Advanced Liposomes for Drug Delivery

A special issue of Pharmaceutics (ISSN 1999-4923). This special issue belongs to the section "Drug Delivery and Controlled Release".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2023) | Viewed by 35673

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Department of Pharmaceutical Products, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, Belo Horizonte 31270-901, Brazil
Interests: liposomes; physicochemical characterization; drug delivery systems; cancer; treatment; cardiotoxicty; tumor models
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Guest Editor
Department of Pharmaceutical Products, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Minas Gerais, UFMG, Belo Horizonte 31270-901, Brazil
Interests: nanoparticles; drug delivery system; polymeric micelles; liposomes; theranostic; cancer; SAXS; peripheral neuropathy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Liposomes are phospholipid-based nanostructures discovered in the early 1960s; they have been extensively discussed as drug delivery systems since 1976. The approval of DOXILTM, a doxorubicin liposomal formulation, in 1995, encouraged researchers to reach better outcomes regarding the safety and therapeutic efficacy of liposomes. In the last several decades, liposomes with several lipid compositions and surface modifications, and with the most extensive list of different kinds of encapsulated molecules (e.g., drugs, peptides, antibodies, nucleic acids) have been reported for most types of applications. However, the versatility of liposomes and their key role in health care technology advances continue to encourage research groups to develop new liposomal formulations.

This Special Issue aims to present the new advances in liposome research and the current evidence of liposome use as drug delivery systems in the treatment and diagnosis of cancer, inflammation, or infectious disease.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Juliana De Oliveira Silva
Dr. Caroline Mari Ramos Oda
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • liposomes 
  • lipid-based nanosystems 
  • drug delivery systems 
  • treatment 
  • diagnosis 
  • cancer 
  • inflammatory diseases 
  • infectious diseases

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Published Papers (14 papers)

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21 pages, 11704 KiB  
Article
The Design and Optimization of Ceramide NP-Loaded Liposomes to Restore the Skin Barrier
by Hümeyra Şahin Bektay, Ali Asram Sağıroğlu, Kübra Bozali, Eray Metin Güler and Sevgi Güngör
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(12), 2685; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15122685 - 27 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2023
Abstract
The impairment of skin integrity derived from derangement of the orthorhombic lateral organization is mainly caused by dysregulation of ceramide amounts in the skin barrier. Ceramides, fatty acids, and cholesterol-containing nano-based formulations have been used to impair the skin barrier. However, there is [...] Read more.
The impairment of skin integrity derived from derangement of the orthorhombic lateral organization is mainly caused by dysregulation of ceramide amounts in the skin barrier. Ceramides, fatty acids, and cholesterol-containing nano-based formulations have been used to impair the skin barrier. However, there is still a challenge to formulate novel formulations consisting of ceramides due to their chemical structure, poor aqueous solubility, and high molecular weight. In this study, the design and optimization of Ceramide 3 (CER-NP)-loaded liposomes are implemented based on response surface methodology (RSM). The optimum CER-NP-loaded liposome was selected based on its particle size (PS) and polydispersity index (PDI). The optimum CER-NP-loaded liposome was imagined by observing the encapsulation by using a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) within fluorescently labeled CER-NP. The characteristic liquid crystalline phase and lipid chain conformation of CER-NP-loaded liposomes were determined using attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). The CER-NP-loaded liposomes were imagined using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). Finally, the in vitro release of CER-NP from liposomes was examined using modified Franz Cells. The experimental and predicted results were well correlated. The CLSM images of optimized liposomes were conformable with the other studies, and the encapsulation efficiency of CER-NP was 93.84 ± 0.87%. ATR-IR analysis supported the characteristics of the CER-NP-loaded liposome. In addition, the lipid chain conformation shows similarity with skin barrier lipid organization. The release pattern of CER-NP liposomes was fitted with the Korsmeyer–Peppas model. The cytotoxicity studies carried out on HaCaT keratinocytes supported the idea that the liposomes for topical administration of CER-NP could be considered relatively safe. In conclusion, the optimized CER-NP-loaded liposomes could have the potential to restore the skin barrier function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Liposomes for Drug Delivery)
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24 pages, 6018 KiB  
Article
Modified Curcuminoid-Rich Extract Liposomal CRE-SDInhibits Osteoclastogenesis via the Canonical NF-κB Signaling Pathway
by Sompot Jantarawong, Piyawut Swangphon, Natda Lauterbach, Pharkphoom Panichayupakaranant and Yutthana Pengjam
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(9), 2248; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15092248 - 30 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2425
Abstract
Curcuminoids, namely curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin, are the major active compounds found in Curcuma longa L. (turmeric). Although their suppressive effects on bone resorption have been demonstrated, their pharmacokinetic disadvantages remain a concern. Herein, we utilized solid dispersion of a curcuminoid-rich extract (CRE), [...] Read more.
