Special Issue "Listeria monocytogenes and Its Interactions with the Host"

A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2017).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Laurel L. Lenz
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Immunology and Microbiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver, CO 80206, USA
Interests: Listeria monocytogenes; host-pathogen interactions; immune responses

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The bacterium Listeria monocytogenes was first isolated in the 1920s by EGD Murray and colleagues, who identified it as a cause of mononuclear leukocytosis in rabbits. Since this discovery, L. monocytogenes has proven to be a remarkably important and impactful pathogen. In adult humans, L. monocytogenes causes infections that range from gastroenteritis to life-threatening sepsis and meningitis. This pathogen also can establish severe invasive infections of the placenta or neonate. L. monocytogenes infections can occur sporadically or in clusters associated with consumption of contaminated food products. In addition to its importance as a cause of human disease, L. monocytogenes has proven to also be a remarkably useful and tractable model pathogen. Early work by George Mackaness established powerful cell culture models and developed a reliable murine model of systemic Listeriosis. He and colleagues then used these powerful tools to define fundamental concepts of macrophage activation and cell-mediated immunity. More than 50 years later, L. monocytogenes remains amongst the most widely-used model pathogens and this pathogen continues to play an important role in studies that enlighten the field of immunology. With the development and application of genetic tools, many L. monocytogenes factors have been identified, mutated, and studied for their contributions to pathogenesis in cell culture and animal infections. Work with these wildtype and mutant L. monocytogenes strains continues to provide new insights into fundamental aspects of intracellular parasitism, cell biology, and cellular microbiology. Recent work has further explored the potential use of L. monocytogenes as a vector for delivery of antigens or other genes in the context of human vaccines and therapies. For this Special Issue of Pathogens, we invite you to submit a review article focused on an important aspect of L. monocytogenes and its interaction with host cells, model organisms, or human populations.

Prof. Dr. Laurel L. Lenz
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Pathogenesis
  • Bacteria
  • Virulence
  • Infection
  • immune response
  • inflammation
  • innate immunity
  • adaptive immunity
  • immune cells
  • cytokines
  • vaccines
  • therapy

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
IFN-Gamma-Dependent and Independent Mechanisms of CD4+ Memory T Cell-Mediated Protection from Listeria Infection
Pathogens 2018, 7(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens7010022 - 13 Feb 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
While CD8+ memory T cells can promote long-lived protection from secondary exposure to intracellular pathogens, less is known regarding the direct protective mechanisms of CD4+ T cells. We utilized a prime/boost model in which mice are initially exposed to an acutely [...] Read more.
While CD8+ memory T cells can promote long-lived protection from secondary exposure to intracellular pathogens, less is known regarding the direct protective mechanisms of CD4+ T cells. We utilized a prime/boost model in which mice are initially exposed to an acutely infecting strain of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), followed by a heterologous rechallenge with Listeria monocytogenes recombinantly expressing the MHC Class II-restricted LCMV epitope, GP61–80 (Lm-gp61). We found that heterologous Lm-gp61 rechallenge resulted in robust activation of CD4+ memory T cells and that they were required for rapid bacterial clearance. We further assessed the relative roles of TNF and IFNγ in the direct anti-bacterial function of CD4+ memory T cells. We found that disruption of TNF resulted in a complete loss of protection mediated by CD4+ memory T cells, whereas disruption of IFNγ signaling to macrophages results in only a partial loss of protection. The protective effect mediated by CD4+ T cells corresponded to the rapid accumulation of pro-inflammatory macrophages in the spleen and an altered inflammatory environment in vivo. Overall, we conclude that protection mediated by CD4+ memory T cells from heterologous Listeria challenge is most directly dependent on TNF, whereas IFNγ only plays a minor role. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Listeria monocytogenes and Its Interactions with the Host)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Listeria monocytogenes Key Virulence Determinants hly and prfA are involved in Biofilm Formation and Aggregation but not Colonization of Fresh Produce
Pathogens 2018, 7(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens7010018 - 01 Feb 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Listeria monocytogenes has been extensively studied as a model facultative intracellular pathogen. While the roles of major virulence factors in host-pathogen interactions have been extensively characterized, recent work suggests that some of these factors can also contribute to environmental proliferation of this pathogen. [...] Read more.
