Special Issue "Bovine Viral Diarrhea virus"

A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2017).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann
Website
Guest Editor
1. Infectious Diseases Research Centre, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072, Australia.
2. School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072, Australia.
3. School of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Queensland, Gatton Campus, Qld 4343, Australia.
Interests: infectious diseases pathobiology; viral persistence; flaviviruses; transplacental virus infections; co-infections; viral zoonoses; arbo-viruses; influenza viruses
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It has been 70 years since the first description of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)—in 1946—and major progress has been made in elucidating the pathogenesis of this world-wide important infection of ruminants. Likewise, understanding of the virus biology has seen incremental advances and significant strides in the interphase of basic virology and pathobiology to advance our understanding of this fascinating virus and the disease spectrum it can cause. While BVDV remains a significant concern for the cattle industry, the food supply and the agricultural economy world-wide and much research effort rightfully has gone into epidemiology, diagnostics and prevention—and continues to do so—BVDV has also served as an excellent model for understanding mechanisms in RNA-virus biology, transplacental virus infection, and host responses to persistent virus infection—and the interphase of all of these aspects and more. However, there remains so many questions to be addressed in exactly those very same areas, including the conditions, at both the cellular and organismic level, that are conducive to events leading to the biotype-switch from a non-cytopathic to a cytopathic virus, the discrepancies between in vitro and in vivo results for interferon induction by and effect on BVDV and the animal as a whole, and the characterization of the state of “tolerance” in persistently infected animals—to mention just a few.

The Special Issue on ‘Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV)’ will focus on the current status of our understanding of the biology of the virus, the virus–host interactions leading to different clinical outcomes, mechanisms of viral persistence, recombination events leading to biotype change of these viruses and developments in vaccine development and other control mechanisms.

Dr. Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pathogens is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Bovine viral diarrhea virus
  • mucosal disease
  • viral persistence
  • pathogenesis
  • pathology
  • host-virus interaction
  • transplacental transmission
  • viral replication

