Special Issue "Beneficial Microorganisms for Food Manufacturing—Fermented and Biopreserved Foods and Beverages"

A special issue of Microorganisms (ISSN 2076-2607). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2017)

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Food fermentations are ancient technologies worldwide that harness microorganisms and their enzymes to improve and diversify the human diet. Fermented foods (vegetables, animal products, beverages) represent 10% to 40% of the world diet and represent a cultural and gastronomic heritage of high value. The exploration of the microbial communities of these fermented foods has a renewed interest with the development of metagenomic approaches. Fermentation, either indigenous, or after addition of starter cultures, brings many benefits: (1) enhanced food stability and storage, decreasing food losses, (2) enhanced food safety by the inhibition of pathogens, (3) improved sensorial properties, and (4) improved nutritional value. In many fermented products, the functions underlying all these aspects have to be considered. A better knowledge of microbes and fermentation at a molecular level is required to support and develop the production of sustainable fermented food with high nutritional characteristics. Investigating the role of starter cultures, as well as that of the indigenous microbiota participating to fermentation, revealed that: (1) they could guarantee the safety of the products by competing with undesired microorganisms or by producing organic acids and sometimes other molecules, such as H2O2 or bacteriocins, which have an antagonistic effect against undesired microorganisms. This safety aspect of the starter cultures also led to the proposal of their use in non-fermented products to ensure a better microbial safety, or to extend the shelf life of biopreserved food. Such starter cultures have become “protective cultures”, and their function is only to contribute to food safety, without interfering with the sensory aspects of the final product, whether fermented or not.

This Special Issue will publish papers on all aspects of fermented foods and beverages and also of biopreserved foods.

Dr. Régine Talon
Dr. Monique Zagorec
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • fermented foods
  • fermented beverages
  • biopreserved foods
  • microbial communities: culture -dependent, -independent approaches
  • starter/protective cultures: competitiveness (adaptation to the process and the nutrients)
  • starters: functional properties in relation with the sensorial quality
  • starter/protective cultures :safety, innocuousness

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Special Issue: Beneficial Microorganisms for Food Manufacturing—Fermented and Biopreserved Foods and Beverages
Microorganisms 2017, 5(4), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms5040071
Received: 6 November 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 7 November 2017 / Published: 13 November 2017
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Abstract
Food fermentation is an ancient technology, disseminated worldwide, which harness microorganisms and their enzymes to improve and diversify the human diet [...]
Full article

Research

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Open AccessArticle Adding Value to Goat Meat: Biochemical and Technological Characterization of Autochthonous Lactic Acid Bacteria to Achieve High-Quality Fermented Sausages
Microorganisms 2017, 5(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms5020026
Received: 29 March 2017 / Revised: 4 May 2017 / Accepted: 9 May 2017 / Published: 17 May 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (948 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Quality and safety are important challenges in traditional fermented sausage technology. Consequently, the development of a tailored starter culture based on indigenous microbiota constitutes an interesting alternative. In the present study, spontaneously fermented goat meat sausages were created and analyzed using a physicochemical [...] Read more.
Quality and safety are important challenges in traditional fermented sausage technology. Consequently, the development of a tailored starter culture based on indigenous microbiota constitutes an interesting alternative. In the present study, spontaneously fermented goat meat sausages were created and analyzed using a physicochemical and microbiological approach. Thereafter 170 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were isolated and preliminary characterized by phenotypic assays. The hygienic and technological properties, and growth and fermentative potential of isolates using a goat-meat-based culture medium were evaluated. All strains proved to have bioprotective features due to their acidogenic metabolism. Almost all grew optimally in meat environments. LAB isolates presented proteolytic activity against meat proteins and enriched amino acid contents of the goat-meat-based model. The most efficient strains were four different Lactobacillus sakei isolates, as identified by genotyping and RAPD analysis. L. sakei strains are proposed as optimal candidates to improve the production of fermented goat meat sausages, creating a new added-value fermented product. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Lactic Fermentation as an Efficient Tool to Enhance the Antioxidant Activity of Tropical Fruit Juices and Teas
Microorganisms 2017, 5(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms5020023
Received: 29 March 2017 / Revised: 21 April 2017 / Accepted: 3 May 2017 / Published: 10 May 2017
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1446 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tropical fruits like pineapple, papaya, mango, and beverages such as green or black teas, represent an underestimated source of antioxidants that could exert health-promoting properties. Most food processing technologies applied to fruit beverages or teas result in an impairment of inherent nutritional properties. [...] Read more.
