Special Issue "Mycoplasma bovis Infections: Occurrence, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Control, Including Prevention and Therapy"

A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2020).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Katarzyna Dudek
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Department of Cattle and Sheep Diseases, National Veterinary Research Institute, 57 Partyzantów Avenue, 24-100 Pulawy, Poland
Interests: mycoplasma infections; immunology; vaccines; therapy; antimicrobial resistance
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Ewelina Szacawa
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Department of Cattle and Sheep Diseases, National Veterinary Research Institute, 57 Partyzantów Avenue, 24-100 Pulawy, Poland
Interests: Mycoplasma infections, immunology, vaccines, therapy, antimicrobial resistance

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mycoplasma bovis is known as an etiological agent for many disorders in cattle, among which the most important are bronchopneumonia, mastitis, and arthritis. M. bovis infections are a serious economic and cattle health and welfare problem worldwide. M. bovis affects different age groups of cattle, and it can persist in a herd for very long period of time. Moreover, in vitro studies on M. bovis field isolates show increasing trends in antimicrobial resistance. Currently, no commercial vaccines against M. bovis are available in Europe, and only some autogenous vaccines are used in parts of Europe and the United States. The Special Issue will cover all aspects of M. bovis infections, such as pathogenesis, diagnosis and control, including therapy and prevention. The Special Issue will consist of reviews, as well as original manuscripts.  

Dr. Katarzyna Dudek
Dr. Ewelina Szacawa
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pathogens is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Mycoplasma bovis
  • cattle
  • pneumonia
  • mastitis
  • arthritis
  • bovine respiratory disease
  • pathogenesis
  • diagnosis
  • control
  • immune response
  • antimicrobial resistance
  • prevention
  • therapy
  • vaccine

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (10 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Editorial
Mycoplasma bovis Infections: Occurrence, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Control, Including Prevention and Therapy
Pathogens 2020, 9(12), 994; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9120994 - 27 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 538
Abstract
Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) is an etiological agent of bronchopneumonia, mastitis, arthritis, otitis, keratoconjunctivitis, meningitis, endocarditis and other disorders in cattle [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Article
Efficacy of Two Antibiotic-Extender Combinations on Mycoplasma bovis in Bovine Semen Production
Pathogens 2020, 9(10), 808; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9100808 - 30 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 764
Abstract
Mycoplasma bovis is an important bovine pathogen. Artificial insemination (AI) using contaminated semen can introduce the agent into a naïve herd. Antibiotics, most often gentamycin, tylosin, lincomycin, spectinomycin (GTLS) combination are added to semen extender to prevent transmission of pathogenic bacteria and mycoplasmas. [...] Read more.
Mycoplasma bovis is an important bovine pathogen. Artificial insemination (AI) using contaminated semen can introduce the agent into a naïve herd. Antibiotics, most often gentamycin, tylosin, lincomycin, spectinomycin (GTLS) combination are added to semen extender to prevent transmission of pathogenic bacteria and mycoplasmas. In a commercial AI straw production system with industrial scale procedures, we analyzed the mycoplasmacidal efficacy of GTLS and ofloxacin on M. bovis ATCC and wild type strain isolated from commercial AI straws. The strains were spiked at two concentrations (106 and 103 CFU/mL) into semen. Viable M. bovis in frozen semen straws was detected by enrichment culture and real-time PCR. We also compared different protocols to extract M. bovis DNA from spiked semen. None of the antibiotic protocols had any effect on the viability of either of the M. bovis strains at high spiking concentration. At low concentration, the wild type was inhibited by all other protocols, except low GTLS, whereas the ATCC strain was inhibited only by high GTLS. The InstaGene™ matrix was the most effective method to extract M. bovis DNA from semen. When there is a low M. bovis contamination level in semen, GTLS used at high concentrations, in accordance with Certified Semen Services requirements, is more efficient than GTLS used at concentrations stated in the OIE Terrestrial Code. Full article
Article
Field Experience of Antibody Testing against Mycoplasma bovis in Adult Cows in Commercial Danish Dairy Cattle Herds
Pathogens 2020, 9(8), 637; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9080637 - 06 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1191
Abstract
Mycoplasma bovis in cattle is difficult to diagnose. Recently, the ID screen® mycoplasma bovis indirect ELISA (ID screen) was commercially released by IDVet. The objectives of this study were to: (1) gain and share experience of using the ID screen in adult [...] Read more.
