Special Issue "Synthesis Methods of Graphene Nanoplatelets and Their Applications in Metal and Polymer (Epoxy) Based Nanocomposites"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "2D and Carbon Nanomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 5181

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Sergey Kidalov
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Ioffe Institute, Saint Petersburg, Russia
Interests: clusters; phase transition; nanocluster; nanocarbon; diamond; carbon; nanodiamond; thermal conductivity; hardness; carbon nanocomposites’ nanofluid; heat; thermodynamic processes; electrical processes; high pressure; hot pressing; composite materials; carbon semiconductors; carbon nanodots
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Graphene nanoplatelets are a two-dimensional allotropic modification of carbon, formed by a layer of carbon atoms one atom thick, in a state of sp2 hybridization and connected via σ and π bonds to a hexagonal two-dimensional crystal lattice, usually with several (5–10) layers.

Graphene nanoplatelets have in recent years become one of the most intensively studied materials. This is due to their unique electrical and mechanical properties, as well as their various fields of application, which include as composite materials based on metals and polymers (including epoxy), in catalysis, as sorbents, as material for supercapacitors, and in solving various other problems. Graphene nanoplatelets have high mechanical strength and a very large and affordable specific surface area, as well as high electrical conductivity, which makes them a unique carbon nanomaterial. They can be in the form of a powder or dispersion in various media, and of particular interest are graphene nanoplatelets with various materials, i.e., so-called hybrid nanomaterials.

This Special Issue of Nanomaterials aims to cover the newest methods of synthesis of GNP and recent advancements in the use of GNP nanoparticles for composite materials, supercapacitors, and conductive polymers, as well as their lightweight but durable plastic form and possibility to increase thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, strength properties of different materials, and capacitive properties of batteries and supercapacitors.

Dr. Sergey Kidalov
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • graphene nanoplatelets (GNP)
  • graphene nanosheets (GNS)
  • nanocomposites
  • metal–GNP composites
  • polymer (epoxy)–GNP composites
  • GNP-based hybrid nanomaterials
  • supercapacitors with GNP