Tropical fruits like pineapple, papaya, mango, and beverages such as green or black teas, represent an underestimated source of antioxidants that could exert health-promoting properties. Most food processing technologies applied to fruit beverages or teas result in an impairment of inherent nutritional properties. Conversely, we hypothesise that lactic acid fermentation may constitute a promising route to maintain and even improve the nutritional qualities of processed fruits. Using specific growth media, lactic acid bacteria were selected from the fruit phyllosphere diversity and fruit juice, with the latter undergoing acidification kinetics analyses and characterised for exopolysaccharide production. Strains able to ferment tropical fruit juices or teas into pleasant beverages, within a short time, were of particular interest. Strains Weissella cibaria 64 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides 12b, able to increase antioxidant activity, were specifically studied as potential starters for lactic fermented pineapple juice. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Modeling Lactic Fermentation of Gowé Using Lactobacillus Starter Culture
Microorganisms 2016, 4(4), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms4040044
Received: 19 September 2016 / Revised: 21 November 2016 / Accepted: 23 November 2016 / Published: 1 December 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2162 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A global model of the lactic fermentation step of gowé was developed by assembling blocks hosting models for bacterial growth, lactic acid production, and the drop of pH during fermentation. Commercial strains of Lactobacillus brevis and of Lactobacillus plantarum were used; their growth [...] Read more.
A global model of the lactic fermentation step of gowé was developed by assembling blocks hosting models for bacterial growth, lactic acid production, and the drop of pH during fermentation. Commercial strains of Lactobacillus brevis and of Lactobacillus plantarum were used; their growth was modeled using Rosso’s primary model and the gamma concept as a secondary model. The optimum values of pH and temperature were 8.3 ± 0.3, 44.6 ± 1.2 °C and 8.3 ± 0.3, 3.2 ± 37.1 °C with μmax values of 1.8 ± 0.2 and 1.4 ± 0.1 for L. brevis and L. plantarum respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration of undissociated lactic acid was 23.7 mM and 35.6 mM for L. brevis and L. plantarum, respectively. The yield of lactic acid was five times higher for L. plantarum than for L. brevis, with a yield of glucose conversion to lactic acid close to 2.0 for the former and 0.8 for the latter. A model was developed to predict the pH drop during gowé fermentation. The global model was partially validated during manufacturing of gowé. The global model could be a tool to aid in the choice of suitable starters and to determine the conditions for the use of the starter. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview Lactobacillus sakei: A Starter for Sausage Fermentation, a Protective Culture for Meat Products
Microorganisms 2017, 5(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms5030056
Received: 19 July 2017 / Revised: 29 August 2017 / Accepted: 5 September 2017 / Published: 6 September 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (510 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Among lactic acid bacteria of meat products, Lactobacillus sakei is certainly the most studied species due to its role in the fermentation of sausage and its prevalence during cold storage of raw meat products. Consequently, the physiology of this bacterium regarding functions involved [...] Read more.
Among lactic acid bacteria of meat products, Lactobacillus sakei is certainly the most studied species due to its role in the fermentation of sausage and its prevalence during cold storage of raw meat products. Consequently, the physiology of this bacterium regarding functions involved in growth, survival, and metabolism during meat storage and processing are well known. This species exhibits a wide genomic diversity that can be observed when studying different strains and on which probably rely its multiple facets in meat products: starter, spoiler, or protective culture. The emerging exploration of the microbial ecology of meat products also revealed the multiplicity of bacterial interactions L. sakei has to face and their various consequences on microbial quality and safety at the end of storage. Full article
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Open AccessReview Insight into the Genome of Staphylococcus xylosus, a Ubiquitous Species Well Adapted to Meat Products
Microorganisms 2017, 5(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms5030052
Received: 29 June 2017 / Revised: 21 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 29 August 2017
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1245 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Staphylococcus xylosus belongs to the vast group of coagulase-negative staphylococci. It is frequently isolated from meat products, either fermented or salted and dried, and is commonly used as starter cultures in sausage manufacturing. Analysis of the S. xylosus genome together with expression in [...] Read more.
