Investigation of Inorganic Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Structures and Properties

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Inorganic Materials and Metal-Organic Frameworks".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 November 2021) | Viewed by 11083

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Peer Schmidt
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Brandenburg University of Technology, Cottbus, Germany

Special Issue Information

Physical properties in nanoscale systems can differ from the respective bulk phase and even lead to novel properties. Therefore, recent efforts have mainly focused on the synthesis of very small/thin structures. Lately, materials with 2-dimensional layer structures beyond graphene have moved into the focus of research. Often, top–down approaches are applied for downscaling the particle dimensions. Commonly used in 2D materials, exfoliation processes break weak structural interactions, thus leading to particles and thin sheets, even down to monolayer dimensions.

Novel synthesis concepts shall address bottom–up approaches in order to precipitate pure nanocrystallites and to avoid defects occurring from mechanical stress during delamination. Completion of these concepts by rational synthesis planning additionally gives more knowledge and efficiency in materials synthesis. Further characterization methods are convenient for proof of chemical composition, crystallinity and structure, morphology, as well as physical properties on nanoscale dimension.

Prof. Dr. Peer Schmidt
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Intermetallic
  • Metal halide
  • Metal chalcogenide
  • Metal oxide
  • 2D material
  • Honeycomb layer
  • Nanosheet
  • Element allotropes
  • Bottom up
  • Crystal growth
  • Low temperature materials synthesis
  • Rational synthesis planning
  • Structure–properties relationship
  • Characterization