Mycoplasma bovis in cattle is difficult to diagnose. Recently, the ID screen® mycoplasma bovis indirect ELISA (ID screen) was commercially released by IDVet. The objectives of this study were to: (1) gain and share experience of using the ID screen in adult dairy cows under field conditions; (2) determine the correlation between antibody levels in milk and serum and (3) compare the ID screen results with those of the Bio K 302 (BioX 302) ELISA from BioX Diagnostics. Paired serum and milk samples were collected from 270 cows from 12 Danish dairy herds with three categories of M. bovis disease history. The ID screen tested nearly all cows positive in all, but the three non-infected herds, while the BioX 302 tested very few cows positive. The ID screen is therefore a much more sensitive test than the BioX 302. However, cows in five exposed herds without signs of ongoing infection and two herds with no history of M. bovis infection also tested ID screen positive. Therefore, the performance and interpretation of the test must be investigated under field conditions in best practice test evaluation setups. A concordance correlation coefficient of 0.66 (95% CI: 0.59–0.72) between the ID screen serum and milk results indicates that milk samples can replace serum samples for the ID screen diagnosis of M. bovis in adult cows. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Investigation of Macrolide Resistance Genotypes in Mycoplasma bovis Isolates from Canadian Feedlot Cattle
Pathogens 2020, 9(8), 622; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9080622 - 30 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1312
Abstract
Mycoplasma bovis is associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and chronic pneumonia and polyarthritis syndrome (CPPS) in feedlot cattle. No efficacious vaccines for M. bovis exist; hence, macrolides are commonly used to control mycoplasmosis. Whole genome sequences of 126 M. bovis isolates, derived [...] Read more.
Mycoplasma bovis is associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and chronic pneumonia and polyarthritis syndrome (CPPS) in feedlot cattle. No efficacious vaccines for M. bovis exist; hence, macrolides are commonly used to control mycoplasmosis. Whole genome sequences of 126 M. bovis isolates, derived from 96 feedlot cattle over 12 production years, were determined. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of five macrolides (gamithromycin, tildipirosin, tilmicosin, tulathromycin, tylosin) was conducted using a microbroth dilution method. The AST phenotypes were compared to the genotypes generated for 23S rRNA and the L4 and L22 ribosomal proteins. Mutations in domains II (nucleotide 748; E. coli numbering) and V (nucleotide 2059 and 2060) of the 23S rRNA (rrl) gene alleles were associated with resistance. All isolates with a single mutation at Δ748 were susceptible to tulathromycin, but resistant to tilmicosin and tildipirosin. Isolates with mutations in both domain II and V (Δ748Δ2059 or Δ748Δ2060) were resistant to all five macrolides. However, >99% of isolates were resistant to tildipirosin and tilmicosin, regardless of the number and positions of the mutations. Isolates with a Δ748 mutation in the 23S rRNA gene and mutations in L4 and L22 were resistant to all macrolides except for tulathromycin. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Monitoring Mycoplasma bovis Diversity and Antimicrobial Susceptibility in Calf Feedlots Undergoing a Respiratory Disease Outbreak
Pathogens 2020, 9(7), 593; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9070593 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1103
Abstract
Bovine respiratory diseases (BRD) are widespread in veal calf feedlots. Several pathogens are implicated, both viruses and bacteria, one of which, Mycoplasma bovis, is under-researched. This worldwide-distributed bacterium has been shown to be highly resistant in vitro to the main antimicrobials used [...] Read more.