Curcuminoids, namely curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin, are the major active compounds found in Curcuma longa L. (turmeric). Although their suppressive effects on bone resorption have been demonstrated, their pharmacokinetic disadvantages remain a concern. Herein, we utilized solid dispersion of a curcuminoid-rich extract (CRE), comprising such curcuminoids, to prepare CRE-SD; subsequently, we performed liposome encapsulation of the CRE-SD to yield liposomal CRE-SD. In vitro release assessment revealed that a lower cumulative mass percentage of CRE-SD was released from liposomal CRE-SD than from CRE-SD samples. After culture of murine RANKL-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, our in vitro examinations confirmed that liposomal CRE-SD may impede osteoclastogenesis by suppressing p65 and IκBα phosphorylation, together with nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity of phosphorylated p65. Blind docking simulations showed the high binding affinity between curcuminoids and the IκBα/p50/p65 protein complex, along with many intermolecular interactions, which corroborated our in vitro findings. Therefore, liposomal CRE-SD can inhibit osteoclastogenesis via the canonical NF-κB signaling pathway, suggesting its pharmacological potential for treating bone diseases with excessive osteoclastogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Liposomes for Drug Delivery)
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15 pages, 3595 KiB  
Article
Development of Liposome Systems for Enhancing the PK Properties of Bivalent PROTACs
by Ponien Kou, Elizabeth S. Levy, An D. Nguyen, Donglu Zhang, Shu Chen, Yusi Cui, Xing Zhang, Fabio Broccatelli, Jennifer Pizzano, Jennifer Cantley, Elizabeth Bortolon, Emma Rousseau, Michael Berlin, Peter Dragovich and Vijay Sethuraman
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(8), 2098; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15082098 - 8 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2360
Abstract
Proteolysis-Targeting Chimeras (PROTACs) are a promising new technology in drug development. They have rapidly evolved in recent years, with several of them in clinical trials. While most of these advances have been associated with monovalent protein degraders, bivalent PROTACs have also entered clinical [...] Read more.
Proteolysis-Targeting Chimeras (PROTACs) are a promising new technology in drug development. They have rapidly evolved in recent years, with several of them in clinical trials. While most of these advances have been associated with monovalent protein degraders, bivalent PROTACs have also entered clinical trials, although progression to market has been limited. One of the reasons is the complex physicochemical properties of the heterobifunctional PROTACs. A promising strategy to improve pharmacokinetics of highly lipophilic compounds, such as PROTACs, is encapsulation in liposome systems. Here we describe liposome systems for intravenous administration to enhance the PK properties of two bivalent PROTAC molecules, by reducing clearance and increasing systemic coverage. We developed and characterized a PROTAC-in-cyclodextrin liposome system where the drug was retained in the liposome core. In PK studies at 1 mg/kg for GNE-01 the PROTAC-in-cyclodextrin liposome, compared to the solution formulation, showed a 80- and a 380-fold enhancement in AUC for mouse and rat studies, respectively. We further investigated the same PROTAC-in-cyclodextrin liposome system with the second PROTAC (GNE-02), where we monitored both lipid and drug concentrations in vivo. Similarly, in a mouse PK study of GEN-02, the PROTAC-in-cyclodextrin liposome system exhibited enhancement in plasma concentration of a 23× increase over the conventional solution formulation. Importantly, the lipid CL correlated with the drug CL. Additionally, we investigated a conventional liposome approach for GNE-02, where the PROTAC resides in the lipid bilayer. Here, a 5× increase in AUC was observed, compared to the conventional solution formulation, and the drug CL was faster than the lipid CL. These results indicate that the different liposome systems can be tailored to translate across multiple PROTAC systems to modulate and improve plasma concentrations. Optimization of the liposomes could further improve tumor concentration and improve the overall therapeutic index (TI). This delivery technology may be well suited to bring novel protein targeted PROTACs into clinics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Liposomes for Drug Delivery)
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23 pages, 7145 KiB  
Article
Reduction of Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity by Co-Administration of Smart Liposomal Doxorubicin and Free Quercetin: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies
by Hamidreza Dorostkar, Bibi Fatemeh Haghiralsadat, Mahdie Hemati, Fatemeh Safari, Azam Hassanpour, Seyed Morteza Naghib, Mohammad Hossein Roozbahani, M. R. Mozafari and Ali Moradi
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(7), 1920; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15071920 - 11 Jul 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2753
Abstract
Doxorubicin is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents; however, it has various side effects, such as cardiotoxicity. Therefore, novel methods are needed to reduce its adverse effects. Quercetin is a natural flavonoid with many biological activities. Liposomes are lipid-based carriers widely used [...] Read more.