Staphylococcus xylosus belongs to the vast group of coagulase-negative staphylococci. It is frequently isolated from meat products, either fermented or salted and dried, and is commonly used as starter cultures in sausage manufacturing. Analysis of the S. xylosus genome together with expression in situ in a meat model revealed that this bacterium is well adapted to meat substrates, being able to use diverse substrates as sources of carbon and energy and different sources of nitrogen. It is well-equipped with genes involved in osmotic, oxidative/nitrosative, and acidic stress responses. It is responsible for the development of the typical colour of cured meat products via its nitrate reductase activity. It contributes to sensorial properties, mainly by the the catabolism of pyruvate and amino acids resulting in odorous compounds and by the limiting of the oxidation of fatty acids, thereby avoiding rancidity. Full article
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Open AccessReview Microorganisms in Fermented Apple Beverages: Current Knowledge and Future Directions
Microorganisms 2017, 5(3), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms5030039
Received: 27 June 2017 / Revised: 20 July 2017 / Accepted: 21 July 2017 / Published: 25 July 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (955 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Production of fermented apple beverages is spread all around the world with specificities in each country. ‘French ciders’ refer to fermented apple juice mainly produced in the northwest of France and often associated with short periods of consumption. Research articles on this kind [...] Read more.
Production of fermented apple beverages is spread all around the world with specificities in each country. ‘French ciders’ refer to fermented apple juice mainly produced in the northwest of France and often associated with short periods of consumption. Research articles on this kind of product are scarce compared to wine, especially on phenomena associated with microbial activities. The wine fermentation microbiome and its dynamics, organoleptic improvement for healthy and pleasant products and development of starters are now widely studied. Even if both beverages seem close in terms of microbiome and process (with both alcoholic and malolactic fermentations), the inherent properties of the raw materials and different production and environmental parameters make research on the specificities of apple fermentation beverages worthwhile. This review summarizes current knowledge on the cider microbial ecosystem, associated activities and the influence of process parameters. In addition, available data on cider quality and safety is reviewed. Finally, we focus on the future role of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in the development of even better or new beverages made from apples. Full article
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Open AccessReview Strategies for Pathogen Biocontrol Using Lactic Acid Bacteria and Their Metabolites: A Focus on Meat Ecosystems and Industrial Environments
Microorganisms 2017, 5(3), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms5030038
Received: 18 May 2017 / Revised: 23 June 2017 / Accepted: 7 July 2017 / Published: 11 July 2017
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (328 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The globalization of trade and lifestyle ensure that the factors responsible for the emergence of diseases are more present than ever. Despite biotechnology advancements, meat-based foods are still under scrutiny because of the presence of pathogens, which causes a loss of consumer confidence [...] Read more.
The globalization of trade and lifestyle ensure that the factors responsible for the emergence of diseases are more present than ever. Despite biotechnology advancements, meat-based foods are still under scrutiny because of the presence of pathogens, which causes a loss of consumer confidence and consequently a fall in demand. In this context, Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) as GRAS organisms offer an alternative for developing pathogen-free foods, particularly avoiding Listeria monocytogenes, with minimal processing and fewer additives while maintaining the foods’ sensorial characteristics. The use of LAB strains, enabling us to produce antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins) in addition to lactic acid, with an impact on quality and safety during fermentation, processing, and/or storage of meat and ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products, constitutes a promising tool. A number of bacteriocin-based strategies including the use of bioprotective cultures, purified and/or semi-purified bacteriocins as well as their inclusion in varied packaging materials under different storage conditions, have been investigated. The application of bacteriocins as part of hurdle technology using non-thermal technologies was explored for the preservation of RTE meat products. Likewise, considering that food contamination with L. monocytogenes is a consequence of the post-processing manipulation of RTE foods, the role of bacteriocinogenic LAB in the control of biofilms formed on industrial surfaces is also discussed. Full article
Open AccessReview Antifungal Microbial Agents for Food Biopreservation—A Review
Microorganisms 2017, 5(3), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms5030037
Received: 9 May 2017 / Revised: 21 June 2017 / Accepted: 24 June 2017 / Published: 8 July 2017
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (802 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Food spoilage is a major issue for the food industry, leading to food waste, substantial economic losses for manufacturers and consumers, and a negative impact on brand names. Among causes, fungal contamination can be encountered at various stages of the food chain (e.g., [...] Read more.
