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Systematic Review

A Systematic Review of Zoonotic Enteric Parasites Carried by Flies, Cockroaches, and Dung Beetles

1
Stanton College Preparatory School, Jacksonville, FL 32209, USA
2
Department of Public Health, Brooks College of Health, University of North Florida, Jacksonville, FL 32224, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Roberto Amerigo Papini, Hans-Peter Fuehrer, Annunziata Giangaspero and Alessandra Barlaam
Pathogens 2022, 11(1), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11010090
Received: 15 December 2021 / Revised: 5 January 2022 / Accepted: 10 January 2022 / Published: 13 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonotic Parasitoses)
Filth flies, cockroaches, and dung beetles have been close neighbors with humans and animals throughout our joint histories. However, these insects can also serve as vectors for many zoonotic enteric parasites (ZEPs). Zoonoses by ZEPs remain a paramount public health threat due to our close contact with animals, combined with poor water, sanitation, and hygiene access, services, and behaviors in many global regions. Our objective in this systematic review was to determine which ZEPs have been documented in these vectors, to identify risk factors associated with their transmission, and to provide effectual One Health recommendations for curbing their spread. Using PRISMA guidelines, a total of 85 articles published from 1926 to 2021 were reviewed and included in this study. Qualitative analysis revealed that the most common parasites associated with these insects included, but were not limited to: Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp., Entamoeba spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. Additionally, prominent risk factors discovered in the review, such as poor household and community WASH services, unsafe food handling, and exposure to domestic animals and wildlife, significantly increase parasitic transmission and zoonoses. The risk of insect vector transmission in our shared environments makes it critically important to implement a One Health approach in reducing ZEP transmission. View Full-Text
Keywords: zoonoses; parasites; one health; water; sanitation; hygiene zoonoses; parasites; one health; water; sanitation; hygiene
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MDPI and ACS Style

Patel, A.; Jenkins, M.; Rhoden, K.; Barnes, A.N. A Systematic Review of Zoonotic Enteric Parasites Carried by Flies, Cockroaches, and Dung Beetles. Pathogens 2022, 11, 90. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11010090

AMA Style

Patel A, Jenkins M, Rhoden K, Barnes AN. A Systematic Review of Zoonotic Enteric Parasites Carried by Flies, Cockroaches, and Dung Beetles. Pathogens. 2022; 11(1):90. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11010090

Chicago/Turabian Style

Patel, Avi, Meg Jenkins, Kelly Rhoden, and Amber N. Barnes. 2022. "A Systematic Review of Zoonotic Enteric Parasites Carried by Flies, Cockroaches, and Dung Beetles" Pathogens 11, no. 1: 90. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11010090

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