Doxorubicin is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents; however, it has various side effects, such as cardiotoxicity. Therefore, novel methods are needed to reduce its adverse effects. Quercetin is a natural flavonoid with many biological activities. Liposomes are lipid-based carriers widely used in medicine for drug delivery. In this study, liposomal doxorubicin with favorable characteristics was designed and synthesized by the thin-film method, and its physicochemical properties were investigated by different laboratory techniques. Then, the impact of the carrier, empty liposomes, free doxorubicin, liposomal doxorubicin, and quercetin were analyzed in animal models. To evaluate the interventions, measurements of cardiac enzymes, oxidative stress and antioxidant markers, and protein expression were performed, as well as histopathological studies. Additionally, cytotoxicity assay and cellular uptake were carried out on H9c2 cells. The mean size of the designed liposomes was 98.8 nm, and the encapsulation efficiency (EE%) was about 85%. The designed liposomes were anionic and pH-sensitive and had a controlled release pattern with excellent stability. Co-administration of liposomal doxorubicin with free quercetin to rats led to decreased weight loss, creatine kinase (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and malondialdehyde (MDA), while it increased the activity of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase enzymes in their left ventricles. Additionally, it changed the expression of NOX1, Rac1, Rac1-GTP, SIRT3, and Bcl-2 proteins, and caused tissue injury and cell cytotoxicity. Our data showed that interventions can increase antioxidant capacity, reduce oxidative stress and apoptosis in heart tissue, and lead to fewer complications. Overall, the use of liposomal doxorubicin alone or the co-administration of free doxorubicin with free quercetin showed promising results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Liposomes for Drug Delivery)
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19 pages, 3173 KiB  
Article
Co-Encapsulation of Curcumin and α-Tocopherol in Bicosome Systems: Physicochemical Properties and Biological Activity
by Daniela Vergara, Olga López, Claudia Sanhueza, Catalina Chávez-Aravena, José Villagra, Mariela Bustamante and Francisca Acevedo
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(7), 1912; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15071912 - 9 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1316
Abstract
A novel co-encapsulation system called bicosomes (bicelles within liposomes) has been developed to overcome the limitations associated with the topical application of curcumin (cur) and α-tocopherol (α-toc). The physicochemical properties and biological activity in vitro of bicosome systems were evaluated. Bicelles were prepared [...] Read more.
