Special Issue "Nutrient Targeting of Intestinal Mucosa Wall to Modulate Metabolism"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 May 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Anna Ardévol
Website
Guest Editor
Department Biochemistry & Biotechnology, Rovira i Virgili University, Tarragona, Spain
Interests: gastrointestinal tract; enteroendocrine cells; taste receptors; satiety; ageing; polyphenols; insect protein
Dr. Montserrat Pinent Armengol
Website
Guest Editor
Department of biochemistry and biotechnology, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain
Interests: bioactive food components; metabolism; nutrition; obesity; satiety; diet; health

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The intestinal mucosae wall is the first site of interaction of food components with an organism. It plays several roles: It selects nutrients for absorption, it signals the whole organism about the composition of our meals and it keeps our organism free from any possible danger. The intestinal wall also allocates microbiota, which is highly modulated by the diet. To perform all these activities a different cellular composition along the tube and a high degree of regeneration are required. In this special issue the most recent advances in this door to the inner part of all of us will be shown.

Dr. Anna Ardévol
Dr. Montserrat Pinent Armengol
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Intestinal mucosae
  • Enterohormones
  • Microbiota
  • Intestinal Barrier

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Gastrointestinally Digested Protein from the Insect Alphitobius diaperinus Stimulates a Different Intestinal Secretome than Beef or Almond, Producing a Differential Response in Food Intake in Rats
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2366; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082366 - 07 Aug 2020
Abstract
In this study we compare the interaction of three protein sources—insect, beef, and almond—with the gastrointestinal tract. We measured the enterohormone secretion ex vivo in human and pig intestine treated with in vitro digestions of these foods. Insect and beef were the most [...] Read more.
In this study we compare the interaction of three protein sources—insect, beef, and almond—with the gastrointestinal tract. We measured the enterohormone secretion ex vivo in human and pig intestine treated with in vitro digestions of these foods. Insect and beef were the most effective in inducing the secretion of CCK, while almond was the most effective in inducing PYY in pig duodenum. In the human colon, almond was also the most effective in inducing PYY, and GLP-1 levels were increased by insect and beef. The three digested proteins reduced ghrelin secretion in pig duodenum, while only insect reduced ghrelin secretion in human colon. We also found that food intake in rats increased in groups fed a raw insect pre-load and decreased when fed raw almond. In conclusion, the insect Alphitobius diaperinus modulates duodenal and colonic enterohormone release and increases food intake in rats. These effects differ from beef and almond. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Targeting of Intestinal Mucosa Wall to Modulate Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
Omega-3 Phospholipids from Krill Oil Enhance Intestinal Fatty Acid Oxidation More Effectively than Omega-3 Triacylglycerols in High-Fat Diet-Fed Obese Mice
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2037; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072037 - 09 Jul 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Antisteatotic effects of omega-3 fatty acids (Omega-3) in obese rodents seem to vary depending on the lipid form of their administration. Whether these effects could reflect changes in intestinal metabolism is unknown. Here, we compare Omega-3-containing phospholipids (krill oil; ω3PL-H) and triacylglycerols (ω3TG) [...] Read more.
Antisteatotic effects of omega-3 fatty acids (Omega-3) in obese rodents seem to vary depending on the lipid form of their administration. Whether these effects could reflect changes in intestinal metabolism is unknown. Here, we compare Omega-3-containing phospholipids (krill oil; ω3PL-H) and triacylglycerols (ω3TG) in terms of their effects on morphology, gene expression and fatty acid (FA) oxidation in the small intestine. Male C57BL/6N mice were fed for 8 weeks with a high-fat diet (HFD) alone or supplemented with 30 mg/g diet of ω3TG or ω3PL-H. Omega-3 index, reflecting the bioavailability of Omega-3, reached 12.5% and 7.5% in the ω3PL-H and ω3TG groups, respectively. Compared to HFD mice, ω3PL-H but not ω3TG animals had lower body weight gain (−40%), mesenteric adipose tissue (−43%), and hepatic lipid content (−64%). The highest number and expression level of regulated intestinal genes was observed in ω3PL-H mice. The expression of FA ω-oxidation genes was enhanced in both Omega-3-supplemented groups, but gene expression within the FA β-oxidation pathway and functional palmitate oxidation in the proximal ileum was significantly increased only in ω3PL-H mice. In conclusion, enhanced intestinal FA oxidation could contribute to the strong antisteatotic effects of Omega-3 when administered as phospholipids to dietary obese mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Targeting of Intestinal Mucosa Wall to Modulate Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
Beneficial Effect of Mildly Pasteurized Whey Protein on Intestinal Integrity and Innate Defense in Preterm and Near-Term Piglets
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1125; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041125 - 17 Apr 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Background. The human digestive tract is structurally mature at birth, yet maturation of gut functions such as digestion and mucosal barrier continues for the next 1–2 years. Human milk and infant milk formulas (IMF) seem to impact maturation of these gut functions differently, [...] Read more.