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Article
A Quantitative Chemical Method for Determining the Surface Concentration of Stone–Wales Defects for 1D and 2D Carbon Nanomaterials
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(5), 883; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12050883 - 07 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 531
Abstract
A quantitative method is proposed to determine Stone–Wales defects for 1D and 2D carbon nanostructures. The technique is based on the diene synthesis reaction (Diels–Alder reaction). The proposed method was used to determine Stone–Wales defects in the few-layer graphene (FLG) nanostructures synthesized by [...] Read more.
A quantitative method is proposed to determine Stone–Wales defects for 1D and 2D carbon nanostructures. The technique is based on the diene synthesis reaction (Diels–Alder reaction). The proposed method was used to determine Stone–Wales defects in the few-layer graphene (FLG) nanostructures synthesized by the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) process in reduced graphene oxide (rGO) synthesized based on the method of Hammers and in the single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) TUBAL trademark, Russia. Our research has shown that the structure of FLG is free of Stone–Wales defects, while the surface concentration of Stone–Wales defects in TUBAL carbon nanotubes is 1.1 × 10−5 mol/m2 and 3.6 × 10−5 mol/m2 for rGO. Full article
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Article
New Way of Synthesis of Few-Layer Graphene Nanosheets by the Self Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis Method from Biopolymers
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(4), 657; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12040657 - 16 Feb 2022
Viewed by 498
Abstract
For the first time, few-layer graphene (FLG) nanosheets were synthesized by the method of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) from biopolymers (glucose, starch, and cellulose). We suggest that biopolymers and polysaccharides, particularly starch, could be an acceptable source of native cycles for the SHS [...] Read more.
For the first time, few-layer graphene (FLG) nanosheets were synthesized by the method of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) from biopolymers (glucose, starch, and cellulose). We suggest that biopolymers and polysaccharides, particularly starch, could be an acceptable source of native cycles for the SHS process. The carbonization of biopolymers under the conditions of the SHS process was chosen as the basic method of synthesis. Under the conditions of the SHS process, chemical reactions proceed according to a specific mechanism of nonisothermal branched-chain processes, which are characterized by the joint action of two fundamentally different process-accelerating factors—avalanche reproduction of active intermediate particles and self-heating. The method of obtaining FLG nanosheets included the thermal destruction of hydrocarbons in a mixture with an oxidizing agent. We used biopolymers as hydrocarbons and ammonium nitrate as an oxidizing agent. Thermal destruction was carried out in SHS mode, heating the mixture in a vessel up to 150–200 °C at a heating speed of 20–30 °C/min and keeping at this temperature for 15–20 min with the discharge of excess gases into the atmosphere. A combination of spectrometric research methods, supplemented by electron microscopy data, has shown that the particles of the carbonated product powder in their morphometric and physical parameters correspond to FLG nanosheets. An X-ray diffraction analysis of the indicated FLG nanosheets was carried out, which showed the absence of formations with a graphite crystal structure in the final material. The surface morphology was also studied, and the IR absorption features of FLG nanosheets were analyzed. It is shown that the developed SHS method makes it possible to obtain FLG nanosheets with linear dimensions of tens of microns and a thickness of not more than 1–5 graphene layers (several graphene layers). Full article
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Article
Using Graphene-Based Composite Materials to Boost Anti-Corrosion and Infrared-Stealth Performance of Epoxy Coatings
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(6), 1603; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11061603 - 18 Jun 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1329
Abstract
Corrosion prevention and infrared (IR) stealth are conflicting goals. While graphene nanosheets (GN) provide an excellent physical barrier against corrosive agent diffusion, thus lowering the permeability of anti-corrosion coatings, they have the side-effect of decreasing IR stealth. In this work, the anti-corrosion properties [...] Read more.
Corrosion prevention and infrared (IR) stealth are conflicting goals. While graphene nanosheets (GN) provide an excellent physical barrier against corrosive agent diffusion, thus lowering the permeability of anti-corrosion coatings, they have the side-effect of decreasing IR stealth. In this work, the anti-corrosion properties of 100-μm-thick composite epoxy coatings with various concentrations (0.01–1 wt.%) of GN fillers thermally reduced at different temperatures (300 °C, 700 °C, 1100 °C) are first compared. The performance was characterized by potentiodynamic polarization scanning, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, water contact angle and salt spray tests. The corrosion resistance for coatings was found to be optimum at a very low filler concentration (0.05 wt.%). The corrosion current density was 4.57 × 10−11 A/cm2 for GN reduced at 1100 °C, showing no degradation after 500 h of salt-spray testing: a significant improvement over the anti-corrosion behavior of epoxy coatings. Further, to suppress the high IR thermal signature of GN and epoxy, Al was added to the optimized composite at different concentrations. The increased IR emissivity due to GN was not only eliminated but was in fact reduced relative to the pure epoxy. These optimized coatings of Al-GN-epoxy not only exhibited greatly reduced IR emissivity but also showed no sign of corrosion after 500 h of salt spray test. Full article
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Article
Graphene Flakes for Electronic Applications: DC Plasma Jet-Assisted Synthesis
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 2050; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102050 - 16 Oct 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 918
Abstract
The possibility of graphene synthesis (the bottom-up approach) in plasma and the effective control of the morphology and electrical properties of graphene-based layers were demonstrated. Graphene flakes were grown in a plasma jet generated by a direct current plasma torch with helium and [...] Read more.
The possibility of graphene synthesis (the bottom-up approach) in plasma and the effective control of the morphology and electrical properties of graphene-based layers were demonstrated. Graphene flakes were grown in a plasma jet generated by a direct current plasma torch with helium and argon as the plasma-forming gases. In the case of argon plasma, the synthesized graphene flakes were relatively thick (2–6 nm) and non-conductive. In helium plasma, for the first time, graphene with a predominance of monolayer flakes and high conductivity was grown in a significant amount using an industrial plasma torch. One-dimensional (1D) flow modeling shows that the helium plasma is a less charged environment providing the formation of thinner graphene flakes with low defect density. These flakes might be used for a water-based suspension of the graphene with PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrene sulfonate) composite to create the structures employing the 2D printing technologies. Good structural quality, low layer resistance, and good mechanical strength combined with the ability to obtain a large amount of the graphene powder, and to control the parameters of the synthesized particles make this material promising for various applications and, above all, for sensors and other devices for flexible electronics and the Internet of things ecosystem. Full article
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Article
Ultra-High Energy Density Hybrid Supercapacitors Using MnO2/Reduced Graphene Oxide Hybrid Nanoscrolls
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 2049; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102049 - 16 Oct 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1288
Abstract
Manganese oxide (MnO2) is a promising material for supercapacitor applications, with a theoretical ultra-high energy density of 308 Wh/kg. However, such ultra-high energy density has not been achieved experimentally in MnO2-based supercapacitors because of several practical issues, such as [...] Read more.
Manganese oxide (MnO2) is a promising material for supercapacitor applications, with a theoretical ultra-high energy density of 308 Wh/kg. However, such ultra-high energy density has not been achieved experimentally in MnO2-based supercapacitors because of several practical issues, such as low electrical conductivity of MnO2, incomplete utilization of MnO2, and dissolution of MnO2. The present study investigates the potential of MnO2/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) hybrid nanoscroll (GMS) structures as electrode material for overcoming the difficulties and for developing ultra-high-energy storage systems. A hybrid supercapacitor, comprising MnO2/rGO nanoscrolls as anode material and activated carbon (AC) as a cathode, is fabricated. The GMS/AC hybrid supercapacitor exhibited enhanced energy density, superior rate performance, and promising Li storage capability that bridged the energy–density gap between conventional Li-ion batteries (LIBs) and supercapacitors. The fabricated GMS/AC hybrid supercapacitor demonstrates an ultra-high lithium discharge capacity of 2040 mAh/g. The GMS/AC cell delivered a maximum energy density of 105.3 Wh/kg and a corresponding power density of 308.1 W/kg. It also delivered an energy density of 42.77 Wh/kg at a power density as high as 30,800 W/kg. Our GMS/AC cell’s energy density values are very high compared with those of other reported values of graphene-based hybrid structures. The GMS structures offer significant potential as an electrode material for energy-storage systems and can also enhance the performance of the other electrode materials for LIBs and hybrid supercapacitors. Full article
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