A novel co-encapsulation system called bicosomes (bicelles within liposomes) has been developed to overcome the limitations associated with the topical application of curcumin (cur) and α-tocopherol (α-toc). The physicochemical properties and biological activity in vitro of bicosome systems were evaluated. Bicelles were prepared with DPPC, DHPC, cur, and α-toc (cur/α-toc-bicelles). Liposomal vesicles loading cur/α-toc-bicelles were prepared with Lipoid P-100 and cholesterol-forming cur/α-toc-bicosomes. Three cur/α-toc-bicosomes were evaluated using different total lipid percentages (12, 16, and 20% w/v). The results indicated that formulations manage to solubilize cur and α-toc in homogeneous bicelles < 20 nm, while the bicosomes reaches 303–420 nm depending on the total lipid percentage in the systems. Bicosomes demonstrated high-encapsulation efficiency (EE) for cur (56–77%) and α-toc (51–65%). The loading capacity (LC) for both antioxidant compounds was 52–67%. In addition, cur/α-toc-bicosomes decreased the lipid oxidation by 52% and increased the antioxidant activity by 60% compared to unloaded bicosomes. The cell viability of these cur/α-toc-bicosomes was >85% in fibroblasts (3T3L1/CL-173™) and ≥65% in keratinocytes (Ha-CaT) and proved to be hematologically compatible. The cur/α-toc-bicelles and cur/α-toc-bicosomes inhibited the growth of C. albicans in a range between 33 and 76%. Our results propose bicosome systems as a novel carrier able to co-encapsulate, solubilize, protect, and improve the delivery performance of antioxidant molecules. The relevance of these findings is based on the synergistic antioxidant effect of its components, its biocompatibility, and its efficacy for dermal tissue treatment damaged by oxidative stress or by the presence of C. albicans. However, further studies are needed to assess the efficacy and safety of cur/α-toc bicosomes in vitro and in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Liposomes for Drug Delivery)
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17 pages, 5911 KiB  
Article
Liposome-Micelle-Hybrid (LMH) Carriers for Controlled Co-Delivery of 5-FU and Paclitaxel as Chemotherapeutics
by Md. Musfizur Hassan, Bilquis Romana, Guangzhao Mao, Naresh Kumar, Fabio Sonvico, Pall Thordarson, Paul Joyce, Kristen E. Bremmell, Timothy J. Barnes and Clive A. Prestidge
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(7), 1886; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15071886 - 4 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2778
Abstract
Paclitaxel (PTX) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) are clinically relevant chemotherapeutics, but both suffer a range of biopharmaceutical challenges (e.g., either low solubility or permeability and limited controlled release from nanocarriers), which reduces their effectiveness in new medicines. Anticancer drugs have several major limitations, which [...] Read more.
Paclitaxel (PTX) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) are clinically relevant chemotherapeutics, but both suffer a range of biopharmaceutical challenges (e.g., either low solubility or permeability and limited controlled release from nanocarriers), which reduces their effectiveness in new medicines. Anticancer drugs have several major limitations, which include non-specificity, wide biological distribution, a short half-life, and systemic toxicity. Here, we investigate the potential of liposome-micelle-hybrid (LMH) carriers (i.e., drug-loaded micelles encapsulated within drug-loaded liposomes) to enhance the co-formulation and delivery of PTX and 5-FU, facilitating new delivery opportunities with enhanced chemotherapeutic performance. We focus on the combination of liposomes and micelles for co-delivery of PTX and 5_FU to investigate increased drug loading, improved solubility, and transport/permeability to enhance chemotherapeutic potential. Furthermore, combination chemotherapy (i.e., containing two or more drugs in a single formulation) may offer improved pharmacological performance. Compared with individual liposome and micelle formulations, the optimized PTX-5FU-LMH carriers demonstrated increased drug loading and solubility, temperature-sensitive release, enhanced permeability in a Caco-2 cell monolayer model, and cancer cell eradication. LMH has significant potential for cancer drug delivery and as a next-generation chemotherapeutic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Liposomes for Drug Delivery)
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14 pages, 2093 KiB  
Article
Emetic Tartar-Loaded Liposomes as a New Strategy for Leishmaniasis Treatment
by Larissa D. Coelho, Mirna M. D. Souza, Geovanni D. Cassali, Raphaela A. Silva, Maria J. N. Paiva, André L. B. Barros, Eliane M. Teixeira, Josianne N. Silveira, Paulo M. Z. Coelho, Marta M. G. Aguiar and Mônica C. Oliveira
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(3), 904; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15030904 - 10 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1653
Abstract
Emetic tartar (ET), was used in the treatment of leishmaniasis but its use was discontinued due to its low therapeutic index. Liposomes have been shown to be a promising strategy for delivery of bioactive substances in the region of interest, in order to [...] Read more.