Published Papers (6 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
Fetal Hepatic Response to Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Infection in Utero
Pathogens 2018, 7(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens7020054 - 06 Jun 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (ncp BVDV) can cause persistent infection (PI) in animals infected in utero during early gestation. PI animals shed the virus for life and are the major source of the virus in herds. The mechanism responsible for BVDV immune [...] Read more.
Non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (ncp BVDV) can cause persistent infection (PI) in animals infected in utero during early gestation. PI animals shed the virus for life and are the major source of the virus in herds. The mechanism responsible for BVDV immune tolerance in the PI fetus is unknown. We assessed the impact of BVDV infection on the fetal liver. Dams were inoculated with ncp BVDV at gestational day 75. Fetal liver samples were collected at necropsy, 7 and 14 days post-maternal-BVDV inoculation. BVDV antigen was not detected in the liver at gestational day 82 (7 days post-maternal inoculation). However, at 14 days post-maternal inoculation, BVDV was detected by immunohistochemistry in fetal Kupffer cells. Flow cytometry analysis showed a higher percentage of hepatic immune cells expressed MHC I and MHC II in BVDV-infected fetal liver (as compared to uninfected controls). Immunofluorescence was used to identify Kupffer cells, which were positive for BVDV antigen, near populations of CD3+ lymphocytes. The identification of BVDV in the fetal liver Kupffer cells at 14 days post inoculation is interesting in the context of establishment of tolerance in persistent infection. These data indicate the presence of a hepatic immune response to fetal infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bovine Viral Diarrhea virus)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
In Vivo Characterisation of Five Strains of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus 1 (Subgenotype 1c)
Pathogens 2018, 7(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens7010012 - 19 Jan 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1) is strongly associated with several important diseases of cattle, such as bovine respiratory disease, diarrhoea and haemoragic lesions. To date many subgenotypes have been reported for BVDV-1, currently ranging from subgenotype 1a to subgenotype 1u. While BVDV-1 [...] Read more.
Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1) is strongly associated with several important diseases of cattle, such as bovine respiratory disease, diarrhoea and haemoragic lesions. To date many subgenotypes have been reported for BVDV-1, currently ranging from subgenotype 1a to subgenotype 1u. While BVDV-1 has a world-wide distribution, the subgenotypes have a more restricted geographical distribution. As an example, BVDV-1 subgenotypes 1a and 1b are frequently detected in North America and Europe, while the subgenotype 1c is rarely detected. In contrast, BVDV-1 subgenotype 1c is by far the most commonly reported in Australia. Despite this, uneven distribution of the biological importance of the subgenotypes remains unclear. The aim of this study was to characterise the in vivo properties of five strains of BVDV-1 subgenotype 1c in cattle infection studies. No overt respiratory signs were reported in any of the infected cattle regardless of strain. Consistent with other subgenotypes, transient pyrexia and leukopenia were commonly identified, while thrombocytopenia was not. The quantity of virus detected in the nasal secretions of transiently infected animals suggested the likelihood of horizontal transmission was very low. Further studies are required to fully understand the variability and importance of the BVDV-1 subgenotype 1c. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bovine Viral Diarrhea virus)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Feed Intake and Weight Changes in Bos indicus-Bos taurus Crossbred Steers Following Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type 1b Challenge Under Production Conditions
Pathogens 2017, 6(4), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens6040066 - 12 Dec 2017
Abstract
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has major impacts on beef cattle production worldwide, but the understanding of host animal genetic influence on illness is limited. This study evaluated rectal temperature, weight change and feed intake in Bos indicus crossbred steers (n = [...] Read more.
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has major impacts on beef cattle production worldwide, but the understanding of host animal genetic influence on illness is limited. This study evaluated rectal temperature, weight change and feed intake in Bos indicus crossbred steers (n = 366) that were challenged with BVDV Type 1b, and where family lines were stratified across three vaccine treatments of modified live (MLV), killed, (KV) or no vaccine (NON). Pyrexia classification based on 40.0 °C threshold following challenge and vaccine treatment were investigated for potential interactions with sire for weight change and feed intake following challenge. Pyrexia classification affected daily feed intake (ADFI, p = 0.05), and interacted with day (p < 0.001) for ADFI. Although low incidence of clinical signs was observed, there were marked reductions in average daily gain (ADG) and cumulative feed intake during the first 14 day post-challenge; ADG (CV of 104%) and feed efficiency were highly variable in the 14-day period immediately post-challenge as compared to the subsequent 14-day periods. A sire × vaccine strategy interaction affected ADFI (p < 0.001), and a sire by time period interaction affected ADG (p = 0.03) and total feed intake (p = 0.03). This study demonstrates that different coping responses may exist across genetic lines to the same pathogen, and that subclinical BVDV infection has a measurable impact on cattle production measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bovine Viral Diarrhea virus)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Six Years (2011–2016) of Mandatory Nationwide Bovine Viral Diarrhea Control in Germany—A Success Story
Pathogens 2017, 6(4), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens6040050 - 18 Oct 2017
Cited by 13
Abstract
Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is one of the most important infectious diseases in cattle, causing major economic losses worldwide. Therefore, control programs have been implemented in several countries. In Germany, an obligatory nationwide eradication program has been in force since 2011. Its centerpiece [...] Read more.
Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is one of the most important infectious diseases in cattle, causing major economic losses worldwide. Therefore, control programs have been implemented in several countries. In Germany, an obligatory nationwide eradication program has been in force since 2011. Its centerpiece is the detection of animals persistently infected (PI) with BVD virus, primarily based on the testing of ear tissue samples of all newborn calves for viral genome or antigen, and their removal from the cattle population. More than 48,000 PI animals have so far been detected and removed. Between the onset of the program and the end of 2016, the prevalence of these animals among all newborn calves decreased considerably, from 0.5% to less than 0.03%. The number of cattle holdings with PI animals likewise decreased from 3.44% in 2011 to only 0.16% in 2016. Since a large number of naïve, fully susceptible animals are now confronted with BVD virus, which is still present in the German cattle population, the challenge of the coming years will be the identification of remaining PI animals as quickly and efficiently as possible, and the efficient protection of BVD-free farms from reinfection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bovine Viral Diarrhea virus)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
Control of Bovine Viral Diarrhea
Pathogens 2018, 7(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens7010029 - 08 Mar 2018
Cited by 14
Abstract
Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is one of the most important infectious diseases of cattle with respect to animal health and economic impact. Its stealthy nature, prolonged transient infections, and the presence of persistently infected (PI) animals as efficient reservoirs were responsible for its [...] Read more.
Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is one of the most important infectious diseases of cattle with respect to animal health and economic impact. Its stealthy nature, prolonged transient infections, and the presence of persistently infected (PI) animals as efficient reservoirs were responsible for its ubiquitous presence in cattle populations worldwide. Whereas it was initially thought that the infection was impossible to control, effective systematic control strategies have emerged over the last 25 years. The common denominators of all successful control programs were systematic control, removal of PI animals, movement controls for infected herds, strict biosecurity, and surveillance. Scandinavian countries, Austria, and Switzerland successfully implemented these control programs without using vaccination. Vaccination as an optional and additional control tool was used by e.g., Germany, Belgium, Ireland, and Scotland. The economic benefits of BVD control programs had been assessed in different studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bovine Viral Diarrhea virus)
Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Perspectives on Current Challenges and Opportunities for Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus Eradication in Australia and New Zealand
Pathogens 2018, 7(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens7010014 - 22 Jan 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
This review outlines the history of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and the current situation in Australia and New Zealand. BVDV has been reported as present in cattle from both countries for close to 60 years. It rates as the second most economically [...] Read more.
This review outlines the history of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and the current situation in Australia and New Zealand. BVDV has been reported as present in cattle from both countries for close to 60 years. It rates as the second most economically significant disease afflicting cattle, and is highly prevalent and spread throughout the beef and dairy industries. While other cattle diseases have been the subject of government control and eradication, infection with BVDV is presently not. Eradication has been undertaken in many other countries and been judged to be a good investment, resulting in positive economic returns. Presently, Australia and New Zealand have adopted a non-compulsory approach to control schemes, initiated and managed by farmers and veterinarians without the ultimate goal of eradication. Moving towards eradication is possible with the infrastructure both countries possess, but will require additional resources, coordination, and funding from stakeholders to move to full eradication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bovine Viral Diarrhea virus)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to TopTop