Food spoilage is a major issue for the food industry, leading to food waste, substantial economic losses for manufacturers and consumers, and a negative impact on brand names. Among causes, fungal contamination can be encountered at various stages of the food chain (e.g., post-harvest, during processing or storage). Fungal development leads to food sensory defects varying from visual deterioration to noticeable odor, flavor, or texture changes but can also have negative health impacts via mycotoxin production by some molds. In order to avoid microbial spoilage and thus extend product shelf life, different treatments—including fungicides and chemical preservatives—are used. In parallel, public authorities encourage the food industry to limit the use of these chemical compounds and develop natural methods for food preservation. This is accompanied by a strong societal demand for ‘clean label’ food products, as consumers are looking for more natural, less severely processed and safer products. In this context, microbial agents corresponding to bioprotective cultures, fermentates, culture-free supernatant or purified molecules, exhibiting antifungal activities represent a growing interest as an alternative to chemical preservation. This review presents the main fungal spoilers encountered in food products, the antifungal microorganisms tested for food bioprotection, and their mechanisms of action. A focus is made in particular on the recent in situ studies and the constraints associated with the use of antifungal microbial agents for food biopreservation. Full article
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Open AccessReview Table Olive Fermentation Using Starter Cultures with Multifunctional Potential
Microorganisms 2017, 5(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms5020030
Received: 28 April 2017 / Revised: 18 May 2017 / Accepted: 23 May 2017 / Published: 28 May 2017
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (238 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Table olives are one of the most popular plant-derived fermented products. Their enhanced nutritional value due to the presence of phenolic compounds and monounsaturated fatty acids makes olives an important food commodity of the Mediterranean diet. However, despite its economic significance, table olive [...] Read more.
Table olives are one of the most popular plant-derived fermented products. Their enhanced nutritional value due to the presence of phenolic compounds and monounsaturated fatty acids makes olives an important food commodity of the Mediterranean diet. However, despite its economic significance, table olive fermentation is mainly craft-based and empirically driven by the autochthonous microbiota of the olives depending on various intrinsic and extrinsic factors, leading to a spontaneous process and a final product of variable quality. The use of microorganisms previously isolated from olive fermentations and studied for their probiotic potential and technological characteristics as starter cultures may contribute to the reduction of spoilage risk resulting in a controlled fermentation process. This review focuses on the importance of the development and implementation of multifunctional starter cultures related to olives with desirable probiotic and technological characteristics for possible application on table olive fermentation with the main purpose being the production of a health promoting and sensory improved functional food. Full article
Open AccessReview Regulatory and Safety Requirements for Food Cultures
Microorganisms 2017, 5(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms5020028
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 17 May 2017 / Accepted: 19 May 2017 / Published: 23 May 2017
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1441 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The increased use of food cultures to ferment perishable raw materials has potentiated the need for regulations to assess and assure the safety of food cultures and their uses. These regulations differ from country to country, all aimed at assuring the safe use [...] Read more.
The increased use of food cultures to ferment perishable raw materials has potentiated the need for regulations to assess and assure the safety of food cultures and their uses. These regulations differ from country to country, all aimed at assuring the safe use of food cultures which has to be guaranteed by the food culture supplier. Here we highlight national differences in regulations and review a list of methods and methodologies to assess the safety of food cultures at strain level, at production, and in the final product. Full article
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Open AccessReview From Genome to Phenotype: An Integrative Approach to Evaluate the Biodiversity of Lactococcus lactis
Microorganisms 2017, 5(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms5020027
Received: 23 March 2017 / Revised: 9 May 2017 / Accepted: 12 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1034 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lactococcus lactis is one of the most extensively used lactic acid bacteria for the manufacture of dairy products. Exploring the biodiversity of L. lactis is extremely promising both to acquire new knowledge and for food and health-driven applications. L. lactis is divided into [...] Read more.