Bovine respiratory diseases (BRD) are widespread in veal calf feedlots. Several pathogens are implicated, both viruses and bacteria, one of which, Mycoplasma bovis, is under-researched. This worldwide-distributed bacterium has been shown to be highly resistant in vitro to the main antimicrobials used to treat BRD. Our objective was to monitor the relative prevalence of M. bovis during BRD episodes, its diversity, and its resistance phenotype in relation to antimicrobial use. For this purpose, a two-year longitudinal follow-up of 25 feedlots was organized and 537 nasal swabs were collected on 358 veal calves at their arrival in the lot, at the BRD peak and 4 weeks after collective antimicrobial treatments. The presence of M. bovis was assessed by real-time PCR and culture. The clones isolated were then subtyped (polC subtyping and PFGE analysis), and their susceptibility to five antimicrobials was determined. The course of the disease and the antimicrobials used had no influence on the genetic diversity of the M. bovis strains: The subtype distribution was the same throughout the BRD episode and similar to that already described in France, with a major narrowly-variable subtype circulating, st2. The same conclusion holds for antimicrobial resistance (AMR) phenotypes: All the clones were already multiresistant to the main antimicrobials used (except for fluoroquinolones) prior to any treatments. By contrast, changes of AMR phenotypes could be suspected for Pasteurellaceae in two cases in relation to the treatments registered. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Identification of Antimicrobial Resistance-Associated Genes through Whole Genome Sequencing of Mycoplasma bovis Isolates with Different Antimicrobial Resistances
Pathogens 2020, 9(7), 588; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9070588 - 19 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1099
Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Mycoplasma bovis has been previously associated with topoisomerase and ribosomal gene mutations rather than specific resistance-conferring genes. Using whole genome sequencing (WGS) to identify potential new AMR mechanisms for M. bovis, it was found that a 2019 clinical isolate [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Mycoplasma bovis has been previously associated with topoisomerase and ribosomal gene mutations rather than specific resistance-conferring genes. Using whole genome sequencing (WGS) to identify potential new AMR mechanisms for M. bovis, it was found that a 2019 clinical isolate with high MIC (2019-043682) for fluoroquinolones, macrolides, lincosamides, pleuromutilins and tetracyclines had a new core genome multilocus sequencing (cgMLST) type (ST10-like) and 91% sequence similarity to the published genome of M. bovis PG45. Closely related to PG45, a 1982 isolate (1982-M6152) shared the same cgMLST type (ST17), 97.2% sequence similarity and low MIC results. Known and potential AMR- associated genetic events were identified through multiple sequence alignment of the three genomes. Isolate 2019-043682 had 507 genes with non-synonymous mutations (NSMs) and 67 genes disrupted. Isolate 1982-M6152 had 81 NSMs and 20 disruptions. Using functional roles and known mechanisms of antimicrobials, a 55 gene subset was assessed for AMR potential. Seventeen were previously identified from other bacteria as sites of AMR mutation, 38 shared similar functions to them, and 11 contained gene-disrupting mutations. This study indicated that M. bovis may obtain high AMR characteristics by mutating or disrupting other functional genes, in addition to topoisomerases and ribosomal genes. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Mycoplasma bovis in Spanish Cattle Herds: Two Groups of Multiresistant Isolates Predominate, with One Remaining Susceptible to Fluoroquinolones
Pathogens 2020, 9(7), 545; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9070545 - 07 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1450
Abstract
Mycoplasma bovis is an important bovine pathogen causing pneumonia, mastitis, and arthritis and is responsible for major economic losses worldwide. In the absence of an efficient vaccine, control of M. bovis infections mainly relies on antimicrobial treatments, but resistance is reported in an [...] Read more.
Mycoplasma bovis is an important bovine pathogen causing pneumonia, mastitis, and arthritis and is responsible for major economic losses worldwide. In the absence of an efficient vaccine, control of M. bovis infections mainly relies on antimicrobial treatments, but resistance is reported in an increasing number of countries. To address the situation in Spain, M. bovis was searched in 436 samples collected from beef and dairy cattle (2016–2019) and 28% were positive. Single-locus typing using polC sequences further revealed that two subtypes ST2 and ST3, circulate in Spain both in beef and dairy cattle, regardless of the regions or the clinical signs. Monitoring of ST2 and ST3 isolates minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to a panel of antimicrobials revealed one major difference when using fluoroquinolones (FQL): ST2 is more susceptible than ST3. Accordingly, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) further identified mutations in the gyrA and parC regions, encoding quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDR) only in ST3 isolates. This situation shows the capacity of ST3 to accumulate mutations in QRDR and might reflect the selective pressure imposed by the extensive use of these antimicrobials. MIC values and detection of mutations by WGS also showed that most Spanish isolates are resistant to macrolides, lincosamides, and tetracyclines. Valnemulin was the only one effective, at least in vitro, against both STs. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Infection Dynamics of Mycoplasma bovis and Other Respiratory Mycoplasmas in Newly Imported Bulls on Italian Fattening Farms
Pathogens 2020, 9(7), 537; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9070537 - 04 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1034
Abstract
Italian beef production is mainly based on a feedlot system where calves are housed with mixed aged cattle often in conditions favourable to bovine respiratory disease (BRD). In Veneto, an indoor system is also used for imported bulls around 300–350 kg. Mycoplasmas, in [...] Read more.
