Special Issue "The Genetic Changes Induced by Engineered Manufactured Nanomaterials (EMNs)"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Biology and Medicines".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2021) | Viewed by 5703

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Special Issue Editor

Prof. Marta Marmiroli
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Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, Life Sciences and Environmental Sustainability, University of Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 33/A, 43124 Parma, Italy
Interests: biotechnology; nanotechnology; bio-nanotechnology; phytoremediation; plant stress; heavy metals and metalloids; biochar
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The possibility that engineered manufactured nanomaterials (ENMs) can be harmful to the genetic materials of living individuals has been raised by several experiments, but it is, however, still controversial. In fact, there is also evidence that nanoparticles are not genotoxic and do not interfere with the genetic materials of organisms. It is of extreme importance to establish which nanomaterials have the potential to exert harmful effects on DNA in any type of living organisms, from simple prokaryotes to complex eukaryotes, starting from model organisms.

The aims and scopes of this Special Issue are to (1) highlight the research applications that find out which ENMs are genotoxic and which are the more susceptible organisms or cell lines, and (2) to pinpoint reliable methods to establish the genotoxicity of ENMs.

Dr. Marta Marmiroli
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Engineered manufactured nanomaterials (ENMs)
  • Genotoxicity
  • DNA fingerprinting
  • Model organisms
  • Genomic interaction
  • Proteomics
  • Metabolomics

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Special Issue “The Genetic Changes Induced by Engineered Manufactured Nanomaterials (EMNs)”
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(13), 2233; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12132233 - 29 Jun 2022
Viewed by 294
Abstract
The possibility that engineered manufactured nanomaterials (ENMs) can be harmful to the genetic materials of living individuals has been highlighted in several experiments, but it is still controversial [...] Full article

Research

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Article
Graphitic Carbon Nitride (C3N4) Reduces Cadmium and Arsenic Phytotoxicity and Accumulation in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(4), 839; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11040839 - 25 Mar 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1341
Abstract
The present study investigated the role of graphitic carbon nitride (C3N4) in alleviating cadmium (Cd)- and arsenic (As)-induced phytotoxicity to rice (Oryza sativa L.). A high-temperature pyrolysis was used to synthesize the C3N4, which [...] Read more.
The present study investigated the role of graphitic carbon nitride (C3N4) in alleviating cadmium (Cd)- and arsenic (As)-induced phytotoxicity to rice (Oryza sativa L.). A high-temperature pyrolysis was used to synthesize the C3N4, which was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering. Rice seedlings were exposed to C3N4 at 50 and 250 mg/L in half-strength Hoagland’s solution amended with or without 10 mg/L Cd or As for 14 days. Both Cd and As alone resulted in 26–38% and 49–56% decreases in rice root and shoot biomass, respectively. Exposure to 250 mg/L C3N4 alone increased the root and shoot fresh biomass by 17.5% and 25.9%, respectively. Upon coexposure, Cd + C3N4 and As + C3N4 alleviated the heavy metal-induced phytotoxicity and increased the fresh weight by 26–38% and 49–56%, respectively. Further, the addition of C3N4 decreased Cd and As accumulation in the roots by 32% and 25%, respectively, whereas the metal contents in the shoots were 30% lower in the presence of C3N4. Both As and Cd also significantly altered the macronutrient (K, P, Ca, S, and Mg) and micronutrient (Cu, Fe, Zn, and Mn) contents in rice, but these alterations were not evident in plants coexposed to C3N4. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis suggests that Cd significantly altered the genomic DNA of rice roots, while no difference was found in shoots. The presence of C3N4 controlled Cd and As uptake in rice by regulating transport-related genes. For example, the relative expression of the Cd transporter OsIRT1 in roots was upregulated by approximately threefold with metal exposure, but C3N4 coamendment lowered the expression. Similar results were evident in the expression of the As transporter OsNIP1;1 in roots. Overall, these findings facilitate the understanding of the underlying mechanisms by which carbon-based nanomaterials alleviate contaminant-induced phyto- and genotoxicity and may provide a new strategy for the reduction of heavy metal contamination in agriculture. Full article
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Article
Comparative Analysis of Proteins Regulated during Cadmium Sulfide Quantum Dots Response in Arabidopsis thaliana Wild Type and Tolerant Mutants
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(3), 615; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11030615 - 01 Mar 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 935
Abstract
In previous work, two independent Arabidopsis thaliana Ac/Ds transposon insertional mutant lines, atnp01 and atnp02, were identified that showed a higher level of tolerance than the wild type (wt) line to cadmium sulfide quantum dots (CdS QDs). The tolerance response was characterized at [...] Read more.
In previous work, two independent Arabidopsis thaliana Ac/Ds transposon insertional mutant lines, atnp01 and atnp02, were identified that showed a higher level of tolerance than the wild type (wt) line to cadmium sulfide quantum dots (CdS QDs). The tolerance response was characterized at physiological, genetic and transcriptomic levels. In this work, a comparative analysis was performed on protein extracts from plantlets of the two mutants and of wt, each treated with 80 mg L−1 CdS QDs. A comparative protein analysis was performed by 2D-PAGE, and proteins were characterized by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Of 250 proteins identified from all three lines, 98 showed significant changes in relative abundance between control and CdS QD-treated plantlets. The wt, atnp01, and atnp02 control-treated pairs respectively showed 61, 31, and 31 proteins with differential expression. The two mutants had a different response to treatment in terms of type and quantity of up- and downregulated proteins. This difference became more striking when compared to wt. A network analysis of the proteins differentially expressed in atnp01 and atnp02 included several of those encoded by putative genes accommodating the transposons, which were responsible for regulation of some proteins identified in this study. These included nifu-like protein 3 (Nfu3), involved in chloroplast assembly, elongator complex 3 (Elo3), involved in transcriptional elongation, magnesium-chelate subunit-2 (Chli2), involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis, and protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) which mediates abiotic stress response. Full article
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Article
Single and Repeated Applications of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Differently Affect the Growth and Biomass Accumulation of Silene flos-cuculi L. (Caryophyllaceae)
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(1), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11010229 - 16 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 795
Abstract
Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCeO2) have a wide variety of applications in industry. Models demonstrated that nCeO2 can reach environmental compartments. Studies regarding the relationships between plants and nCeO2 considered only crop species, whereas a relevant [...] Read more.
Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCeO2) have a wide variety of applications in industry. Models demonstrated that nCeO2 can reach environmental compartments. Studies regarding the relationships between plants and nCeO2 considered only crop species, whereas a relevant knowledge gap exists regarding wild plant species. Specimens of Silene flos-cuculi (Caryophyllaceae) were grown in greenhouse conditions in a substrate amended with a single dose (D1) and two and three doses (D2 and D3) of 20 mg kg−1 and 200 mg kg−1nCeO2 suspensions, respectively. sp-ICP-MS and ICP-MS data demonstrated that nCeO2 was taken up by plant roots and translocated towards aerial plant fractions. Biometric variables showed that plants responded negatively to the treatments with a shortage in biomass of roots and stems. Although not at relevant concentrations, Ce was accumulated mainly in roots and plant leaves. Full article
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Review

