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Article

Leukocyte Activation and Antioxidative Defense Are Interrelated and Moderately Modified by n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid-Enriched Eggs Consumption—Double-Blind Controlled Randomized Clinical Study

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Department of Physiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, J. Huttlera 4, HR-31000 Osijek, Croatia
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Scientific Center of Excellence for Personalized Health Care, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Trg Svetog Trojstva 3, HR-31000 Osijek, Croatia
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Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Osijek University Hospital, J. Huttlera 4, HR-31000 Osijek, Croatia
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Department of Pathophysiology, Physiology and Immunology, Faculty of Dental Medicine and Health Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Cara Hadrijana 10E, HR-31000 Osijek, Croatia
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Radiation Chemistry and Dosimetry Laboratory, Division of Materials Chemistry, IRB, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Department of Animal Production and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agrobiotechnical Sciences, Vladimira Preloga 1, HR-31000 Osijek, Croatia
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Department for Cardiovascular Disease, Osijek University Hospital, J. Huttlera 4, HR-31000 Osijek, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3122; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103122
Received: 12 September 2020 / Revised: 29 September 2020 / Accepted: 10 October 2020 / Published: 13 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue LC N-3 PUFAs, Vascular Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress)
This placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, interventional study investigated the effects of low/intermediate doses of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on the endothelial function, markers of leukocyte activation, and oxidative status following dietary intake of n-3 PUFA-enriched hen eggs in young healthy individuals. Twenty young healthy adults of both sexes who consumed n-3 PUFA-enriched hen eggs (two eggs per day, for three weeks, total of approximately 407 mg/day n-3 PUFAs) or regular eggs (two eggs per day for three weeks, total of approximately 75 mg/day n-3 PUFAs) participated in this study. Skin microvascular endothelium-independent and endothelium-dependent vasodilation were assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry. Serum lipid profile and content of free fatty acids, markers of leukocyte activation, biochemical parameters of oxidative stress, as well as antioxidative enzymes serum activity were measured before and after respective dietary protocol. The results of this study revealed significant differences in the markers of leukocyte activation (such as CD11a/LFA-1) and antioxidative defense, which are related to increased intake of n-3 PUFAs, providing the evidence that consumption of nutritionally enriched hen eggs may affect physiological processes related to oxidative balance. The absence of significant changes in microvascular reactivity following supplementation with a low-intermediate dose of n-3 PUFAs, unlike in our previous studies where functional eggs contained ~1 g of n-3 PUFA, suggests the existence of a dose-dependent effect. View Full-Text
Keywords: inflammation; microvascular; oxidative stress; n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; endothelium; omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids inflammation; microvascular; oxidative stress; n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; endothelium; omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mihalj, M.; Stupin, A.; Kolobarić, N.; Tartaro Bujak, I.; Matić, A.; Kralik, Z.; Jukić, I.; Stupin, M.; Drenjančević, I. Leukocyte Activation and Antioxidative Defense Are Interrelated and Moderately Modified by n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid-Enriched Eggs Consumption—Double-Blind Controlled Randomized Clinical Study. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3122. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103122

AMA Style

Mihalj M, Stupin A, Kolobarić N, Tartaro Bujak I, Matić A, Kralik Z, Jukić I, Stupin M, Drenjančević I. Leukocyte Activation and Antioxidative Defense Are Interrelated and Moderately Modified by n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid-Enriched Eggs Consumption—Double-Blind Controlled Randomized Clinical Study. Nutrients. 2020; 12(10):3122. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103122

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mihalj, Martina, Ana Stupin, Nikolina Kolobarić, Ivana Tartaro Bujak, Anita Matić, Zlata Kralik, Ivana Jukić, Marko Stupin, and Ines Drenjančević. 2020. "Leukocyte Activation and Antioxidative Defense Are Interrelated and Moderately Modified by n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid-Enriched Eggs Consumption—Double-Blind Controlled Randomized Clinical Study" Nutrients 12, no. 10: 3122. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103122

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