Emetic tartar (ET), was used in the treatment of leishmaniasis but its use was discontinued due to its low therapeutic index. Liposomes have been shown to be a promising strategy for delivery of bioactive substances in the region of interest, in order to reduce and/or eliminate undesirable effects. In the present study, liposomes containing ET were prepared and characterized to evaluate acute toxicity as well as their leishmanicidal action using BALB/c mice with an inoculum of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum. Liposomes were composed of egg phosphatidylcholine and 3ß-[N-(N′,N′-dimethylaminoethane)-carbamoyl]cholesterol, with an average diameter of 200 nm, zeta potential of +18 mV, and ET encapsulated into liposomes at a concentration near 2 g/L. Healthy mice were treated with ET or liposome containing ET (Lip-ET) in a single dose of 16 mg/kg of Sb3+ intravenously and observed for 14 days. The death of two animals in the ET-treated group and no deaths in the Lip-ET-treated group was observed. Higher hepatic and cardiac toxicity were observed in animals treated with ET when compared to animals treated with Lip-ET, blank liposomes (Blank-Lip) and PBS. The study of antileishmanial efficacy was conducted by intraperitoneal administration of Lip-ET, for ten consecutive days. It was observed by limiting dilution that treatments with liposomal formulations containing ET, as well as Glucantime®, led to a significant reduction in parasitic load in spleen and liver (p < 0.05) when compared to the untreated control group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Liposomes for Drug Delivery)
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20 pages, 6024 KiB  
Article
Peptide Engraftment on PEGylated Nanoliposomes for Bone Specific Delivery of PTH (1-34) in Osteoporosis
by Sagar Salave, Suchita Dattatray Shinde, Dhwani Rana, Bichismita Sahu, Hemant Kumar, Rikin Patel, Derajram Benival and Nagavendra Kommineni
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(2), 608; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15020608 - 11 Feb 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2320
Abstract
Bone-specific functionalization strategies on liposomes are promising approaches to delivering the drug in osteoporotic conditions. This approach delivers the drug to the bone surface specifically, reduces the dose and off-target effects of the drug, and thereby reduces the toxicity of the drug. The [...] Read more.
Bone-specific functionalization strategies on liposomes are promising approaches to delivering the drug in osteoporotic conditions. This approach delivers the drug to the bone surface specifically, reduces the dose and off-target effects of the drug, and thereby reduces the toxicity of the drug. The purpose of the current research work was to fabricate the bone-specific peptide conjugated pegylated nanoliposomes to deliver anabolic drug and its physicochemical evaluations. For this, a bone-specific peptide (SDSSD) was synthesized, and the synthesized peptide was conjugated with a linker (DSPE-PEG2000-COOH) to obtain a bone-specific conjugate (SDSSD-DSPE). Purified SDSSD-DSPE was characterized by HPLC, Maldi-TOF, NMR, and Scanning Electron Microscope/Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). Further, peptide-conjugated and anabolic drug-encapsulated liposomes (SDSSD-LPs) were developed using the ethanol injection method and optimized by Central Composite Design (CCD) using a statistical approach. Optimized SDSSD-LPs were evaluated for their physicochemical properties, including surface morphology, particle size, zeta potential, in vitro drug release, and bone mineral binding potential. The obtained results from these studies demonstrated that SDSSD-DSPE conjugate and SDSSD-LPs were optimized successfully. The particle size, % EE, and zeta potential of SDSSD-LPs were observed to be 183.07 ± 0.85 nm, 66.72 ± 4.22%, and −25.03 ± 0.21 mV, respectively. SDSSD-LPs demonstrated a sustained drug release profile. Further, the in vitro bone mineral binding assay demonstrated that SDSSD-LPs deliver the drug to the bone surface specifically. These results suggested that SDSSD-LPs could be a potential targeting approach to deliver the anabolic drug in osteoporotic conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Liposomes for Drug Delivery)
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13 pages, 21121 KiB  
Article
Cisplatin-Loaded Thermosensitive Liposomes Functionalized with Hyaluronic Acid: Cytotoxicity and In Vivo Acute Toxicity Evaluation
by Isabela Pereira Gomes, Juliana de Oliveira Silva, Geovanni Dantas Cassali, André Luís Branco De Barros and Elaine Amaral Leite
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(2), 583; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15020583 - 9 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1928
Abstract
Cisplatin (CDDP) is a potent antitumor drug used in first-line chemotherapy against several solid tumors, including breast cancer. However, toxicities and drug resistance limit its clinical application. Thermosensitive liposome (TSL) functionalized with hyaluronic acid (HA) containing cisplatin (TSL-CDDP-HA) was developed by our research [...] Read more.
