Special Issue "LC N-3 PUFAs, Vascular Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutritional Immunology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Fraser Russell
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Health and Sport Sciences, University of the Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia
Interests: long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; immune cell function; cardiovascular disease

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. These effects are attributed in part to suppression of immune cell function. In the in vitro setting, LC n-3 PUFAs have been found to inhibit secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines from human cultured macrophages after their exposure to a pro-inflammatory stimulus such as lipopolysaccharide. In animal models of cardiovascular disease, LC n-3 PUFAs suppressed activity of the pro-oxidant enzyme, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, to limit cellular formation of reactive oxygen species. However, the extent to which LC n-3 PUFAs attenuate the progression of chronic vascular disease by attenuating inflammation and oxidative stress is yet to be fully resolved. This Special Issue invites reviews, cell-based and animal studies, and clinical trials that provide improved understanding of the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential of LC n-3 PUFAs for attenuation of vascular disease. Papers should consider factors that may influence outcomes, including patient profile (for clinical trials), fatty acid dose, type and formulation and duration of treatment.

Assoc. Prof. Fraser Russell
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids
  • Dietary fish
  • Inflammation
  • Oxidative stress
  • Nutrient deprivation
  • Health benefits
  • Immune cell response
  • n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio
  • Pre-clinical trials
  • Clinical trials

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Article
Long Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Improve Vascular Stiffness in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010138 - 31 Dec 2020
Viewed by 1259
Abstract
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a vascular disease involving permanent focal dilation of the abdominal aorta (≥30 mm) that can lead to catastrophic rupture. Destructive remodeling of aortic connective tissue in AAA contributes to wall stiffening, a mechanical parameter of the arterial system [...] Read more.
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a vascular disease involving permanent focal dilation of the abdominal aorta (≥30 mm) that can lead to catastrophic rupture. Destructive remodeling of aortic connective tissue in AAA contributes to wall stiffening, a mechanical parameter of the arterial system linked to a heightened risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Since aortic stiffening is associated with AAA progression, treatment options that target vascular inflammation would appear prudent. Given this, and growing evidence indicating robust anti-inflammatory and vasoprotective properties for long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs), this study evaluated the impact of these nutrients (1.8 g/day for 12 weeks) on indices of vascular stiffness in patients with AAA. At baseline, pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index normalized to a heart rate of 75 bpm (AIx75) were significantly higher in patients with AAA compared to control participants (PWV: 14.2 ± 0.4 m.s−1 vs. 12.6 ± 0.4 m.s−1, p = 0.014; AIx75: 26.4 ± 1.7% vs. 17.3 ± 2.7%, p = 0.005). Twelve-week LC n-3 PUFA supplementation significantly decreased PWV (baseline: 14.2 ± 0.6 m.s−1, week 12: 12.8 ± 0.7 m.s−1, p = 0.014) and heart rate (baseline: 63 ± 3 bpm, week 12: 58 ± 3 bpm, p = 0.009) in patients with AAA. No change was observed for patients receiving placebo capsules. While this raises the possibility that LC n-3 PUFAs provide improvements in aortic stiffness in patients with AAA, the clinical implications remain to be fully elucidated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue LC N-3 PUFAs, Vascular Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress)
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Article
Leukocyte Activation and Antioxidative Defense Are Interrelated and Moderately Modified by n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid-Enriched Eggs Consumption—Double-Blind Controlled Randomized Clinical Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3122; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103122 - 13 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 980
Abstract
This placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, interventional study investigated the effects of low/intermediate doses of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on the endothelial function, markers of leukocyte activation, and oxidative status following dietary intake of n-3 PUFA-enriched hen eggs in young healthy individuals. Twenty young [...] Read more.
This placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, interventional study investigated the effects of low/intermediate doses of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on the endothelial function, markers of leukocyte activation, and oxidative status following dietary intake of n-3 PUFA-enriched hen eggs in young healthy individuals. Twenty young healthy adults of both sexes who consumed n-3 PUFA-enriched hen eggs (two eggs per day, for three weeks, total of approximately 407 mg/day n-3 PUFAs) or regular eggs (two eggs per day for three weeks, total of approximately 75 mg/day n-3 PUFAs) participated in this study. Skin microvascular endothelium-independent and endothelium-dependent vasodilation were assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry. Serum lipid profile and content of free fatty acids, markers of leukocyte activation, biochemical parameters of oxidative stress, as well as antioxidative enzymes serum activity were measured before and after respective dietary protocol. The results of this study revealed significant differences in the markers of leukocyte activation (such as CD11a/LFA-1) and antioxidative defense, which are related to increased intake of n-3 PUFAs, providing the evidence that consumption of nutritionally enriched hen eggs may affect physiological processes related to oxidative balance. The absence of significant changes in microvascular reactivity following supplementation with a low-intermediate dose of n-3 PUFAs, unlike in our previous studies where functional eggs contained ~1 g of n-3 PUFA, suggests the existence of a dose-dependent effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue LC N-3 PUFAs, Vascular Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress)
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Article
Effects of Olive Oil Consumption on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients with Fibromyalgia
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 918; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12040918 - 27 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2474
Abstract
We have recently reported that patients with fibromyalgia (FM) may be at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Olive oil reportedly has cardioprotective effects. We examined the influence of olive oil consumption on cardiovascular risk factors in FM. This preliminary study was performed on [...] Read more.
We have recently reported that patients with fibromyalgia (FM) may be at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Olive oil reportedly has cardioprotective effects. We examined the influence of olive oil consumption on cardiovascular risk factors in FM. This preliminary study was performed on blood samples of women with FM who consumed 50 mL of organic olive oil daily for 3 weeks. Patients were randomized into two groups: 15 women ingested extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and 15 refined olive oil (ROO). Cardiovascular risk markers were measured at baseline (pre measure) and after consumption of olive oil (post measure). Red blood cell count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR; both p < 0.05) declined significantly post-treatment in the EVOO group. Consumption of ROO increased mean platelet volume and reduced platelet distribution width (PDW), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, ESR and fibrinogen (all p < 0.05). Significant differences were found in pre–post change between the EVOO and ROO groups for cortisol and PDW (both p < 0.05). Our results have shown that consumption of olive oil may have antithrombotic and antiinflammatory properties in patients with FM, thereby improving a number of cardiovascular risk markers. Both EVOO and ROO may be useful as adjuvants for the prevention and/or treatment of cardiovascular disorders in these patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue LC N-3 PUFAs, Vascular Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress)
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Review

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Review
Biological Role of Unsaturated Fatty Acid Desaturases in Health and Disease
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020356 - 29 Jan 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1772
Abstract
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered one of the most important components of cells that influence normal development and function of many organisms, both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Unsaturated fatty acid desaturases play a crucial role in the synthesis of PUFAs, inserting additional unsaturated [...] Read more.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered one of the most important components of cells that influence normal development and function of many organisms, both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Unsaturated fatty acid desaturases play a crucial role in the synthesis of PUFAs, inserting additional unsaturated bonds into the acyl chain. The level of expression and activity of different types of desaturases determines profiles of PUFAs. It is well recognized that qualitative and quantitative changes in the PUFA profile, resulting from alterations in the expression and activity of fatty acid desaturases, are associated with many pathological conditions. Understanding of underlying mechanisms of fatty acid desaturase activity and their functional modification will facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies in diseases associated with qualitative and quantitative disorders of PUFA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue LC N-3 PUFAs, Vascular Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress)
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