Special Issue "Zoonotic Parasitoses"

A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817). This special issue belongs to the section "Parasitic Pathogens".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2021) | Viewed by 11980

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Roberto Amerigo Papini
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Sciences, Veterinary Teaching Hospital “Mario Modenato”, University of Pisa, Via Livornese (Lato monte) 1, 56122 San Piero a Grado (PI), Italy
Interests: veterinary parasitology; animal parasitic diseases; zoonotic parasitoses; visceral larva migrans; ocular larva migrans; anthelmintic drugs; drug resistance
Dr. Hans-Peter Fuehrer
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Institute of Parasitology, Department of Pathobiology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria
Interests: mosquitoes and mosquito borne diseases; vectors and vector borne diseases; Dirofilaria; Calodium hepaticum; xeno-monitoring
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Annunziata Giangaspero
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Science of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Foggia, Via Napoli 25, 71100 Foggia, Italy
Interests: arthropods; zoonotic diseases; animal parasitology; animal protozoan infections; animal parasitic diseases; infectious diseases; genetic epidemiology; veterinary medicine; Giardia
Dr. Alessandra Barlaam
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Science of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Foggia, Via Napoli 25, 71100 Foggia, Italy
Interests: arthropods; zoonotic diseases; animal parasitology; animal protozoan infections; animal parasitic diseases; infectious diseases; genetic epidemiology; veterinary medicine; Giardia

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

Zoonotic parasites are parasites that can be naturally transmitted from parasitized animals to humans. They occur worldwide both in developed and undeveloped countries. These etiological agents include protozoa (Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Toxoplasma gondii, Leishmania infantum), trematodes (Fasciola hepatica, Schistosoma spp.), cestodes (Echinococcus granulosus, Echinococcus multilocularis, Taenia paginate, Taenia solium), nematodes (Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Baylisascaris procyonis, Trichinella spp.), arachnids (ticks, Sarcoptes scabiei, Dermanyssus), and insects (fleas). Pets and livestock as well as exotic and wild animals may be sources of infection for humans, in which both immunocompetent and immunocompromised people may be affected. Some abiotic and biotic factors, like changes in climate due to global warming and urbanization of wild species such as foxes and raccoons, may increase the risk of transmission.

Some of the abovementioned parasites are responsible for diseases which are recognized as global emergencies, while others are considered niche or have dropped out of scientific interest and others remain elusive and largely unknown despite their diffusion.

Such a broad and complex scenario in a globally changing world deserves vigilant and constant attention from veterinarians, physicians, epidemiologists, parasitologists, and public health authorities and requires a One Health approach. Therefore, the purpose of this Special Issue is to call for different types of articles (original research manuscripts, short communications, reviews, case reports, methodologies) dealing with etiology, epidemiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, therapy and prevention of zoonotic parasitoses. Its main quality is its proposal to comprehend the diversities and pluralities of research topics surrounding parasitic zoonoses.

Prof. Dr. Roberto Amerigo Papini
Dr. Hans-Peter Fuehrer
Prof. Dr. Annunziata Giangaspero
Dr. Alessandra Barlaam
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • parasitic zoonoses
  • emerging zoonotic parasites
  • One Health
  • epidemiology
  • etiology
  • clinical signs
  • diagnosis
  • treatment
  • prevention
  • protozoa
  • helminths
  • arthropods

