Special Issue "Nanotechnologies in Cultural Heritage Conservation"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Rodorico Giorgi
Website
Guest Editor
Universita degli Studi di Firenze, 4–50121 Florence, Italy
Interests: Colloidal science and soft matter chemistry; nanotechnology applications in Cultural Heritage conservation; cement chemistry; nanomaterials for consolidation, paper and wood conservation; modern and contemporary art conservation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Advanced nanotechnologies for the conservation of artworks have revolutionized the world of cultural heritage valorization and preservation. For decades, the conservation of cultural heritage has been mainly based on conventional materials and traditional methods that often lack the necessary compatibility with the materials constituting the original artworks and a durable performance, in response to changes of environmental conditions caused by natural events or anthropic activities. More recently, sophisticated functional materials arising from developments in nanoscience/technology have also contributed to the development of new tools and devices for monitoring and diagnostics, both finalized to the full comprehension of the degradation processes and of the role of the environmental pollution on them.

This Special Issue of Nanomaterials aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the most recent advances in the application of nanoscience to the field of cultural heritage conservation, concerning not only the synthesis, formulation, and characterization of new materials and techniques, but also reporting on new cutting-edge applications within the field. The integration of relevant case-studies covering different areas, including both movable and immovable artworks, spanning from ancient time to contemporary art, will expand the potential interest of the book to a large audience that may include conservators, archaeologists, collectors, and museum curators.

Prof. Dr. Rodorico Giorgi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Design and formulation of novel “smart” advanced materials
  • Physico-chemical characterization of materials and artworks
  • Assessment of novel materials for conservation
  • Evaluation of the long-term effect of restoration interventions
  • Environmental impact of novel advanced materials for conservation
  • Relevant case-studies

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Nanomaterials for Combined Stabilisation and Deacidification of Cellulosic Materials—The Case of Iron-Tannate Dyed Cotton
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(5), 900; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10050900 - 08 May 2020
Abstract
The conservation of textiles is a challenge due to the often fast degradation that results from the acidity combined with a complex structure that requires remediation actions to be conducted at several length scales. Nanomaterials have lately been used for various purposes in [...] Read more.
The conservation of textiles is a challenge due to the often fast degradation that results from the acidity combined with a complex structure that requires remediation actions to be conducted at several length scales. Nanomaterials have lately been used for various purposes in the conservation of cultural heritage. The advantage with these materials is their high efficiency combined with a great control. Here, we provide an overview of the latest developments in terms of nanomaterials-based alternatives, namely inorganic nanoparticles and nanocellulose, to conventional methods for the strengthening and deacidification of cellulose-based materials. Then, using the case of iron-tannate dyed cotton, we show that conservation can only be addressed if the mechanical strengthening is preceded by a deacidification step. We used CaCO3 nanoparticles to neutralize the acidity, while the stabilisation was addressed by a combination of nanocellulose, and silica nanoparticles, to truly tackle the complexity of the hierarchical nature of cotton textiles. Silica nanoparticles enabled strengthening at the fibre scale by covering the fibre surface, while the nanocellulose acted at bigger length scales. The evaluation of the applied treatments, before and after an accelerated ageing, was assessed by tensile testing, the fibre structure by SEM and the apparent colour changes by colourimetric measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies in Cultural Heritage Conservation)
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Open AccessArticle
Antibacterial Effect of Zinc Oxide-Based Nanomaterials on Environmental Biodeteriogens Affecting Historical Buildings
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(2), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10020335 - 16 Feb 2020
Abstract
The colonization of microorganisms and their subsequent interaction with stone substrates under different environmental conditions encourage deterioration of materials by multiple mechanisms resulting in changes in the original color, appearance and durability. One of the emerging alternatives to remedy biodeterioration is nanotechnology, thanks [...] Read more.
The colonization of microorganisms and their subsequent interaction with stone substrates under different environmental conditions encourage deterioration of materials by multiple mechanisms resulting in changes in the original color, appearance and durability. One of the emerging alternatives to remedy biodeterioration is nanotechnology, thanks to nanoparticle properties such as small size, no-toxicity, high photo-reactivity, and low impact on the environment. This study highlighted the effects of ZnO-based nanomaterials of two bacteria genera isolated from the Temple of Concordia (Agrigento’s Valley of the Temples in Sicily, Italy) that are involved in biodeterioration processes. The antimicrobial activities of ZnO-nanorods (Zn-NRs) and graphene nanoplatelets decorated with Zn-NRs (ZNGs) were evaluated against the Gram positive Arthrobacter aurescens and two isolates of the Gram negative Achromobacter spanius. ZNGs demonstrated high antibacterial and antibiofilm activities on several substrates such as stones with different porosity. In the case of ZNGs, a marked time- and dose-dependent bactericidal effect was highlighted against all bacterial species. Therefore, these nanomaterials represent a promising tool for developing biocompatible materials that can be exploited for the conservation of cultural heritage. These nanostructures can be successfully applied without releasing toxic compounds, thus spreading their usability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies in Cultural Heritage Conservation)
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Open AccessArticle
Neutron Radiography Study of Laboratory Ageing and Treatment Applications with Stone Consolidants
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(4), 635; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9040635 - 19 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
A nano-silica consolidant and nano-titania modified tetraethyl-orthosilicate were applied on two building stones, a carbonate and a silicate, by brush, poultice or capillary absorption. Neutron radiography was used to monitor capillary water absorption, and to analyse changes in physical properties caused by heat [...] Read more.
A nano-silica consolidant and nano-titania modified tetraethyl-orthosilicate were applied on two building stones, a carbonate and a silicate, by brush, poultice or capillary absorption. Neutron radiography was used to monitor capillary water absorption, and to analyse changes in physical properties caused by heat treatment of specimens for the purposes of artificially ageing and different treatment applications with stone consolidants. Moreover, ultrasonic pulse velocity and gravimetrically determined water absorption were analysed to cross-validate neutron radiography. The results reveal that reactive systems like tetraethyl-orthosilicates need an unknown period for polymerisation, which makes nano-silica consolidants more favourable for construction follow-up work. While polymerisation is incomplete, hydrophobic behaviour, water trapping and pore clogging are evident. Within the tetraethyl-orthosilicate treatment, poultice and brushing are strongly influenced by the applicant, which results in wide ranging amounts of water absorbed and anomalous water distributions and kinetics. The carbonate lithotype displays polymerisation initiated in the core of the specimen, while the lateral surfaces are still mostly hydrophobic. Reaction time differences can be attributed to the different amounts of consolidants applied, which is a result of the chosen application settings. Artificial ageing of stone specimens is a prerequisite when mechanical strength gain is studied, as demonstrated by sound speed propagation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies in Cultural Heritage Conservation)
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