Background. The human digestive tract is structurally mature at birth, yet maturation of gut functions such as digestion and mucosal barrier continues for the next 1–2 years. Human milk and infant milk formulas (IMF) seem to impact maturation of these gut functions differently, which is at least partially related to high temperature processing of IMF causing loss of bioactive proteins and formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Both loss of protein bioactivity and formation of AGEs depend on heating temperature and time. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of mildly pasteurized whey protein concentrate (MP-WPC) compared to extensively heated WPC (EH-WPC) on gut maturation in a piglet model hypersensitive to enteral nutrition. Methods. WPC was obtained by cold filtration and mildly pasteurized (73 °C, 30 s) or extensively heat treated (73 °C, 30 s + 80 °C, 6 min). Preterm (~90% gestation) and near-term piglets (~96% gestation) received enteral nutrition based on MP-WPC or EH-WPC for five days. Macroscopic and histologic lesions in the gastro-intestinal tract were evaluated and intestinal responses were further assessed by RT-qPCR, immunohistochemistry and enzyme activity analysis. Results. A diet based on MP-WPC limited epithelial intestinal damage and improved colonic integrity compared to EH-WPC. MP-WPC dampened colonic IL1-β, IL-8 and TNF-α expression and lowered T-cell influx in both preterm and near-term piglets. Anti-microbial defense as measured by neutrophil influx in the colon was only observed in near-term piglets, correlated with histological damage and was reduced by MP-WPC. Moreover, MP-WPC stimulated iALP activity in the colonic epithelium and increased differentiation into enteroendocrine cells compared to EH-WPC. Conclusions. Compared to extensively heated WPC, a formula based on mildly pasteurized WPC limits gut inflammation and stimulates gut maturation in preterm and near-term piglets and might therefore also be beneficial for preterm and (near) term infants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Targeting of Intestinal Mucosa Wall to Modulate Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
Grape-Seed Proanthocyanidins are Able to Reverse Intestinal Dysfunction and Metabolic Endotoxemia Induced by a Cafeteria Diet in Wistar Rats
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 979; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11050979 - 29 Apr 2019
Cited by 10
Abstract
We evaluated the effectiveness of pharmacological doses of grape-seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in reversing intestinal barrier alterations and local inflammation in female Wistar rats fed a long-term obesogenic diet. Animals were fed a 17-week cafeteria diet (CAF diet), supplemented with daily GSPE doses [...] Read more.
We evaluated the effectiveness of pharmacological doses of grape-seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in reversing intestinal barrier alterations and local inflammation in female Wistar rats fed a long-term obesogenic diet. Animals were fed a 17-week cafeteria diet (CAF diet), supplemented with daily GSPE doses (100 or 500 mg kg−1 body weight) during the final two weeks. CAF diet enhanced the intestinal permeation of an orally administered marker (ovalbumin, OVA) and increased the plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in 2–3-fold. Ex vivo Ussing chamber assays showed a 55–70% reduction in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and increased the TNF-α secretions in both small and large intestinal sections with a 25-fold increment in the ileum. Ileal tissues also presented a 4-fold increase of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Both GSPE-treatments were able to restitute TEER values in the ileum and colon and to reduce plasma LPS to basal levels without a dose-dependent effect. However, effects on the OVA permeation and TNF-α secretion were dose and section-specific. GSPE also reduced ileal MPO activity and upregulated claudin 1 gene expression. This study provides evidence of the efficacy of GSPE-supplementation ameliorating diet-induced intestinal dysfunction and metabolic endotoxemia when administered at the end of a long-term obesogenic diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Targeting of Intestinal Mucosa Wall to Modulate Metabolism)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Zonulin-Dependent Intestinal Permeability in Children Diagnosed with Mental Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 1982; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12071982 - 03 Jul 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Worldwide, up to 20% of children and adolescents experience mental disorders, which are the leading cause of disability in young people. Research shows that serum zonulin levels are associated with increased intestinal permeability (IP), affecting neural, hormonal, and immunological pathways. This systematic review [...] Read more.