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Article
Ascaris suum Nutrient Uptake and Metabolic Release, and Modulation of Host Intestinal Nutrient Transport by Excretory-Secretory and Cuticle Antigens In Vitro
Pathogens 2021, 10(11), 1419; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10111419 - 01 Nov 2021
Viewed by 620
Abstract
Ascaris suum, the most important pig parasite, also infects humans as a zoonotic pathogen. Malabsorption upon infection probably results from impaired nutrient transport, presumably mediated by the parasite’s excretory-secretory (ES) or cuticle somatic (CSO) antigens. The present study investigated the electrogenic transport [...] Read more.
Ascaris suum, the most important pig parasite, also infects humans as a zoonotic pathogen. Malabsorption upon infection probably results from impaired nutrient transport, presumably mediated by the parasite’s excretory-secretory (ES) or cuticle somatic (CSO) antigens. The present study investigated the electrogenic transport (ΔIsc) of glucose, alanine and the dipeptide glycyl-l-glutamine (glygln), as well as glucose net flux rates in pig jejunal tissue after in vitro exposure to adult A. suum total ES or CSO antigens in Ussing chambers. ΔIsc of glucose, alanine and glucose net flux rate were significantly decreased after one hour of exposure to total ES antigen. In contrast, CSO antigens increased the transport of glygln. Additionally, nutrient uptake and ES antigen pattern were compared in culture medium from untreated adult worms and those with sealed mouth and anal openings. Untreated worms completely absorbed glucose, while cuticular absorption in sealed worms led to 90% reduction. Amino acid absorption was 30% less effective in sealed worms, and ammonia excretion decreased by 20%. Overall, the results show that A. suum total ES antigen rapidly impairs nutrient transport in vitro. Future studies confirming the results in vivo, narrowing down the ES components responsible and investigating underlying molecular mechanisms are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonotic Parasitoses)
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Article
The First Record of Echinococcus ortleppi (G5) Tapeworms in Grey Wolf (Canis lupus)
Pathogens 2021, 10(7), 853; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10070853 - 06 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 990
Abstract
The aim of this study is to confirm the presence and molecular identification of Echinococcus tapeworms in wolves from south-eastern Poland. An investigation was carried out on the intestines of 13 wolves from south-eastern Poland. The small intestines were divided into three equal [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to confirm the presence and molecular identification of Echinococcus tapeworms in wolves from south-eastern Poland. An investigation was carried out on the intestines of 13 wolves from south-eastern Poland. The small intestines were divided into three equal segments. Each segment was separately examined using the sedimentation and counting technique (SCT). The detected Echinococcus tapeworms were isolated and identified by PCRs and sequencing (nad1 and cox1 genes). Additionally, DNA isolated from the feces of wolves positive for Echinococcus tapeworms was examined with two diagnostic PCRs. The intestines of one wolf were positive for E. granulosus s.l. when assessed by SCT; the intestine was from a six-year-old male wolf killed in a communication accident. We detected 61 adult tapeworms: 42 in the anterior, 14 in the middle, and 5 in the posterior parts of the small intestine. The PCRs conducted for cox1 and nad1 produced specific products. A sequence comparison with the GenBank database showed similarity to the deposited E. ortleppi (G5) sequences. An analysis of the available phylogenetic sequences showed very little variation within the species of E. ortleppi (G5), and identity ranged from 99.10% to 100.00% in the case of cox1 and from 99.04% to 100.00% in the case of nad1. One of the two diagnostic PCRs used and performed on the feces of Echinococcus-positive animals showed product specific for E. granulosus. This study showed the presence of adult E. ortleppi tapeworms in wolves for the first time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonotic Parasitoses)
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Article
The Incidence of Dirofilaria immitis in Shelter Dogs and Mosquitoes in Austria
Pathogens 2021, 10(5), 550; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10050550 - 02 May 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 859
Abstract
To estimate the incidence of Dirofilaria immitis in Austrian shelter dogs and mosquitoes trapped in their proximity, 115 shelter dogs from fourteen animal shelters located in five different Austrian states were examined. Blood samples were screened for D. immitis using ELISA antigen-testing, PCR [...] Read more.
