Special Issue "Virulence Factors of Periodontal Pathogens: Secretion, Function and Interaction with Host Immune Responses"

A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817). This special issue belongs to the section "Immunological Responses and Immune Defense Mechanisms".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Jan Potempa
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Oral Immunity and Infectious Diseases, University of Louisville School of Dentistry, Louisville, KY, USA
2. Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland
Interests: proteolytic enzymes and their inhibitors in homeostasis and disease and molecular bases of virulence of periodontal pathogens and their relation to systemic diseases
Dr. Anna Maria Łasica
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Bacterial Genetics, Institute of Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
Interests: enteropathogens; oral pathogens; molecular microbiology; T9SS; virulence

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recent methodological advances have accelerated research on periodontitis and the role of the dysbiotic microbiota on the tooth surface below the gum line in the development and maintenance of chronic inflammation of the periodontium. Concurrently, we have learned a lot about communication between bacteria recently in the dental plaque community and how they can corrupt host immune responses. Additionally, our knowledge of mechanisms causing erosion of the periodontium has increased exponentially. In all respects, Porphyromonas gingivalis, together with established and emerging periodontal pathogens, is at the center of the pathobiology of periodontitis. Therefore, the purpose of this Special Issue is to present major recent advances in investigations of different host and bacterial aspects of the disease emanating from several ground-braking findings in periodontal pathogens research in the last few years.

Potential topics include but are not limited to:

 (i) Structural and functional characterization of the novel type IX secretion system (T9SS) used by periodontal pathogens to secrete their proteinaceous virulence factors;

(ii) Advances in characterization of virulence factors structure on the atomic structure level; 

(iii) Understanding molecular mechanisms of dysbiotic community development on the tooth surface;

(iv) Elucidation of host signaling pathways manipulated by P. gingivalis and other periodontal pathogens;

(v) Implication of P. gingivalis as a potentially causative factor in diseases such as esophageal cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer’s disease, and other systemic diseases associated with periodontitis; 

(vi) Identification and characterization of new targets for development of novel strategies to prevent/treat periodontitis.

Such assembly of articles in one issue would be unique among the existing literature on oral pathogens and their role in pathogenesis of periodontitis and associated systemic diseases.

Prof. Dr. Jan Potempa
Dr. Anna Maria Łasica
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pathogens is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • periodontitis
  • T9SS
  • secretion
  • gingipains
  • therapy
  • cargo proteins
  • proteases
  • virulence factors
  • Porphyromonas gingivalis
  • Tannerella forsythia
  • Filifactor alocis
  • pathogenesis
  • host–pathogen interactions
  • innate immune system
  • complement
  • antigen
  • biofilm
  • dental plaque
  • oral pathogens

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Article
The Subgingival Plaque Microbiome, Systemic Antibodies against Bacteria and Citrullinated Proteins following Periodontal Therapy
Pathogens 2021, 10(2), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10020193 - 10 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 922
Abstract
Periodontitis (PD) shows an association with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic inflammation. Periodontal pathogens, namely Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, are proposed to be capable of inducing citrullination of peptides in the gingiva, inducing the formation of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) within [...] Read more.
Periodontitis (PD) shows an association with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic inflammation. Periodontal pathogens, namely Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, are proposed to be capable of inducing citrullination of peptides in the gingiva, inducing the formation of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) within susceptible hosts. Here, we sought to investigate whether periodontal treatment influenced systemic inflammation and antibody titres to P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia and ACPA in 42 systemically health patients with periodontal disease. Subgingival plaque and serum samples were collected from study participants before (baseline) and 90 days after treatment to analyse the abundance of specific bacteria and evaluate anti-bacterial antibodies, C-reactive protein (CRP), tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and ACPA in serum. Following treatment, all patients showed reduced periodontal inflammation. Despite observing a weak positive correlation between CRP and IL-6 with periodontal inflammation at baseline, we observed no significant reductions in any indicators of systemic inflammation 90 days after treatment. In contrast, anti-P. gingivalis IgG significantly reduced post-treatment (p < 0.001, Wilcoxon signed rank test), although no changes were observed for other antibody titres. Patients who had detectable P. gingivalis in subgingival plaques had significantly higher anti-P. gingivalis IgG and ACPA titres, suggesting a potential association between P. gingivalis colonisation and systemic antibody titres. Full article
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Article
Application of the In Vitro HoxB8 Model System to Characterize the Contributions of Neutrophil–LPS Interaction to Periodontal Disease
Pathogens 2020, 9(7), 530; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9070530 - 01 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1062
Abstract
(1) Background: Studying neutrophils in vitro is difficult since these cells are terminally differentiated and are easily activated during isolation. At the same time, most of the available model cell lines are associated with certain limitations, such as functional deficiency or a lack [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Studying neutrophils in vitro is difficult since these cells are terminally differentiated and are easily activated during isolation. At the same time, most of the available model cell lines are associated with certain limitations, such as functional deficiency or a lack of expression of surface markers characteristic of neutrophils. P. gingivalis is a periodontopathogen that causes dysbiosis in subgingival bacterial biofilm. This triggers the accumulation of functional neutrophils in the periodontium. However, until now, the specific effects of P. gingivalis-derived lipopolysaccharide on neutrophil functions have not been analyzed. (2) Methods: The impact of two variants of commercially available P. gingivalis endotoxin on neutrophil functions was tested using the HoxB8 in vitro system that is well suited to analyze neutrophil response to different stimuli in a controlled manner. (3) Results: The Standard P. gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS), known to activate cells through Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)- and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent pathways, prolonged neutrophil survival and exhibited pro-inflammatory effects. In contrast, Ultrapure LPS, binding exclusively to TLR4, neither protected neutrophils from apoptosis, nor induced an inflammatory response. (4) Conclusion: Two variants of P. gingivalis-derived LPS elicited effects on neutrophils and, based on the obtained results, we concluded that the engagement of both TLR2 and TLR4 is required for the manipulation of survival and the stimulation of immune responses of HoxB8 neutrophils. Full article
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