Worldwide, up to 20% of children and adolescents experience mental disorders, which are the leading cause of disability in young people. Research shows that serum zonulin levels are associated with increased intestinal permeability (IP), affecting neural, hormonal, and immunological pathways. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to summarize evidence from observational studies on IP in children diagnosed with mental disorders. The review follows the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A systematic search of the Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, PubMed, and the Web of Science identified 833 records. Only non-intervention (i.e., observational) studies in children (<18 years) diagnosed with mental disorders, including a relevant marker of intestinal permeability, were included. Five studies were selected, with the risk of bias assessed according to the Newcastle–Ottawa scale (NOS). Four articles were identified as strong and one as moderate, representing altogether 402 participants providing evidence on IP in children diagnosed with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). In ADHD, elevated serum zonulin levels were associated with impaired social functioning compared to controls. Children with ASD may be predisposed to impair intestinal barrier function, which may contribute to their symptoms and clinical outcome compared to controls. Children with ASD, who experience gastro-intestinal (GI) symptoms, seem to have an imbalance in their immune response. However, in children with OCD, serum zonulin levels were not significantly different compared to controls, but serum claudin-5, a transmembrane tight-junction protein, was significantly higher. A meta-analysis of mean zonulin plasma levels of patients and control groups revealed a significant difference between groups (p = 0.001), including the four studies evaluating the full spectrum of the zonulin peptide family. Therefore, further studies are required to better understand the complex role of barrier function, i.e., intestinal and blood–brain barrier, and of inflammation, to the pathophysiology in mental and neurodevelopmental disorders. This review was PROSPERO preregistered, (162208). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Targeting of Intestinal Mucosa Wall to Modulate Metabolism)
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Open AccessReview
A Newly Integrated Model for Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption and Efflux Reappraises How Plant Sterol Intake Reduces Circulating Cholesterol Levels
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 310; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020310 - 01 Feb 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
Cholesterol homeostasis is maintained through a balance of de novo synthesis, intestinal absorption, and excretion from the gut. The small intestine contributes to cholesterol homeostasis by absorbing and excreting it, the latter of which is referred to as trans-intestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE). Because [...] Read more.
Cholesterol homeostasis is maintained through a balance of de novo synthesis, intestinal absorption, and excretion from the gut. The small intestine contributes to cholesterol homeostasis by absorbing and excreting it, the latter of which is referred to as trans-intestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE). Because the excretion efficiency of endogenous cholesterol is inversely associated with the development of atherosclerosis, TICE provides an attractive therapeutic target. Thus, elucidation of the mechanism is warranted. We have shown that intestinal cholesterol absorption and TICE are inversely correlated in intestinal perfusion experiments in mice. In this review, we summarized 28 paired data sets for absorption efficiency and fecal neutral sterol excretion, a surrogate marker of TICE, obtained from 13 available publications in a figure, demonstrating the inverse correlation were nearly consistent with the assumption. We then offer a bidirectional flux model that accommodates absorption and TICE occurring in the same segment. In this model, the brush border membrane (BBM) of intestinal epithelial cells stands as the dividing ridge for cholesterol fluxes, making the opposite fluxes competitive and being coordinated by shared BBM-localized transporters, ATP-binding cassette G5/G8 and Niemann-Pick C1-like 1. Furthermore, the idea is applied to address how excess plant sterol/stanol (PS) intake reduces circulating cholesterol level, because the mechanism is still unclear. We propose that unabsorbable PS repeatedly shuttles between the BBM and lumen and promotes concomitant cholesterol efflux. Additionally, PSs, which are chemically analogous to cholesterol, may disturb the trafficking machineries that transport cholesterol to the cell interior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Targeting of Intestinal Mucosa Wall to Modulate Metabolism)
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