Listeria monocytogenes has been extensively studied as a model facultative intracellular pathogen. While the roles of major virulence factors in host-pathogen interactions have been extensively characterized, recent work suggests that some of these factors can also contribute to environmental proliferation of this pathogen. In this study, we characterized two non-hemolytic transposon mutants of strain 2011L-2858 (serotype 1/2b), implicated in the 2011 listeriosis outbreak via whole cantaloupe, for their capacity to form biofilms on polystyrene, aggregate, and colonize cantaloupe rind. One mutant harbored a single mariner-based transposon insertion in hly, encoding the hemolysin Listeriolysin O, while the other harbored a single insertion in prfA, encoding PrfA, a master regulator for hly and numerous other virulence genes. Biofilm formation was significantly reduced in the prfA mutant, and to a lesser extent, in the hly mutant. Inactivation of either hly or prfA significantly reduced L. monocytogenes aggregation. However, both mutants adhered similarly to the wildtype parental strain on cantaloupe rind at either 25 or 37°C. Furthermore, growth and competitive fitness of the mutants on cantaloupe rind was not significantly impacted at either temperature. The findings suggest that, in spite of their involvement in biofilm formation and aggregation, these key virulence determinants may not be required for the ability of L. monocytogenes to colonize fresh produce. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Listeria monocytogenes and Its Interactions with the Host)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Prebiotic Oligosaccharides Potentiate Host Protective Responses against L. Monocytogenes Infection
Pathogens 2017, 6(4), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens6040068 - 19 Dec 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
Prebiotic oligosaccharides are used to modulate enteric pathogens and reduce pathogen shedding. The interactions with prebiotics that alter Listeria monocytogenes infection are not yet clearly delineated. L. monocytogenes cellular invasion requires a concerted manipulation of host epithelial cell membrane receptors to initiate internalization [...] Read more.
Prebiotic oligosaccharides are used to modulate enteric pathogens and reduce pathogen shedding. The interactions with prebiotics that alter Listeria monocytogenes infection are not yet clearly delineated. L. monocytogenes cellular invasion requires a concerted manipulation of host epithelial cell membrane receptors to initiate internalization and infection often via receptor glycosylation. Bacterial interactions with host glycans are intimately involved in modulating cellular responses through signaling cascades at the membrane and in intracellular compartments. Characterizing the mechanisms underpinning these modulations is essential for predictive use of dietary prebiotics to diminish pathogen association. We demonstrated that human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) pretreatment of colonic epithelial cells (Caco-2) led to a 50% decrease in Listeria association, while Biomos pretreatment increased host association by 150%. L. monocytogenes-induced gene expression changes due to oligosaccharide pretreatment revealed global alterations in host signaling pathways that resulted in differential subcellular localization of L. monocytogenes during early infection. Ultimately, HMO pretreatment led to bacterial clearance in Caco-2 cells via induction of the unfolded protein response and eIF2 signaling, while Biomos pretreatment resulted in the induction of host autophagy and L. monocytogenes vacuolar escape earlier in the infection progression. This study demonstrates the capacity of prebiotic oligosaccharides to minimize infection through induction of host-intrinsic protective responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Listeria monocytogenes and Its Interactions with the Host)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Listeria Monocytogenes: A Model Pathogen Continues to Refine Our Knowledge of the CD8 T Cell Response
Pathogens 2018, 7(2), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens7020055 - 16 Jun 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) infection induces robust CD8 T cell responses, which play a critical role in resolving Lm during primary infection and provide protective immunity to re-infections. Comprehensive studies have been conducted to delineate the CD8 T cell response after Lm [...] Read more.
Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) infection induces robust CD8 T cell responses, which play a critical role in resolving Lm during primary infection and provide protective immunity to re-infections. Comprehensive studies have been conducted to delineate the CD8 T cell response after Lm infection. In this review, the generation of the CD8 T cell response to Lm infection will be discussed. The role of dendritic cell subsets in acquiring and presenting Lm antigens to CD8 T cells and the events that occur during T cell priming and activation will be addressed. CD8 T cell expansion, differentiation and contraction as well as the signals that regulate these processes during Lm infection will be explored. Finally, the formation of memory CD8 T cell subsets in the circulation and in the intestine will be analyzed. Recently, the study of CD8 T cell responses to Lm infection has begun to shift focus from the intravenous infection model to a natural oral infection model as the humanized mouse and murinized Lm have become readily available. Recent findings in the generation of CD8 T cell responses to oral infection using murinized Lm will be explored throughout the review. Finally, CD8 T cell-mediated protective immunity against Lm infection and the use of Lm as a vaccine vector for cancer immunotherapy will be highlighted. Overall, this review will provide detailed knowledge on the biology of CD8 T cell responses after Lm infection that may shed light on improving rational vaccine design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Listeria monocytogenes and Its Interactions with the Host)
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Open AccessReview
Vertical Transmission of Listeria monocytogenes: Probing the Balance between Protection from Pathogens and Fetal Tolerance
Pathogens 2018, 7(2), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens7020052 - 25 May 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
Protection of the developing fetus from pathogens is one of the many critical roles of the placenta. Listeria monocytogenes is one of a select number of pathogens that can cross the placental barrier and cause significant harm to the fetus, leading to spontaneous [...] Read more.