To estimate the incidence of Dirofilaria immitis in Austrian shelter dogs and mosquitoes trapped in their proximity, 115 shelter dogs from fourteen animal shelters located in five different Austrian states were examined. Blood samples were screened for D. immitis using ELISA antigen-testing, PCR and microscopical examination for microfilariae. In total, 91% of the dogs originated from countries endemic for dirofilariosis. Eleven dogs (9.6%), all originating from Hungary, tested positive for D. immitis. None of the dogs examined showed microfilaremia. Eight dogs showed no or only mild clinical signs (e.g., infrequent coughing), and three dogs showed frequent coughing, dyspnea, exercise intolerance, blunt fur or weight loss. In total, 205 Mosquitoes of ten different species were caught at five different shelter sites in four different Austrian states, using CO2-baited mosquito traps set once a month (June–September 2019) for 24 h. All 205 mosquitoes tested negative for Dirofilaria spp. via PCR. The risk of endemisation of D. immitis in Austria (and other non-endemic countries in a similar situation) is very serious and its zoonotic potential should be communicated more strongly. To monitor a possible transmission of microfilariae from untreated or even untested positive dogs, e.g., in animal shelters, to mosquitoes in the near surroundings, frequent screening for Dirofilaria in mosquitoes should be used more intensively. Current knowledge on D. immitis should be integrated into daily veterinary practice and dog owners should be proactively educated, especially before traveling to endemic areas or adopting dogs from endemic countries. Animal shelters and animal welfare organizations should be provided with appropriate education and veterinary guidance regarding the testing and treatment of dogs imported from high-risk areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonotic Parasitoses)
Article
One Health Approach to Zoonotic Parasites: Molecular Detection of Intestinal Protozoans in an Urban Population of Norway Rats, Rattus norvegicus, in Barcelona, Spain
Pathogens 2021, 10(3), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10030311 - 07 Mar 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1353
Abstract
Rattus norvegicus, the brown or Norway rat, is the most abundant mammal after humans in urban areas, where they live in close proximity to people. Among rodent-borne diseases, the reservoir role of Norway rats of zoonotic parasites in cities has practically been [...] Read more.
Rattus norvegicus, the brown or Norway rat, is the most abundant mammal after humans in urban areas, where they live in close proximity to people. Among rodent-borne diseases, the reservoir role of Norway rats of zoonotic parasites in cities has practically been ignored. Considering the parasitic diseases in the One Health approach, we intended to identify and quantify the zoonotic intestinal protozoans (ZIP) in an urban population of R. norvegicus in the city of Barcelona, Spain. We studied the presence of ZIP in 100 rats trapped in parks (n = 15) as well as in the city’s sewage system (n = 85) in the winter of 2016/17. The protozoans were molecularly identified by means of a multiplex PCR (AllplexTM Gastrointestinal Panel-Parasite Assay). We also investigated the presence of co-infections among the species found. Four ZIP were identified, presenting significant prevalences in sewers, specifically Blastocystis (83.5%), Giardia duodenalis (37.7%), Cryptosporidium spp. (34.1%), and Dientamoeba fragilis (14.1%). Several co-infections among the detected ZIP were also detected. The reservoir role of ZIP that Norway rats play in cities as well as the role rats may play as sentinels of zoonotic parasites affecting humans in urban areas are strongly backed up by our findings. The increasing worldwide urbanization, climate change, and the COVID-19 pandemic are factors that are producing an increase in human–rat interactions. Our results should be considered a warning to the authorities to intensify rat control and surveillance in public health interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonotic Parasitoses)
Article
Differing Effects of Standard and Harsh Nucleic Acid Extraction Procedures on Diagnostic Helminth Real-Time PCRs Applied to Human Stool Samples
Pathogens 2021, 10(2), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10020188 - 09 Feb 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 781
Abstract
This study aimed to assess standard and harsher nucleic acid extraction schemes for diagnostic helminth real-time PCR approaches from stool samples. A standard procedure for nucleic acid extraction from stool and a procedure including bead-beating as well as proteinase K digestion were compared [...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess standard and harsher nucleic acid extraction schemes for diagnostic helminth real-time PCR approaches from stool samples. A standard procedure for nucleic acid extraction from stool and a procedure including bead-beating as well as proteinase K digestion were compared with group-, genus-, and species-specific real-time PCR assays targeting helminths and nonhelminth pathogens in human stool samples. From 25 different in-house and commercial helminth real-time PCR assays applied to 77 stool samples comprising 67 historic samples and 10 external quality assessment scheme samples positively tested for helminths, higher numbers of positive test results were observed after bead-beating-based nucleic acid extraction for 5/25 (20%) real-time PCR assays irrespective of specificity issues. Lower cycle threshold values were observed for one real-time PCR assay after the standard extraction scheme, and for four assays after the bead-beating-based scheme. Agreement between real-time PCR results after both nucleic acid extraction strategies according to Cohen’s kappa ranged from poor to almost perfect for the different assays. Varying agreement was observed in eight nonhelminth real-time PCR assays applied to 67 historic stool samples. The study indicates highly variable effects of harsh nucleic acid extraction approaches depending on the real-time PCR assay used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonotic Parasitoses)

