Special Issue "Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Novel Nanocomposites"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanoelectronics, Nanosensors and Devices".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (16 August 2021) | Viewed by 7315

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Pavel Sorokin
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Moscow, Russia
2. Technological Institute for Superhard and Novel Carbon Materials, Troitsk, Moscow, Russia
Interests: atomistic simulations, superhard materials, composites, 2D layered nanostructures, 1D nanostructures

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Decreasing the size of materials to the nanometer scale always leads to the appearance of new specific properties, due to the major impact of the surface and quantum effects. In the case of mechanical properties, the downsizing often leads to the stiffening of the structure which opens perspectives to design new nanocomposite materials with unique characteristics. Nanocomposites offer an exceptionally extensive range of prospective ways of application, from electronics to biology, which allows to consider them as the XXI century materials. Physical and chemical properties of a nanocomposite are sufficiently different from those of the component materials and they are determined by the same factors as usual composites, i.e., component properties, composition, structure, and interfacial interactions. However, their impact is more sensitive due to the nanoscale size of its constituents and it is more challenging to control them. Fundamental studies of mechanical, electrical, thermal, optical, and chemical properties are required along with a thorough research for the real application.

The titled Special Issue aims to cover current experimental and/or computational studies in the field of nanocomposites. The focus of this Issue is to highlight the state of knowledge in processing, manufacturing, characterization and potential application for the new nanocomposite materials.

Prof. Dr. Pavel Sorokin
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Ceramic matrix nanocomposites
  • Metal matrix nanocomposites
  • Polymer matrix nanocomposites
  • Manufacturing
  • Mechanical properties
  • Electronic properties