Lactococcus lactis is one of the most extensively used lactic acid bacteria for the manufacture of dairy products. Exploring the biodiversity of L. lactis is extremely promising both to acquire new knowledge and for food and health-driven applications. L. lactis is divided into four subspecies: lactis, cremoris, hordniae and tructae, but only subsp. lactis and subsp. cremoris are of industrial interest. Due to its various biotopes, Lactococcus subsp. lactis is considered the most diverse. The diversity of L. lactis subsp. lactis has been assessed at genetic, genomic and phenotypic levels. Multi-Locus Sequence Type (MLST) analysis of strains from different origins revealed that the subsp. lactis can be classified in two groups: “domesticated” strains with low genetic diversity, and “environmental” strains that are the main contributors of the genetic diversity of the subsp. lactis. As expected, the phenotype investigation of L. lactis strains reported here revealed highly diverse carbohydrate metabolism, especially in plant- and gut-derived carbohydrates, diacetyl production and stress survival. The integration of genotypic and phenotypic studies could improve the relevance of screening culture collections for the selection of strains dedicated to specific functions and applications. Full article
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Open AccessReview Dairy Propionibacteria: Versatile Probiotics
Microorganisms 2017, 5(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms5020024
Received: 29 March 2017 / Revised: 1 May 2017 / Accepted: 6 May 2017 / Published: 13 May 2017
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (771 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dairy propionibacteria are used as cheese ripening starters, as biopreservative and as beneficial additives, in the food industry. The main species, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, is known as GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe, USA, FDA). In addition to another dairy species, Propionibacterium acidipropionici, they are [...] Read more.
Dairy propionibacteria are used as cheese ripening starters, as biopreservative and as beneficial additives, in the food industry. The main species, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, is known as GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe, USA, FDA). In addition to another dairy species, Propionibacterium acidipropionici, they are included in QPS (Qualified Presumption of Safety) list. Additional to their well-known technological application, dairy propionibacteria increasingly attract attention for their promising probiotic properties. The purpose of this review is to summarize the probiotic characteristics of dairy propionibacteria reported by the updated literature. Indeed, they meet the selection criteria for probiotic bacteria, such as the ability to endure digestive stressing conditions and to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells. This is a prerequisite to bacterial persistence within the gut. The reported beneficial effects are ranked according to property’s type: microbiota modulation, immunomodulation, and cancer modulation. The proposed molecular mechanisms are discussed. Dairy propionibacteria are described as producers of nutraceuticals and beneficial metabolites that are responsible for their versatile probiotic attributes include short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), conjugated fatty acids, surface proteins, and 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphtoic acid (DHNA). These metabolites possess beneficial properties and their production depends on the strain and on the growth medium. The choice of the fermented food matrix may thus determine the probiotic properties of the ingested product. This review approaches dairy propionibacteria, with an interest in both technological abilities and probiotic attributes. Full article
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Other

Open AccessOpinion Should Research on the Nutritional Potential and Health Benefits of Fermented Cereals Focus More on the General Health Status of Populations in Developing Countries?
Microorganisms 2017, 5(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms5030040
Received: 12 June 2017 / Revised: 18 July 2017 / Accepted: 23 July 2017 / Published: 25 July 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (218 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cereal foods fermented by lactic acid bacteria are staples in many countries around the world particularly in developing countries, but some aspects of the nutritional and health benefits of traditional fermented foods in developing countries have not been sufficiently investigated compared to fermented [...] Read more.
Cereal foods fermented by lactic acid bacteria are staples in many countries around the world particularly in developing countries, but some aspects of the nutritional and health benefits of traditional fermented foods in developing countries have not been sufficiently investigated compared to fermented foods in high-income countries. Today, malnutrition worldwide is characterized by a double burden, excess leading to non-communicable diseases like obesity or diabetes alongside micronutrient deficiencies. In addition, populations in developing countries suffer from infectious and parasitic diseases that can jeopardize the health benefits provided by their traditional fermented foods. Using examples, we argue that research on traditional fermented cereals in developing countries should focus more on their effect on inflammation and oxidative stress under conditions including infectious or non-infectious gut inflammation. Full article
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