Review

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Review
Zoonotic Episodes of Scabies: A Global Overview
Pathogens 2022, 11(2), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11020213 - 06 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 906
Abstract
Zoonotic scabies (ZS), also referred to as “pseudoscabies”, is considered a self-limiting disease with a short incubation period and transient clinical skin signs. It is commonly thought that Sarcoptes scabiei mites from animals are unable to successfully reproduce and persist on human skin; [...] Read more.
Zoonotic scabies (ZS), also referred to as “pseudoscabies”, is considered a self-limiting disease with a short incubation period and transient clinical skin signs. It is commonly thought that Sarcoptes scabiei mites from animals are unable to successfully reproduce and persist on human skin; however, several ZS case reports have mentioned the persistence of symptoms and occasionally mites for weeks. The aim of this review was to collect and organize the sparse literature explicitly referring to S. scabiei zoonotic transmission, focusing on the source of the outbreak, the circumstances leading to the transmission of the parasite, the diagnosis including the identification of the Sarcoptes “strain” involved, and the applied treatments. A total of 46 articles, one conference abstract and a book were collected describing ZS cases associated with twenty animal hosts in five continents. Dogs were by far the most common source among pet owners, while diverse livestock and wildlife contributed to the caseload as an occupational disease. Genetic epidemiological studies of ZS outbreaks are still limited in number, but tools are available to fill this knowledge gap in the near future. Further research is also needed to understand the apparent heterogeneity in the morbidity, disease severity and timing of the response to treatment among people infected with different animal-derived strains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonotic Parasitoses)
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Review
Literature Review: Coinfection in Young Ruminant Livestock—Cryptosporidium spp. and Its Companions
Pathogens 2022, 11(1), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11010103 - 15 Jan 2022
Viewed by 574
Abstract
The protozoan Cryptosporidium parvum is one of the major causative pathogens of diarrhoea in young ruminants; therefore, it causes economic losses and impairs animal welfare. Besides C. parvum, there are many other non-infectious and infectious factors, such as rotavirus, Escherichia coli, [...] Read more.
The protozoan Cryptosporidium parvum is one of the major causative pathogens of diarrhoea in young ruminants; therefore, it causes economic losses and impairs animal welfare. Besides C. parvum, there are many other non-infectious and infectious factors, such as rotavirus, Escherichia coli, and Giardia duodenalis, which may lead to diarrhoeic disease in young livestock. Often, more than one infectious agent is detected in affected animals. Little is known about the interactions bet-ween simultaneously occurring pathogens and their potential effects on the course of disease. In this review, a brief overview about pathogens associated with diarrhoea in young ruminants is presented. Furthermore, information about coinfections involving Cryptosporidium is provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonotic Parasitoses)
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Review
A Review of Zoonotic Babesiosis as an Emerging Public Health Threat in Asia
Pathogens 2022, 11(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11010023 - 24 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 855
Abstract
Zoonotic babesiosis poses a serious health risk in many parts of the world. Its emergence in Asia is thus a cause for significant concern, demanding that appropriate control measures are implemented to suppress its spread in this region. This study focuses on zoonotic [...] Read more.
Zoonotic babesiosis poses a serious health risk in many parts of the world. Its emergence in Asia is thus a cause for significant concern, demanding that appropriate control measures are implemented to suppress its spread in this region. This study focuses on zoonotic Babesia species reported in Asia, offering an extensive review of those species reported in animals and humans. We reported 11 studies finding zoonotic Babesia species in animals and 16 in humans. In China, the most prevalent species was found to be Babesia microti, reported in both humans (n = 10) and wild and domesticated animals (n = 4). In Korea, only two studies reported human babesiosis, with a further two studies reporting Babesia microti in wild animals. Babesia microti was also reported in wild animal populations in Thailand and Japan, with evidence of human case reports also found in Singapore, Mongolia and India. This is the first review to report zoonotic babesiosis in humans and animals in Asia, highlighting concerns for future public health in this region. Further investigations of zoonotic species of Babesia in animal populations are required to confirm the actual zoonotic threat of babesiosis in Asia, as well as its possible transmission routes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonotic Parasitoses)
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Other