Cisplatin (CDDP) is a potent antitumor drug used in first-line chemotherapy against several solid tumors, including breast cancer. However, toxicities and drug resistance limit its clinical application. Thermosensitive liposome (TSL) functionalized with hyaluronic acid (HA) containing cisplatin (TSL-CDDP-HA) was developed by our research group aiming to promote the release of CDDP in the tumor region under hyperthermia conditions, as well as to decrease toxicity. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate this new formulation (HA-coated TSL-CDDP) concerning in vitro behavior and in vivo toxicity compared to non-coated TSL-CDDP and free CDDP. Cytotoxicity assays and nuclear morphology were carried out against triple-negative breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231), while an in vivo toxicity study was performed using healthy Swiss mice. The results showed an increase (around 3-fold) in cytotoxicity of the cationic formulation (non-coated TSL-CDDP) compared to free CDDP. On the other hand, TSL-CDDP treatment induced the appearance of 2.5-fold more senescent cells with alteration of nuclear morphology than the free drug after hyperthermia condition. Furthermore, the association of liposomal formulations treatment with hyperthermia increased the percentage of apoptotic cells compared to those without heating. The percentage of apoptotic cells was 1.7-fold higher for TSL-CDDP-HA than for TSL-CDDP. For the in vivo toxicity data, the TSL-CDDP treatment was also toxic to healthy cells, inducing nephrotoxicity with a significant increase in urea levels compared to the saline control group (73.1 ± 2.4 vs. 49.2 ± 2.8 mg/mL). On the other hand, the HA-coated TSL-CDDP eliminated the damages related to the use of CDDP since the animals did not show changes in hematological and biochemical examinations and histological analyses. Thus, data suggest that this new formulation is a potential candidate for the intravenous therapy of solid tumors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Liposomes for Drug Delivery)
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18 pages, 1892 KiB  
Article
Long-Circulating and Fusogenic Liposomes Loaded with Paclitaxel and Doxorubicin: Effect of Excipient, Freezing, and Freeze-Drying on Quality Attributes
by Marjorie Roque, Danilo Geraldes, Caroline da Silva, Mônica Oliveira and Laura Nascimento
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(1), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15010086 - 27 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1772
Abstract
Liposomes can increase plasma half-life, enhance targeting, and diminish the side-effects of loaded drugs. On the downside, physical and chemical instabilities of dispersions often result in a reduced lifespan, which limits their availability on the market. Solid formulations obtained by freeze-drying can immobilize [...] Read more.