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Article
Investigation of the Tribological Characteristics of Aluminum 6061-Reinforced Titanium Carbide Metal Matrix Composites
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(11), 3039; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11113039 - 12 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 593
Abstract
The current trend in the materials engineering sector is to develop newer materials that can replace the existing materials in various engineering sectors in order to be more and more efficient. Therefore, the present research work is aimed at fabricating and determining the [...] Read more.
The current trend in the materials engineering sector is to develop newer materials that can replace the existing materials in various engineering sectors in order to be more and more efficient. Therefore, the present research work is aimed at fabricating and determining the physical, mechanical, and dry sliding wear properties of titanium carbide (TiC)-reinforced aluminum alloy (Al6061) metal matrix composites (MMCs). For the study, the Al6061-TiC microparticle-reinforced composites were fabricated via the liquid metallurgy route through the stir casting method, where the reinforcement of the TiC particles into the Al6061 alloy matrix was added in the range of 0 to 8.0 wt.%, i.e., in the steps of 2.0 wt.%. The synthesis procedure followed the investigation of the various mechanical properties of Al6061-TiC MMCs, such as the density and structure, as well as mechanical and dry wear experimentation. The tests performed on the casted Al6061, as well as its TiC composites, were in harmony with ASTM standards. As per the experimental outcome, it can be confirmed that the increase in the weight percentage of TiC into the Al6061 alloy substantially increases the density, hardness, and tensile strength, at the expense of the percentage of elongation. In addition, the dry wear experiments, performed on a pin-on-disc tribometer, showed that the Al6061-TiC MMCs have superior wear-resistance properties, as compared to those of pure Al6061 alloy. Furthermore, optical micrograph (OM), powdered X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were employed for the developed Al6061-TiC MMCs before and after the fracture and wear test studies. From the overall analysis of the results, it can be observed that the Al6061-TiC composite material with higher TiC reinforcement displays superior mechanical characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Novel Nanocomposites)
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Article
Development of Waste Polystyrene-Based Copper Oxide/Reduced Graphene Oxide Composites and Their Mechanical, Electrical and Thermal Properties
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(9), 2372; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11092372 - 13 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 752
Abstract
The current study reports the effect of different wt. ratios of copper oxide nanoparticle (CuO-NPs) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as fillers on mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties of waste polystyrene (WPS) matrix. Firstly, thin sheets of WPS-rGO-CuO composites were prepared through solution [...] Read more.
The current study reports the effect of different wt. ratios of copper oxide nanoparticle (CuO-NPs) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as fillers on mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties of waste polystyrene (WPS) matrix. Firstly, thin sheets of WPS-rGO-CuO composites were prepared through solution casting method with different ratios, i.e., 2, 8, 10, 15 and 20 wt.% of CuO-NPs and rGO in WPS matrix. The synthesized composite sheets were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The electrical conductance and mechanical strength of the prepared composites were determined by using LCR meter and universal testing machine (UTM). These properties were dependent on the concentrations of CuO-NPs and rGO. Results display that the addition of both fillers, i.e., rGO and CuO-NPs, collectively led to remarkable increase in the mechanical properties of the composite. The incorporation of rGO-CuO: 15% WPS sample, i.e., WPS-rGO-CuO: 15%, has shown high mechanical strength with tensile strength of 25.282 MPa and Young modulus of 1951.0 MPa, respectively. Similarly, the electrical conductance of the same composite is also enhanced from 6.7 × 10−14 to 4 × 10−7 S/m in contrast to WPS at 2.0 × 106 Hz. The fabricated composites exhibited high thermal stability through TGA analysis in terms of 3.52% and 6.055% wt. loss at 250 °C as compared to WPS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Novel Nanocomposites)
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Article
The Features of Phase Stability of GaN and AlN Films at Nanolevel
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11010008 - 23 Dec 2020
Viewed by 981
Abstract
Recently, two-dimensional gallium and aluminum nitrides have triggered a vast interest in their tunable optical and electronic properties. Continuation of this research requires a detailed understanding of their atomic structure. Here, by using first-principles calculations we reported a systematic study of phase stability [...] Read more.
Recently, two-dimensional gallium and aluminum nitrides have triggered a vast interest in their tunable optical and electronic properties. Continuation of this research requires a detailed understanding of their atomic structure. Here, by using first-principles calculations we reported a systematic study of phase stability of 2D-GaN and 2D-AlN. We showed that the films undergo a phase transition from a graphene-like to a wurtzite structure with a thickness increase, whereas the early reported body-centered-tetragonal phase requires specific conditions for stabilization. Additionally, we studied how the functionalization of the surface can modify the film structure as exemplified by hydrogenation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Novel Nanocomposites)
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Article
Synthesis, Structure and Electrical Resistivity of Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized over Group VIII Metallocenes
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(11), 2279; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10112279 - 17 Nov 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 871
Abstract
The paper reports the synthesis of carbon nanotubes from ethanol over group VIII (Fe, Co, Ni) catalysts derived from corresponding metallocenes. Several unexpected cooperative effects are reported, which are never observed in the case of individual metallocenes such as the commonly used ferrocene [...] Read more.