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Systematic Review
A Systematic Review of Zoonotic Enteric Parasites Carried by Flies, Cockroaches, and Dung Beetles
Pathogens 2022, 11(1), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11010090 - 13 Jan 2022
Viewed by 667
Abstract
Filth flies, cockroaches, and dung beetles have been close neighbors with humans and animals throughout our joint histories. However, these insects can also serve as vectors for many zoonotic enteric parasites (ZEPs). Zoonoses by ZEPs remain a paramount public health threat due to [...] Read more.
Filth flies, cockroaches, and dung beetles have been close neighbors with humans and animals throughout our joint histories. However, these insects can also serve as vectors for many zoonotic enteric parasites (ZEPs). Zoonoses by ZEPs remain a paramount public health threat due to our close contact with animals, combined with poor water, sanitation, and hygiene access, services, and behaviors in many global regions. Our objective in this systematic review was to determine which ZEPs have been documented in these vectors, to identify risk factors associated with their transmission, and to provide effectual One Health recommendations for curbing their spread. Using PRISMA guidelines, a total of 85 articles published from 1926 to 2021 were reviewed and included in this study. Qualitative analysis revealed that the most common parasites associated with these insects included, but were not limited to: Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp., Entamoeba spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. Additionally, prominent risk factors discovered in the review, such as poor household and community WASH services, unsafe food handling, and exposure to domestic animals and wildlife, significantly increase parasitic transmission and zoonoses. The risk of insect vector transmission in our shared environments makes it critically important to implement a One Health approach in reducing ZEP transmission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonotic Parasitoses)
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Systematic Review
Antiprotozoal Effect of Snake Venoms and Their Fractions: A Systematic Review
Pathogens 2021, 10(12), 1632; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10121632 - 16 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 889
Abstract
Background: Protozoal infection is a lingering public health issue of great concern, despite efforts to produce drugs and vaccines against it. Recent breakthrough research has discovered alternative antiprotozoal agents encompassing the use of snake venoms and their components to cure these infections. This [...] Read more.
Background: Protozoal infection is a lingering public health issue of great concern, despite efforts to produce drugs and vaccines against it. Recent breakthrough research has discovered alternative antiprotozoal agents encompassing the use of snake venoms and their components to cure these infections. This study collated the existing literature to examine the antiprotozoal effect of snake venoms and their fractions. Methods: We conducted a systematic review following the PRISMA guidelines. The PubMed and Embase databases were searched from their inception until 13 October 2021. Articles were screened at the title, abstract and full-text phases. Some additional studies were obtained through the manual search process. Results: We identified 331 studies via the electronic database and manual searches, of which 55 reporting the antiprotozoal effect of snake venoms and their components were included in the review. Around 38% of studies examined the effect of whole crude venoms, and a similar percentage evaluated the effect of a proportion of enzymatic phospholipase A2 (PLA2). In particular, this review reports around 36 PLA2 activities and 29 snake crude venom activities. We also report the notable phenomenon of synergism with PLA2 isoforms of Bothrops asper. Importantly, limited attention has been given so far to the antiprotozoal efficacies of metalloproteinase, serine protease and three-finger toxins, although these venom components have been identified as significant components of the dominant venom families. Conclusion: This study highlights the impact of snake venoms and their fractions on controlling protozoal infections and suggests the need to examine further the effectiveness of other venom components, such as metalloproteinase, serine protease and three-finger toxins. Future research questions in this field must be redirected toward synergism in snake venom components, based on pharmacological usage and in the context of toxicology. Ascertaining the effects of snake venoms and their components on other protozoal species that have not yet been studied is imperative. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonotic Parasitoses)