Liposomes can increase plasma half-life, enhance targeting, and diminish the side-effects of loaded drugs. On the downside, physical and chemical instabilities of dispersions often result in a reduced lifespan, which limits their availability on the market. Solid formulations obtained by freeze-drying can immobilize vesicles and provide extended shelf life. For both processes, the choice of excipients and process parameters are crucial to protect the carrier layers against tension caused by freezing and/or dehydration. The aim of this work is to evaluate the influence of freezing and drying parameters, besides excipient choice, to obtain solid long-circulating and fusogenic liposomes (LCFL-PTX/DXR) co-encapsulating paclitaxel (PTX) and doxorubicin (DXR) at a synergistic ratio (1:10). Methods: LCFL-PTX/DXR was evaluated by freeze-drying microscopy (glass transition, Tg’), differential scanning calorimetry (collapse temperature, Tc), freeze-thawing and freeze-drying processes. Freeze-dried samples were evaluated by thermogravimetry (residual moisture) and the resuspended liposomes were characterized in terms of size, polydispersity index (PI), zeta potential (ZP), and drug content. Liposomes morphology was evaluated by cryomicroscopy. Results: Trehalose protected PTX cargo upon freeze-thawing and more than 80% of the original DXR retention. The formulations with trehalose resulted in a cake with 5–7% of moisture content (200–240 nm); 44–60% of PTX retention, and 25–35% of DXR retention, with the variations caused by cryoprotector concentration and process changes. Conclusions: Trehalose protected liposome integrity, maintaining PTX retention and most of DXR upon freeze-thawing. Freeze-drying reduced the retention of both drugs inside all liposomes, whereas formulation with trehalose presented minor losses. Therefore, this frozen formulation is an alternative product option, with no need for manipulation before use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Liposomes for Drug Delivery)
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20 pages, 2371 KiB  
Article
Hydroxyethylcellulose-Based Hydrogels Containing Liposomes Functionalized with Cell-Penetrating Peptides for Nasal Delivery of Insulin in the Treatment of Diabetes
by Eliete de Souza Von Zuben, Josimar Oliveira Eloy, Maiara Destro Inácio, Victor Hugo Sousa Araujo, Amanda Martins Baviera, Maria Palmira Daflon Gremião and Marlus Chorilli
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(11), 2492; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14112492 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1946
Abstract
Liposomes functionalized with cell-penetrating peptides are a promising strategy to deliver insulin through the nasal route. A hydrogel based on hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) aqueous solution was prepared, followed by a subsequent addition of liposomes containing insulin solution functionalized with trans-activator of transcription protein of [...] Read more.
Liposomes functionalized with cell-penetrating peptides are a promising strategy to deliver insulin through the nasal route. A hydrogel based on hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) aqueous solution was prepared, followed by a subsequent addition of liposomes containing insulin solution functionalized with trans-activator of transcription protein of HIV-1 (TAT) or Penetratin (PNT). The formulations were characterized for rheological behavior, mucoadhesion, syringeability, in vitro release and in vivo efficacy. Rheological tests revealed non-Newtonian fluids with pseudoplastic behavior, and the incorporation of liposomes (HLI, HLITAT and HLIPNT) in hydrogels did not alter the behavior original pseudoplastic characteristic of the HEC hydrogel. Pseudoplastic flow behavior is a desirable property for formulations intended for the administration of drugs via the nasal route. The results of syringeability and mucoadhesive strength from HEC hydrogels suggest a viable vehicle for nasal delivery. Comparing the insulin release profile, it is observed that HI was the system that released the greatest amount while the liposomal gel promoted greater drug retention, since the liposomal system provides an extra barrier for the release through the hydrogel. Additionally, it is observed that both peptides tested had an impact on the insulin release profile, promoting a slower release, due to complexation with insulin. The in vitro release kinetics of insulin from all formulations followed Weibull’s mathematical model, reaching approximately 90% of release in the formulation prepared with HEC-based hydrogels. Serum insulin levels and the antihyperglycemic effects suggested that formulations HI and HLI have potential as carriers for insulin delivery by the nasal pathway, a profile not observed when insulin was administered by subcutaneous injection or by the nasal route in saline. Furthermore, formulations functionalized with TAT and PNT can be considered promoters of late and early absorption, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Liposomes for Drug Delivery)
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Review

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25 pages, 2145 KiB  
Review
Nucleotides Entrapped in Liposome Nanovesicles as Tools for Therapeutic and Diagnostic Use in Biomedical Applications
by Camila Magalhães Cardador, Luis Alexandre Muehlmann, Cíntia Marques Coelho, Luciano Paulino Silva, Aisel Valle Garay, Alexandra Maria dos Santos Carvalho, Izabela Marques Dourado Bastos and João Paulo Figueiró Longo
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(3), 873; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15030873 - 8 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2093
Abstract
The use of nucleotides for biomedical applications is an old desire in the scientific community. As we will present here, there are references published over the past 40 years with this intended use. The main problem is that, as unstable molecules, nucleotides require [...] Read more.
