, Ki Sung Kang and Ki Hyun Kim
Plants 2023, 12(23), 3970; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12233970 - 25 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1065
Abstract
Ginkgo biloba L. stands as one of the oldest living tree species, exhibiting a diverse range of biological activities, including antioxidant, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and cardiovascular activities. As part of our ongoing discovery of novel bioactive components from natural sources, we directed our focus [...] Read more.
Ginkgo biloba L. stands as one of the oldest living tree species, exhibiting a diverse range of biological activities, including antioxidant, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and cardiovascular activities. As part of our ongoing discovery of novel bioactive components from natural sources, we directed our focus toward the investigation of potential bioactive compounds from G. biloba fruit. The profiles of its chemical compounds were examined using a Global Natural Products Social (GNPS)-based molecular networking analysis. Guided by this, we successfully isolated and characterized 11 compounds from G. biloba fruit, including (E)-coniferin (1), syringin (2), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), vanillic acid 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4), syringic acid 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), (E)-ferulic acid 4-O-β-D-glucoside (6), (E)-sinapic acid 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (7), (1′R,2′S,5′R,8′S,2′Z,4′E)-dihydrophaseic acid 3′-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (8), eucomic acid (9), rutin (10), and laricitrin 3-rutinoside (11). The structural identification was validated through a comprehensive analysis involving nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic data and LC/MS analyses. All isolated compounds were evaluated using an E-screen assay for their estrogen-like effects in MCF-7 cells. As a result, compounds 2, 3, 4, 8, and 9 promoted cell proliferation in MCF-7 cells, and these effects were mitigated by the ER antagonist, ICI 182,780. In particular, cell proliferation increased most significantly to 140.9 ± 6.5% after treatment with 100 µM of compound 2. The mechanism underlying the estrogen-like effect of syringin (2) was evaluated using a Western blot analysis to determine the expression of estrogen receptor α (ERα). We found that syringin (2) induced an increase in the phosphorylation of ERα. Overall, these experimental results suggest that syringin (2) can potentially aid the control of estrogenic activity during menopause. Full article
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14 pages, 1899 KiB  
Communication
Antiviral Effects of Secondary Metabolites from Jatropha podagrica Leaves against the Pseudotyped Virus of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron
by Yoon Seo Jang, Da Eun Lee, Dong U Ju, Se Yun Jeong, Yoon-Joo Ko, Changhyun Pang, Ki Sung Kang, Hui-Jeong Gwon, Hee Min Yoo and Ki Hyun Kim
Plants 2023, 12(23), 3942; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12233942 - 23 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1007
Abstract
Jatropha podagrica holds a longstanding place in traditional herbal medicine, primarily utilized for addressing skin infections, acting as antipyretics, diuretics, and purgatives. In this study, our primary objective was to investigate the secondary metabolites present in J. podagrica leaves, with the aim of [...] Read more.
Jatropha podagrica holds a longstanding place in traditional herbal medicine, primarily utilized for addressing skin infections, acting as antipyretics, diuretics, and purgatives. In this study, our primary objective was to investigate the secondary metabolites present in J. podagrica leaves, with the aim of pinpointing natural compounds exhibiting potential antiviral activities. Five secondary metabolites (15), including an auronol glycoside (1), two coumarins (2 and 3), a chromane (4) and a gallotannin (5), were isolated from J. podagrica leaves. Compound 1 presented as an amalgamation of unseparated mixtures, yet its intricate composition was adroitly unraveled through the strategic deployment of a chiral HPLC column. This tactic yielded the isolation of epimers (+)-1 and (−)-1, ascertained as unreported auronol glycosides. The structures of these novel compounds, (+)-1 and (−)-1, were elucidated to be (2S)-hovetrichoside C [(+)-1] and (2R)-hovetrichoside C [(−)-1] through NMR data and HR-ESIMS analyses, enzymatic hydrolysis, and comparison of optical rotation values. Cytotoxicity and antiviral effects were assessed for the isolated compounds ((+)-1, (−)-1 and 25), along with compound 1a (the aglycone of 1), in the A549 human alveolar basal epithelial cell line. Each compound demonstrated a cell viability of approximately 80% or higher, confirming their non-toxic nature. In the group of compounds, compounds 3–5 demonstrated antiviral effects based on RT-qPCR results, with individual enhancements ranging from approximately 28 to 38%. Remarkably, compound 4 exhibited the most substantial antiviral effect. Utilization of compound 4 to assess immune boosting and anti-inflammatory effects revealed increased levels of STING, RIG-I, NLRP3, and IL-10 along with a decrease in TNF-α and IL-6. Therefore, these findings underscore the potential of these active compounds 35 not only as therapeutic agents for SARS-CoV-2 but also as new contenders for upcoming pandemics. Full article
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Review

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21 pages, 991 KiB  
Review
A Comprehensive Insight into Māmaki (Pipturus albidus): Its Ethnomedicinal Heritage, Human Health Research, and Phytochemical Properties
by Grant Koher, Ajmal Khan, Gabriel Suarez-vega, Pornphimon Meesakul, Ann-Janin Bacani, Tomomi Kohno, Xuewei Zhu, Ki Hyun Kim, Shugeng Cao and Zhenquan Jia
Plants 2023, 12(16), 2924; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12162924 - 12 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1535
Abstract
In Hawaii, the plants P. albidus, P. forbesii, P. kauaiensis, and P. ruber are collectively known as māmaki in ethnomedicine, where P. albidus predominates. Farmed māmaki is becoming increasingly popular in Hawaii and the United States. Māmaki teas (such as [...] Read more.
In Hawaii, the plants P. albidus, P. forbesii, P. kauaiensis, and P. ruber are collectively known as māmaki in ethnomedicine, where P. albidus predominates. Farmed māmaki is becoming increasingly popular in Hawaii and the United States. Māmaki teas (such as bottled Shaka tea) are the dominant product. Historically, māmaki has been utilized for its medicinal properties, promoting well-being and good health through consuming tea made from its leaves, ingesting its fruit, and incorporating it into ointments. Māmaki holds cultural significance among Native Hawaiians and is widely used in ethnic medicine, having been incorporated into traditional practices for centuries. However, the scientific mechanisms behind its effects remain unclear. This review consolidates current knowledge of māmaki, shedding light on its potential therapeutic properties, physical properties, nutritional and mineral composition, and active phytochemicals. We also highlight recent research advances in māmaki’s antibacterial, anti-viral, chemopreventive, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities. Additionally, we discuss future prospects in this field. Full article
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