The paper reports the synthesis of carbon nanotubes from ethanol over group VIII (Fe, Co, Ni) catalysts derived from corresponding metallocenes. Several unexpected cooperative effects are reported, which are never observed in the case of individual metallocenes such as the commonly used ferrocene catalyst Fe(C5H5)2. The formation of very long (up to several µm) straight monocrystal metal kernels inside the carbon nanotubes was the most interesting effect. The use of trimetal catalysts (Fe1-x-yCoxNiy)(C5H5)2 resulted in the sharp increase in the yield of carbon nanotubes. The electrical conductivity of the produced nanotubes is determined by the nature of the catalyst. The variation of individual metals in the Ni-Co-Fe leads to a drop of the electrical resistivity of nanotube samples by the order of magnitude, i.e., from 1.0 × 10−3 to 1.1 × 10−5 Ω∙m. A controlled change in the electrophysical properties of the nanotubes can make it possible to expand their use as fillers in composites, photothermal and tunable magnetic nanomaterials with pre-designed electrical conductivity and other electromagnetic properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Novel Nanocomposites)
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Article
Design and Optimization of Piezoresistive PEO/PEDOT:PSS Electrospun Nanofibers for Wearable Flex Sensors
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(11), 2166; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10112166 - 30 Oct 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1441
Abstract
Flexible strain sensors are fundamental devices for application in human body monitoring in areas ranging from health care to soft robotics. Stretchable piezoelectric strain sensors received an ever-increasing interest to design novel, robust and low-cost sensing units for these sensors, with intrinsically conductive [...] Read more.
Flexible strain sensors are fundamental devices for application in human body monitoring in areas ranging from health care to soft robotics. Stretchable piezoelectric strain sensors received an ever-increasing interest to design novel, robust and low-cost sensing units for these sensors, with intrinsically conductive polymers (ICPs) as leading materials. We investigated a sensitive element based on crosslinked electrospun nanofibers (NFs) directly collected and thermal treated on a flexible and biocompatible substrate of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The nanostructured active layer based on a blend of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as the ICP was optimized, especially in terms of the thermal treatment that promotes electrical conductivity through crosslinking of PEO and PSS, preserving the nanostructuration and optimizing the coupling between the sensitive layer and the substrate. We demonstrate that excellent properties can be obtained thanks to the nanostructured active materials. We analyzed the piezoresistive response of the sensor in both compression and traction modes, obtaining an increase in the electrical resistance up to 90%. The Gauge Factors (GFs) reflected the extraordinary piezoresistive behavior observed: 45.84 in traction and 208.55 in compression mode, which is much higher than the results presented in the literature for non-nanostructurated PEDOT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Novel Nanocomposites)
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Article
Experimental Studies on the Dynamic Memcapacitance Modulation of the ReO3@ReS2 Composite Material-Based Diode
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(11), 2103; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10112103 - 23 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 965
Abstract
In this study, both memcapacitive and memristive characteristics in the composite material based on the rhenium disulfide (ReS2) rich in rhenium (VI) oxide (ReO3) surface overlayer (ReO3@ReS2) and in the indium tin oxide (ITO)/ReO3 [...] Read more.
In this study, both memcapacitive and memristive characteristics in the composite material based on the rhenium disulfide (ReS2) rich in rhenium (VI) oxide (ReO3) surface overlayer (ReO3@ReS2) and in the indium tin oxide (ITO)/ReO3@ReS2/aluminum (Al) device configuration is presented. Comprehensive experimental analysis of the ReO3@ReS2 material properties’ dependence on the memcapacitor electrical characteristics was carried out by standard as well as frequency-dependent current–voltage, capacitance–voltage, and conductance–voltage studies. Furthermore, determination of the charge carrier conduction model, charge carrier mobility, density of the trap states, density of the available charge carrier, free-carrier concentration, effective density of states in the conduction band, activation energy of the carrier transport, as well as ion hopping was successfully conducted for the ReO3@ReS2 based on the experimental data. The ITO/ReO3@ReS2/Al charge carrier conduction was found to rely on the mixed electronic–ionic processes, involving electrochemical metallization and lattice oxygen atoms migration in response to the externally modulated electric field strength. The chemical potential generated by the electronic–ionic ITO/ReO3@ReS2/Al resistive memory cell non-equlibrium processes leads to the occurrence of the nanobattery effect. This finding supports the possibility of a nonvolatile memory cell with a new operation principle based on the potential read function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Novel Nanocomposites)
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Article
Modeling and Electrochemical Characterization of Electrodes Based on Epoxy Composite with Functionalized Nanocarbon Fillers at High Concentration
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(5), 850; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10050850 - 28 Apr 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1103
Abstract
This paper deals with the electrochemical characterization and the equivalent circuit modeling of screen-printed electrodes, modified by an epoxy composite and loaded with carbon nanotubes (CNTs), pristine and functionalized NH2, and graphene nanoplates (GNPs). The fabrication method is optimized in order [...] Read more.
This paper deals with the electrochemical characterization and the equivalent circuit modeling of screen-printed electrodes, modified by an epoxy composite and loaded with carbon nanotubes (CNTs), pristine and functionalized NH2, and graphene nanoplates (GNPs). The fabrication method is optimized in order to obtain a good dispersion even at high concentration, up to 10%, to increase the range of investigation. Due to the rising presence of filler on the surface, the cyclic voltammetric analysis shows an increasing of (i) electrochemical response and (ii) filler concentration as observed by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Epoxy/CNTs-NH2 and epoxy/GNPs, at 10% of concentration, show the best electrochemical behavior. Furthermore, epoxy/CNTs-NH2 show a lower percolation threshold than epoxy/CNT, probably due to the direct bond created by amino groups. Furthermore, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is used to obtain an electrical equivalent circuit (EEC). The EEC model is a remarkable evolution of previous circuits present in the literature, by inserting an accurate description of the capacitive/inductive/resistive characteristics, thus leading to an enhanced knowledge of phenomena that occur during electrochemical processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Novel Nanocomposites)
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