The use of nucleotides for biomedical applications is an old desire in the scientific community. As we will present here, there are references published over the past 40 years with this intended use. The main problem is that, as unstable molecules, nucleotides require some additional protection to extend their shelf life in the biological environment. Among the different nucleotide carriers, the nano-sized liposomes proved to be an effective strategic tool to overcome all these drawbacks related to the nucleotide high instability. Moreover, due to their low immunogenicity and easy preparation, the liposomes were selected as the main strategy for delivery of the mRNA developed for COVID-19 immunization. For sure this is the most important and relevant example of nucleotide application for human biomedical conditions. In addition, the use of mRNA vaccines for COVID-19 has increased interest in the application of this type of technology to other health conditions. For this review article, we will present some of these examples, especially focused on the use of liposomes to protect and deliver nucleotides for cancer therapy, immunostimulatory activities, enzymatic diagnostic applications, some examples for veterinarian use, and the treatment of neglected tropical disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Liposomes for Drug Delivery)
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21 pages, 1824 KiB  
Review
Hybrid Magnetic Lipid-Based Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy
by Marcela Tavares Luiz, Jessyca Aparecida Paes Dutra, Juliana Santos Rosa Viegas, Jennifer Thayanne Cavalcante de Araújo, Alberto Gomes Tavares Junior and Marlus Chorilli
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(3), 751; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15030751 - 23 Feb 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2301
Abstract
Cancer is one of the major public health problems worldwide. Despite the advances in cancer therapy, it remains a challenge due to the low specificity of treatment and the development of multidrug resistance mechanisms. To overcome these drawbacks, several drug delivery nanosystems have [...] Read more.
Cancer is one of the major public health problems worldwide. Despite the advances in cancer therapy, it remains a challenge due to the low specificity of treatment and the development of multidrug resistance mechanisms. To overcome these drawbacks, several drug delivery nanosystems have been investigated, among them, magnetic nanoparticles (MNP), especially superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION), which have been applied for treating cancer. MNPs have the ability to be guided to the tumor microenvironment through an external applied magnetic field. Furthermore, in the presence of an alternating magnetic field (AMF) this nanocarrier can transform electromagnetic energy in heat (above 42 °C) through Néel and Brown relaxation, which makes it applicable for hyperthermia treatment. However, the low chemical and physical stability of MNPs makes their coating necessary. Thus, lipid-based nanoparticles, especially liposomes, have been used to encapsulate MNPs to improve their stability and enable their use as a cancer treatment. This review addresses the main features that make MNPs applicable for treating cancer and the most recent research in the nanomedicine field using hybrid magnetic lipid-based nanoparticles for this purpose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Liposomes for Drug Delivery)
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51 pages, 8632 KiB  
Review
Updates on Responsive Drug Delivery Based on Liposome Vehicles for Cancer Treatment
by Maria P. Nikolova, Enamala Manoj Kumar and Murthy S. Chavali
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(10), 2195; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14102195 - 15 Oct 2022
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 6203
Abstract
Liposomes are well-known nanoparticles with a non-toxic nature and the ability to incorporate both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs simultaneously. As modern drug delivery formulations are produced by emerging technologies, numerous advantages of liposomal drug delivery systems over conventional liposomes or free drug treatment [...] Read more.
Liposomes are well-known nanoparticles with a non-toxic nature and the ability to incorporate both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs simultaneously. As modern drug delivery formulations are produced by emerging technologies, numerous advantages of liposomal drug delivery systems over conventional liposomes or free drug treatment of cancer have been reported. Recently, liposome nanocarriers have exhibited high drug loading capacity, drug protection, improved bioavailability, enhanced intercellular delivery, and better therapeutic effect because of resounding success in targeting delivery. The site targeting of smart responsive liposomes, achieved through changes in their physicochemical and morphological properties, allows for the controlled release of active compounds under certain endogenous or exogenous stimuli. In that way, the multifunctional and stimuli-responsive nanocarriers for the drug delivery of cancer therapeutics enhance the efficacy of treatment prevention and fighting over metastases, while limiting the systemic side effects on healthy tissues and organs. Since liposomes constitute promising nanocarriers for site-targeted and controlled anticancer drug release, this review focuses on the recent progress of smart liposome achievements for anticancer drug delivery applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Liposomes for Drug Delivery)
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