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Review
Nanomaterials Induced Genotoxicity in Plant: Methods and Strategies
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(10), 1658; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12101658 - 12 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 468
Abstract
In recent years, plant-nanomaterial interactions have been studied, highlighting their effects at physiological and molecular levels. Transcriptomics and proteomics studies have shown pathways and targets of nanomaterial exposure and plant response, with particular regard to abiotic stress and oxidative stress. Only little information [...] Read more.
In recent years, plant-nanomaterial interactions have been studied, highlighting their effects at physiological and molecular levels. Transcriptomics and proteomics studies have shown pathways and targets of nanomaterial exposure and plant response, with particular regard to abiotic stress and oxidative stress. Only little information has been reported on engineered nanomaterial (ENMs) interactions with plant genetic material, both at a genomic and organellar DNAs level. Plants can be useful experimental material, considering they both contain chloroplast and mitochondrial DNAs and several plant genomes have been completely sequenced (e.g., Arabidopsis thaliana, Solanum lycoperiscum, Allium cepa, Zea mays, etc.). In this mini review, the methods and the evidence reported in the present literature concerning the level of genotoxicity induced by ENMs exposure have been considered. Consolidated and potential strategies, which can be applied to assess the nanomaterial genotoxicity in plants, are reviewed. Full article
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Review
Direct and Indirect Genotoxicity of Graphene Family Nanomaterials on DNA—A Review
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(11), 2889; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11112889 - 28 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1040
Abstract
Graphene family nanomaterials (GFNs), including graphene, graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), and graphene quantum dots (GQDs), have manifold potential applications, leading to the possibility of their release into environments and the exposure to humans and other organisms. However, the genotoxicity of [...] Read more.
Graphene family nanomaterials (GFNs), including graphene, graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), and graphene quantum dots (GQDs), have manifold potential applications, leading to the possibility of their release into environments and the exposure to humans and other organisms. However, the genotoxicity of GFNs on DNA remains largely unknown. In this review, we highlight the interactions between DNA and GFNs and summarize the mechanisms of genotoxicity induced by GFNs. Generally, the genotoxicity can be sub-classified into direct genotoxicity and indirect genotoxicity. The direct genotoxicity (e.g., direct physical nucleus and DNA damage) and indirect genotoxicity mechanisms (e.g., physical destruction, oxidative stress, epigenetic toxicity, and DNA replication) of GFNs were summarized in the manuscript, respectively. Moreover, the influences factors, such as physicochemical properties, exposure dose, and time, on the genotoxicity of GFNs are also briefly discussed. Given the important role of genotoxicity in GFNs exposure risk assessment, future research should be conducted on the following: (1) developing reliable testing methods; (2) elucidating the response mechanisms associated with genotoxicity in depth; and (3) enriching the evaluation database regarding the type of GFNs, applied dosages, and exposure times. Full article
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