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 16817 KiB  
Article
Scavenger with Protonated Phosphite Ions for Incredible Nanoscale ZrO2-Abrasive Dispersant Stability Enhancement and Related Tungsten-Film Surface Chemical–Mechanical Planarization
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(12), 3296; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11123296 - 04 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1785
Abstract
For scaling-down advanced nanoscale semiconductor devices, tungsten (W)-film surface chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) has rapidly evolved to increase the W-film surface polishing rate via Fenton-reaction acceleration and enhance nanoscale-abrasive (i.e., ZrO2) dispersant stability in the CMP slurry by adding a scavenger [...] Read more.
For scaling-down advanced nanoscale semiconductor devices, tungsten (W)-film surface chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) has rapidly evolved to increase the W-film surface polishing rate via Fenton-reaction acceleration and enhance nanoscale-abrasive (i.e., ZrO2) dispersant stability in the CMP slurry by adding a scavenger to suppress the Fenton reaction. To enhance the ZrO2 abrasive dispersant stability, a scavenger with protonate-phosphite ions was designed to suppress the time-dependent Fenton reaction. The ZrO2 abrasive dispersant stability (i.e., lower H2O2 decomposition rate and longer H2O2 pot lifetime) linearly and significantly increased with scavenger concentration. However, the corrosion magnitude on the W-film surface during CMP increased significantly with scavenger concentration. By adding a scavenger to the CMP slurry, the radical amount reduction via Fenton-reaction suppression in the CMP slurry and the corrosion enhancement on the W-film surface during CMP performed that the W-film surface polishing rate decreased linearly and notably with increasing scavenger concentration via a chemical-dominant CMP mechanism. Otherwise, the SiO2-film surface polishing rate peaked at a specific scavenger concentration via a chemical and mechanical-dominant CMP mechanism. The addition of a corrosion inhibitor with a protonate-amine functional group to the W-film surface CMP slurry completely suppressed the corrosion generation on the W-film surface during CMP without a decrease in the W- and SiO2-film surface polishing rate. Full article
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12 pages, 1910 KiB  
Article
[NiEn3](MoO4)0.5(WO4)0.5 Co-Crystals as Single-Source Precursors for Ternary Refractory Ni–Mo–W Alloys
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(12), 3272; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11123272 - 01 Dec 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1604
Abstract
The co-crystallisation of [NiEn3](NO3)2 (En = ethylenediamine) with Na2MoO4 and Na2WO4 from a water solution results in the formation of [NiEn3](MoO4)0.5(WO4)0.5 co-crystals. According [...] Read more.
The co-crystallisation of [NiEn3](NO3)2 (En = ethylenediamine) with Na2MoO4 and Na2WO4 from a water solution results in the formation of [NiEn3](MoO4)0.5(WO4)0.5 co-crystals. According to the X-ray diffraction analysis of eight single crystals, the parameters of the hexagonal unit cell (space group P–31c, Z = 2) vary in the following intervals: a = 9.2332(3)–9.2566(6); c = 9.9512(12)–9.9753(7) Å with the Mo/W ratio changing from 0.513(3)/0.487(3) to 0.078(4)/0.895(9). The thermal decomposition of [NiEn3](MoO4)0.5(WO4)0.5 individual crystals obtained by co-crystallisation was performed in He and H2 atmospheres. The ex situ X-ray study of thermal decomposition products shows the formation of nanocrystalline refractory alloys and carbide composites containing ternary Ni–Mo–W phases. The formation of carbon–nitride phases at certain stages of heating up to 1000 °C were shown. Full article
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17 pages, 3018 KiB  
Article
Electrolyte-Dependent Modification of Resistive Switching in Anodic Hafnia
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(3), 666; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11030666 - 08 Mar 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2173
Abstract
Anodic HfO2 memristors grown in phosphate, borate, or citrate electrolytes and formed on sputtered Hf with Pt top electrodes are characterized at fundamental and device levels. The incorporation of electrolyte species deep into anodic memristors concomitant with HfO2 crystalline structure conservation [...] Read more.
Anodic HfO2 memristors grown in phosphate, borate, or citrate electrolytes and formed on sputtered Hf with Pt top electrodes are characterized at fundamental and device levels. The incorporation of electrolyte species deep into anodic memristors concomitant with HfO2 crystalline structure conservation is demonstrated by elemental analysis and atomic scale imaging. Upon electroforming, retention and endurance tests are performed on memristors. The use of borate results in the weakest memristive performance while the citrate demonstrates clear superior memristive properties with multilevel switching capabilities and high read/write cycling in the range of 106. Low temperature heating applied to memristors shows a direct influence on their behavior mainly due to surface release of water. Citrate-based memristors show remarkable properties independent on device operation temperatures up to 100 °C. The switching dynamic of anodic HfO2 memristors is discussed by analyzing high resolution transmission electron microscope images. Full and partial conductive filaments are visualized, and apart from their modeling, a concurrency of filaments is additionally observed. This is responsible for the multilevel switching mechanism in HfO2 and is related to device failure mechanisms. Full article
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21 pages, 1255 KiB  
Article
Plasticity and Deformation Mechanisms of Ultrafine-Grained Ti in Necking Region Revealed by Digital Image Correlation Technique
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(3), 574; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11030574 - 25 Feb 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2708
Abstract
The conventional engineering stress-strain curve could not accurately describe the true stress-strain and local deformability of the necking part of tensile specimens, as it calculates the strain by using the whole gauge length, assuming the tensile specimen was deformed uniformly. In this study, [...] Read more.
The conventional engineering stress-strain curve could not accurately describe the true stress-strain and local deformability of the necking part of tensile specimens, as it calculates the strain by using the whole gauge length, assuming the tensile specimen was deformed uniformly. In this study, we employed 3D optical measuring digital image correlation (DIC) to systematically measure the full strain field and local strain during the whole tensile process, and calculate the real-time strain and actual flow stress in the necking region of ultrafine-grained (UFG) Ti. The post-necking elongation and strain hardening exponent of the UFG Ti necking part were then measured as 36% and 0.101, slightly smaller than those of the coarse grained Ti (52% and 0.167), suggesting the high plastic deformability in the necking part of the UFG Ti. Finite elemental modeling (FEM) indicates that when necking occurs, strain is concentrated in the necking region. The stress state of the necking part was transformed from uniaxial in the uniform elongation stage to a triaxial stress state. A scanning electron microscopic (SEM) study revealed the shear and ductile fracture, as well as numerous micro shear bands in the UFG Ti, which are controlled by cooperative grain boundary sliding. Our work revealed the large plastic deformability of UFG metals in the necking region under a complex stress state. Full article
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12 pages, 5640 KiB  
Article
In Situ Observation of Electron-Beam-Induced Formation of Nano-Structures in PbTe
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(1), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11010163 - 10 Jan 2021
Viewed by 2039
Abstract
Nano-scaled thermoelectric materials attract significant interest due to their improved physical properties as compared to bulk materials. Well-shaped nanoparticles such as nano-bars and nano-cubes were observed in the known thermoelectric material PbTe. Their extended two-dimensional nano-layer arrangements form directly in situ through electron-beam [...] Read more.
Nano-scaled thermoelectric materials attract significant interest due to their improved physical properties as compared to bulk materials. Well-shaped nanoparticles such as nano-bars and nano-cubes were observed in the known thermoelectric material PbTe. Their extended two-dimensional nano-layer arrangements form directly in situ through electron-beam treatment in the transmission electron microscope. The experiments show the atomistic depletion mechanism of the initial crystal and the recrystallization of PbTe nanoparticles out of the microparticles due to the local atomic-scale transport via the gas phase beyond a threshold current density of the beam. Full article
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