Petrology and Geochemistry of Igneous Rocks Linked to Volcanogenic Massive Sulphides

A special issue of Minerals (ISSN 2075-163X). This special issue belongs to the section "Mineral Deposits".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 May 2021) | Viewed by 5274

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Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad de Huelva, Huelva, Spain
Interests: petrology and geochemistry of igneous rocks, including granitoids and volcanic rocks; mineralization associated to magmatism; palaeovolcanology; major- and trace element geochemistry; hydrothermal alteration related to mineralization; isotopic geochemistry; U-Pb dating of igneous and hydrothermal rocks
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Department of Earth Sciences, University of Huelva, 21004 Huelva, Spain
Interests: petrology and geochemistry of altered volcanic rocks; isotopic geochemistry; U-Pb dating of igneous rocks; palaeovolcanology; physical volcanology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Earth Sciences, University of Huelva, 21004 Huelva, Spain
Interests: petrology and geochemistry of igneous rocks; including granitoids and volcanic rocks; mineralization associated to magmatism; palaeovolcanology; major- and trace element geochemistry; hydrothermal alteration related to mineralization; isotopic geochemistry; U-Pb dating of igneous and hydrothermal rocks
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) deposits are accumulations of sulphide minerals that precipitate from hydrothermal fluids at or below the seafloor in a wide range of geological environments. Today, VMS maintain a high economic interest.

As VMS deposits are linked to igneous rocks both in space and time, much attention has previously been paid to the mutual relations of magmatism and VMS mineralization, aiming at the determination of those features of the igneous rocks that could be useful as a proxy of VMS. Accordingly, research has been focused in recent years both on volcanology and on petrology/geochemistry, including isotope geology.

In spite of a number of significant advances, and due to the highly variable characteristics of VMS deposits and their related magmatic rocks (including contrasts in geological setting, magma generation, thermal flow, and hydrothermal circulation), their mutual relationships are still only partly understood.

The goal of this Special Issue of Minerals is to show an updated perspective of this important matter, in order to improve both our theoretical knowledge on this link and our exploration tools applied to VMS exploration. We warmly encourage researchers in these fields to join us in this challenging effort.

Prof. Dr. Emilio Pascual
Dr. Teodosio Donaire
Dr. Manuel Toscano
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • VMS deposits
  • magmatism
  • petrology
  • (paleo)volcanology
  • geochemistry
  • isotope geology

Published Papers (2 papers)

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22 pages, 4864 KiB  
Article
Geochemical and Volcanological Criteria in Assessing the Links between Volcanism and VMS Deposits: A Case on the Iberian Pyrite Belt, Spain
by Emilio Pascual, Teodosio Donaire, Manuel Toscano, Gloria Macías, Christian Pin and Michael Andrew Hamilton
Minerals 2021, 11(8), 826; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11080826 - 30 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2219
Abstract
VMS deposits in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB), Spain and Portugal, constitute the largest accumulation of these deposits on Earth. Although several factors account for their genetic interpretation, a link between volcanism and mineralization is generally accepted. In many VMS districts, research is [...] Read more.
VMS deposits in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB), Spain and Portugal, constitute the largest accumulation of these deposits on Earth. Although several factors account for their genetic interpretation, a link between volcanism and mineralization is generally accepted. In many VMS districts, research is focused on the geochemical discrimination between barren and fertile volcanic rocks, these latter being a proxy of VMS mineralization. Additionally, the volcanological study of igneous successions sheds light on the environment at which volcanic rocks were emplaced, showing an emplacement depth consistent with that required for VMS formation. We describe a case on the El Almendro–Villanueva de los Castillejos (EAVC) succession, Spanish IPB, where abundant felsic volcanic rocks occur. According to the available evidence, their geochemical features, εNd signature and U–Pb dates suggest a possible link to VMS deposits. However, (paleo)volcanological evidence here indicates pyroclastic emplacement in a shallow water environment. We infer that such a shallow environment precluded VMS generation, a conclusion that is consistent with the absence of massive deposits all along this area. We also show that this interpretation lends additional support to previous models of the whole IPB, suggesting that compartmentalization of the belt had a major role in determining the sites of VMS deposition. Full article
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15 pages, 2366 KiB  
Article
Geochemistry of Sphalerite from the Permian Volcanic-Hosted Massive Sulphide (VHMS) Deposits in the Tasik Chini Area, Peninsular Malaysia: Constraints for Ore Genesis
by Mohd Basril Iswadi Basori, Sarah E. Gilbert, Khin Zaw and Ross R. Large
Minerals 2021, 11(7), 728; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11070728 - 05 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2085
Abstract
The Bukit Botol and Bukit Ketaya deposits are two examples of volcanic-hosted massive sulphide (VHMS) deposits that occur in the Tasik Chini area, Central Belt of Peninsular Malaysia. The mineralisation is divided into subzones distinguished by spatial, mineralogical, and textural characteristics. The primary [...] Read more.
The Bukit Botol and Bukit Ketaya deposits are two examples of volcanic-hosted massive sulphide (VHMS) deposits that occur in the Tasik Chini area, Central Belt of Peninsular Malaysia. The mineralisation is divided into subzones distinguished by spatial, mineralogical, and textural characteristics. The primary sulphide minerals include pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and galena, with lesser amounts of Sn- and Ag-bearing minerals, with Au. However, pyrrhotite is absent from both deposits. This study presents the results of sphalerite chemistry analysed by using an electron microprobe. Two types of sphalerite are recognised: sphalerite from the Bukit Botol deposit reveals a range of <DL to 24.0 mole% FeS, whereas sphalerite from the Bukit Ketaya deposit shows a range of <DL to 3 mole% FeS. Significant variations are shown in Zn, Cu, Cd, and Ag levels. Although the sphalerite has a wide variation in composition, a discernible decreasing Fe trend is exhibited from the stringer zone towards massive sulphide. This compositional variation in sphalerites may in part reflect variable temperature and activity of sulphur in the hydrothermal fluids during ore formation. Alternatively, the bimodal composition variations suggest that mineral chemistry relates to contrasting depositional processes. The Zn/Cd ratios for sphalerite from both these deposits are similar to those exhibited by volcano−sedimentary deposits with a volcanic origin. Therefore, the consistently low Cd concentrations and moderate to high Zn/Cd ratios suggest mixing of seawater and minor magmatic fluids controlling the chemistry of sphalerite at both deposits during their formation. Full article
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