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Brief Report
Detection of Zoonotic Cryptosporidium ubiquitum in Alpine Wild Ruminants
Pathogens 2021, 10(6), 655; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060655 - 25 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1243
Abstract
Cryptosporidium is a widespread apicomplexan protozoan of major zoonotic importance, characterized by a wide host range, and with relevant economic implications and potential negative effects on livestock and wildlife population dynamics. Considering the recent strong demographic increase of alpine ungulates, in this study, [...] Read more.
Cryptosporidium is a widespread apicomplexan protozoan of major zoonotic importance, characterized by a wide host range, and with relevant economic implications and potential negative effects on livestock and wildlife population dynamics. Considering the recent strong demographic increase of alpine ungulates, in this study, carried out in the Italian Northwestern Alps, we investigated the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in these species and their potential involvement in environmental contamination with Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts. The immune-enzymatic approach revealed a Cryptosporidium prevalence of 1.7% (5/293), 0.5% (1/196) and 3.4% (4/119) in alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), respectively. Positive samples were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification for the COWP and gp60 genes. The presence of Cryptosporidium was confirmed in one chamois and four roe deer. Sequences obtained clustered within Cryptosporidium ubiquitum, currently recognized as an emerging zoonotic species. This finding represents the first detection of zoonotic C. ubiquitum in chamois and in the Alpine environment. Despite the low observed prevalences, environmental contamination by oocysts could play a role as a potential source of infections for humans and livestock. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonotic Parasitoses)
Case Report
Alveolar Echinococcosis of the Parotid Gland—An Ultra Rare Location Reported from Western Europe
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040426 - 03 Apr 2021
Viewed by 735
Abstract
(1) Background: Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is restricted to the northern hemisphere with high endemic regions in Central Europe, North and Central Asia as well as Western China. The larval stage of Echinococcus multilocularis (E. multilocularis) causes AE with tumor-like growth. Humans are accidental [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is restricted to the northern hemisphere with high endemic regions in Central Europe, North and Central Asia as well as Western China. The larval stage of Echinococcus multilocularis (E. multilocularis) causes AE with tumor-like growth. Humans are accidental hosts. This report is on the first case of AE becoming clinically manifested in the parotic gland. (2) Case presentation: A 52-year-old male patient presented with progressive and painful swelling of the right parotid gland persisting for one year. We performed a partial parotidectomy. The histological examination and immunohistological staining revealed larval stage of E. multilocularis. (3) Conclusion: E. multilocularis is known to infect animals and humans coincidentally, and leads to AE. It is one of the most life-threatening zoonoses in Europe. It typically manifests in the liver (50–77%), with further spreading to other organs being a rare phenomenon. Echinococcosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of lesions of the parotid gland in endemic areas, but AE has not been described so far in the parotid gland as the sole manifestation and, therefore, impedes the correct diagnosis. A complete resection should be the aim, however, preservation of the facial nerve and adjuvant albendazole therapy is mandatory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonotic Parasitoses)
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