Protection of the developing fetus from pathogens is one of the many critical roles of the placenta. Listeria monocytogenes is one of a select number of pathogens that can cross the placental barrier and cause significant harm to the fetus, leading to spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, preterm labor, and disseminated neonate infection despite antibiotic treatment. Such severe outcomes serve to highlight the importance of understanding how L. monocytogenes mediates infiltration of the placental barrier. Here, we review what is currently known regarding vertical transmission of L. monocytogenes as a result of cell culture and animal models of infection. In vitro cell culture and organ models have been useful for the identification of L. monocytogenes virulence factors that contribute to placental invasion. Examples include members of the Internalin family of bacterial surface proteins such as Interalin (Inl)A, InlB, and InlP that promote invasion of cells at the maternal-fetal interface. A number of animal models have been used to interrogate L. monocytogenes vertical transmission, including mice, guinea pigs, gerbils, and non-human primates; each of these models has advantages while still not providing a comprehensive understanding of L. monocytogenes invasion of the human placenta and/or fetus. These models do, however, allow for the molecular investigation of the balance between fetal tolerance and immune protection from L. monocytogenes during pregnancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Listeria monocytogenes and Its Interactions with the Host)
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Open AccessReview
A Comparison of Oral and Intravenous Mouse Models of Listeriosis
Pathogens 2018, 7(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens7010013 - 20 Jan 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Listeria monocytogenes is one of several enteric microbes that is acquired orally, invades the gastric mucosa, and then disseminates to peripheral tissues to cause systemic disease in humans. Intravenous (i.v.) inoculation of mice with L. monocytogenes has been the most widely-used small animal [...] Read more.
Listeria monocytogenes is one of several enteric microbes that is acquired orally, invades the gastric mucosa, and then disseminates to peripheral tissues to cause systemic disease in humans. Intravenous (i.v.) inoculation of mice with L. monocytogenes has been the most widely-used small animal model of listeriosis over the past few decades. The infection is highly reproducible and has been invaluable in deciphering mechanisms of adaptive immunity in vivo, particularly CD8+ T cell responses to intracellular pathogens. However, the i.v. model completely bypasses the gut phase of the infection. Recent advances in generating both humanized mice and murinized bacteria, as well as the development of a foodborne route of transmission has reignited interest in studying oral models of listeriosis. In this review, we analyze previously published reports to highlight both the similarities and differences in tissue colonization and host response to infection using either oral or i.v. inoculation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Listeria monocytogenes and Its Interactions with the Host)
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Open AccessReview
Listeria monocytogenes: The Impact of Cell Death on Infection and Immunity
Pathogens 2018, 7(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens7010008 - 11 Jan 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Listeria monocytogenes has evolved exquisite mechanisms for invading host cells and spreading from cell-to-cell to ensure maintenance of its intracellular lifecycle. As such, it is not surprising that loss of the intracellular replication niche through induction of host cell death has significant implications [...] Read more.
Listeria monocytogenes has evolved exquisite mechanisms for invading host cells and spreading from cell-to-cell to ensure maintenance of its intracellular lifecycle. As such, it is not surprising that loss of the intracellular replication niche through induction of host cell death has significant implications on the development of disease and the subsequent immune response. Although L. monocytogenes can activate multiple pathways of host cell death, including necrosis, apoptosis, and pyroptosis, like most intracellular pathogens L. monocytogenes has evolved a series of adaptations that minimize host cell death to promote its virulence. Understanding how L. monocytogenes modulates cell death during infection could lead to novel therapeutic approaches. In addition, as L. monocytogenes is currently being developed as a tumor immunotherapy platform, understanding how cell death pathways influence the priming and quality of cell-mediated immunity is critical. This review will focus on the mechanisms by which L. monocytogenes modulates cell death, as well as the implications of cell death on acute infection and the generation of adaptive immunity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Listeria monocytogenes and Its Interactions with the Host)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Multifaceted Defense against Listeria monocytogenes in the Gastro-Intestinal Lumen
Pathogens 2018, 7(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens7010001 - 22 Dec 2017
Cited by 5
Abstract
Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that can cause febrile gastroenteritis in healthy subjects and systemic infections in immunocompromised individuals. Despite the high prevalence of L. monocytogenes in the environment and frequent contamination of uncooked meat and poultry products, infections with this pathogen [...] Read more.
Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that can cause febrile gastroenteritis in healthy subjects and systemic infections in immunocompromised individuals. Despite the high prevalence of L. monocytogenes in the environment and frequent contamination of uncooked meat and poultry products, infections with this pathogen are relatively uncommon, suggesting that protective defenses in the general population are effective. In the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, a variety of defense mechanisms prevent L. monocytogenes growth, epithelial penetration and systemic dissemination. Among these defenses, colonization resistance mediated by the gut microbiota is crucial in protection against a range of intestinal pathogens, including L. monocytogenes. Here we review defined mechanisms of defense against L. monocytogenes in the lumen of the gastro-intestinal tract, with particular emphasis on protection conferred by the autochthonous microbiota. We suggest that selected probiotic species derived from the microbiota may be developed for eventual clinical use to enhance resistance against L. monocytogenes infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Listeria monocytogenes and Its Interactions with the Host)
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