Italian beef production is mainly based on a feedlot system where calves are housed with mixed aged cattle often in conditions favourable to bovine respiratory disease (BRD). In Veneto, an indoor system is also used for imported bulls around 300–350 kg. Mycoplasmas, in particular Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma dispar, contribute to BRD in young calves, but their role in the disease in older cattle has not been investigated. In this study, ten heads of cattle were selected from each of the 24 groups kept in 13 different farms. Bulls were sampled by nasal swabbing at 0, 15, and 60 days after arrival for Mycoplasma isolation. Identification was carried out by 16S-rDNA PCR followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. M. bovis, M. dispar, and M. bovirhinis were identified, and prevalence was analysed by mixed-effects logistic regression models. This showed that most bulls arrived free of M. bovis, but within two weeks, approximately 40% became infected, decreasing to 13% by the last sampling. In contrast, the prevalence of M. dispar was not dependent on time or seasonality, while M. bovirhinis only showed a seasonality-dependent trend. The Italian fattening system creates an ideal environment for infection with M. bovis, probably originating from previously stabled animals. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Analysis of the Leukocyte Response in Calves Suffered from Mycoplasma bovis Pneumonia
Pathogens 2020, 9(5), 407; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9050407 - 24 May 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1146
Abstract
Mycoplasma bovis is known to be a cause of chronic pneumonia in cattle. To date, the disease pathomechanism has not been fully elucidated. Leukocytes play a key role in host antimicrobial defense mechanisms. Many in vitro studies of the effect of Mycoplasma bovis [...] Read more.
Mycoplasma bovis is known to be a cause of chronic pneumonia in cattle. To date, the disease pathomechanism has not been fully elucidated. Leukocytes play a key role in host antimicrobial defense mechanisms. Many in vitro studies of the effect of Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) on leukocytes have been performed, but it is difficult to apply these results to in vivo conditions. Additionally, only a few studies on a local immune response in M. bovis pneumonia have been undertaken. In this study, the experimental calf-infection model was used to determine the effect of field M. bovis strains on changes of the peripheral blood leukocyte response, including phagocytic activity and oxygen metabolism by cytometry analyses. An additional aim was to evaluate the lung local immunity of the experimentally infected calves using immunohistochemical staining. The general stimulation of phagocytic and killing activity of peripheral blood leukocytes in response to the M. bovis infection points to upregulation of cellular antimicrobial mechanisms. The local immune response in the infected lungs was characterized by the T- and B-cell stimulation, however, most seen in the increased T lymphocyte response. Post-infection, strong expression of the antigen-presenting cells and phagocytes also confirmed the activation of lung local immunity. In this study—despite the stimulation—both the peripheral and local cellular antimicrobial mechanisms seem to appear ineffective in eliminating M. bovis from the host and preventing the specific lung lesions, indicating an ability of the pathogen to avoid the host immune response in the M. bovis pneumonia. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Review
Mycoplasma bovis Infections—Occurrence, Diagnosis and Control
Pathogens 2020, 9(8), 640; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9080640 - 06 Aug 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1991
Abstract
Mycoplasma bovis is a cause of bronchopneumonia, mastitis and arthritis but may also affect other main organs in cattle such us the eye, ear or brain. Despite its non-zoonotic character, M. bovis infections are responsible for substantial economic health and welfare problems worldwide. [...] Read more.
Mycoplasma bovis is a cause of bronchopneumonia, mastitis and arthritis but may also affect other main organs in cattle such us the eye, ear or brain. Despite its non-zoonotic character, M. bovis infections are responsible for substantial economic health and welfare problems worldwide. M. bovis has spread worldwide, including to countries for a long time considered free of the pathogen. Control of M. bovis infections is hampered by a lack of effective vaccines and treatments due to increasing trends in antimicrobial resistance. This review summarizes the latest data on the epizootic situation of M. bovis infections and new sources/routes of transmission of the infection, and discusses the progress in diagnostics. The review includes various recommendations and suggestions which could be applied to infection control programs. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop