Membranes for Tissue Engineering

A special issue of Membranes (ISSN 2077-0375). This special issue belongs to the section "Membrane Processing and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 June 2022) | Viewed by 30607

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. BerlinAnalytix GmbH, Ullsteinstrasse 109, 12109 Berlin, Germany
2. Department of Ceramic Materials, Chair of Advanced Ceramic Materials, Institute for Materials Science and Technologies, Technical University Berlin, Berlin, Germany
Interests: dental barrier membranes; collagen; cross-linking; magnesium membranes; degradation; bone tissue regeneration
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Technische Universität Berlin, Institut für Werkstoffwissenschaften und -technologien, Fachgebiet Keramische Werkstoffe, Sekr. BA3, Hardenbergstraße 40, 10623 Berlin, Germany
Interests: powder and materials technology; support and catalyst processing; cellular / porous ceramics and membranes; ceramics from preceramic poymers; biocompatible coating; VOx-Catalysts; energy materials; ceramic matrix composites; high temperature material testing

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Guest Editor
1. Department of Biology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Niš, Niš, Serbia
2. Department for Cell and Tissue Engineering, Scientific Research Center for Biomedicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Niš, Niš, Serbia
Interests: stem cells; tissue engineering; regenerative medicine; adipose tissue; macrophages; in vitro cell models; wound healing, examination of biological activity in cell models in vitro and animal models in vivo; molecular and human genetics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
NMI Natural and Medical Sciences Institute, University of Tübingen, Reutlingen, Germany
Interests: collagen; biomaterials; coating; antibacterial surfaces; tissue engineering
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent decades, guided bone regeneration (GBR) procedures have been commonly introduced for regeneration bone defects due to pathologic lesions or to augment alveolar bone for dental implant treatment. It has been revealed that the role of barrier membranes is crucial for proper bone repair during the GBR procedure. The optimal barrier membrane should prevent in-growth of soft tissue to the bone defect and maintain the defect space during bone tissue regeneration. To achieve maximum bone regeneration, the GBR membrane should have several characteristics, including (1) biocompatibility; (2) proper stiffness for space maintenance; (3) the ability to prevent epithelial cell migration; (4) appropriate resorption time after proper bone regeneration; (5) the ability to allow for transmembraneous vascularization or nutrition; and (6) the ability to support the bone regeneration process. In this context, the choice of the ideal membrane is dependent on the clinical indication. This means that different indications necessitate the use of various membrane types, for example, resorbable und non-resorbable barrier membranes.

Additionally, the indications for GBR membranes have increased over the last few years. GBR membranes have also been used for indications such as mandibular molar extraction or periodontal flap surgery. A broad variety of studies has been conducted in recent decades for the development of an ideal GBR membrane from various natural and synthetic sources. Clinically, collagen membrane and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membrane have been widely used for the GBR procedure. Numerous clinical studies with these membranes have demonstrated their clinical usefulness. However, these membranes still have limitations in terms of the ideal characteristics of the GBR membrane. Thus, there is a special need for new membrane developments and knowledge enhancement.

In this Special Issue, we want to focus on recent achievements in the field and invite you to submit reviews and original research papers further advancing our knowledge of the function of different membrane types and new membrane developments by ex vivo, in vitro, and/or in vivo investigations.

Dr. Mike Barbeck
Dr. Oliver Gorke
Dr. Ole Jung
Prof. Dr. Stevo Najman
Dr. Xin Xiong
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • New material/membrane developments
  • (Non-)resorbable barrier membranes
  • Collagen membranes
  • Resorption mechanisms of collagen membranes
  • Immune responses to GBR membranes
  • Transmembraneous vascularization/nutrition
  • Membrane integration/degradation
  • Cytocompatibility
  • Biocompatibility

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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30 pages, 9264 KiB  
Article
In Vivo Biocompatibility Analysis of a Novel Barrier Membrane Based on Bovine Dermis-Derived Collagen for Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR)
by Carolin Lindner, Said Alkildani, Sanja Stojanovic, Stevo Najman, Ole Jung and Mike Barbeck
Membranes 2022, 12(4), 378; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12040378 - 30 Mar 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2523
Abstract
Collagen-based barrier membranes are nowadays the prevalent option for Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR) procedures. Xenogeneic collagen is highly biocompatible as it shares a similar structure to native human collagen, which prevents it from eliciting an exaggerated host immune response. Most commercially available collagen [...] Read more.
Collagen-based barrier membranes are nowadays the prevalent option for Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR) procedures. Xenogeneic collagen is highly biocompatible as it shares a similar structure to native human collagen, which prevents it from eliciting an exaggerated host immune response. Most commercially available collagen barrier membranes are porcine-derived, while bovine-derived alternatives are still rarely available. The aim of the present study was to investigate the tissue responses and the barrier functionality of a novel GBR membrane composed of bovine collagen type I (BM). Therefore, the subcutaneous implantation model in Wistar rats was performed to compare the novel medical device with two already clinically used native porcine-based barrier membranes, i.e., Jason® membrane (JM) and Bio-Gide® (BG), at 10-, 30-, 60-, and 90-days post implantationem. Histochemical and immunohistochemical stains were used for histopathological evaluation including a biocompatibility scoring according to the DIN EN ISO 10993-6 norm as well as histomorphometrical analyses of the occurrence of M1 and M2 macrophages and the transmembraneous vascularization. The bovine membrane exhibited a host tissue reaction that was comparable to both control materials, which was verified by the scoring results and the histomorphometrical macrophage measurements. Moreover, the novel membrane exhibited an integration pattern without material fragmentation up to day 60. At day 90, material fragmentation was observable that allowed for “secondary porosity” including transmembrane vascularization. The results of this study suggest that the novel bovine barrier membrane is fully biocompatible and suitable for indications that require GBR as a suitable alternative to porcine-sourced barrier membranes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membranes for Tissue Engineering)
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20 pages, 9749 KiB  
Article
Comparative In Vivo Analysis of the Integration Behavior and Immune Response of Collagen-Based Dental Barrier Membranes for Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR)
by Milena Radenković, Said Alkildani, Ignacio Stoewe, James Bielenstein, Bernd Sundag, Olaf Bellmann, Ole Jung, Stevo Najman, Sanja Stojanović and Mike Barbeck
Membranes 2021, 11(9), 712; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11090712 - 15 Sep 2021
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 4091
Abstract
Collagen-based resorbable barrier membranes have been increasingly utilized for Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR), as an alternative to non-resorbable synthetic membranes that require a second surgical intervention for removal. One of the most important characteristics of a resorbable barrier membrane is its mechanical integrity [...] Read more.
Collagen-based resorbable barrier membranes have been increasingly utilized for Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR), as an alternative to non-resorbable synthetic membranes that require a second surgical intervention for removal. One of the most important characteristics of a resorbable barrier membrane is its mechanical integrity that is required for space maintenance and its tissue integration that plays a crucial role in wound healing and bone augmentation. This study compares a commercially available porcine-derived sugar-crosslinked collagen membrane with two non-crosslinked collagen barrier membranes. The material analysis provides an insight into the influence of manufacturing on the microstructure. In vivo subcutaneous implantation model provides further information on the host tissue reaction of the barrier membranes, as well as their tissue integration patterns that involve cellular infiltration, vascularization, and degradation. The obtained histochemical and immunohistochemical results over three time points (10, 30, and 60 days) showed that the tissue response to the sugar crosslinked collagen membrane involves inflammatory macrophages in a comparable manner to the macrophages observed in the surrounding tissue of the control collagen-based membranes, which were proven as biocompatible. The tissue reactions to the barrier membranes were additionally compared to wounds from a sham operation. Results suggest wound healing properties of all the investigated barrier membranes. However, the sugar-crosslinked membrane lacked in cellular infiltration and transmembraneous vascularization, providing an exclusive barrier function in GBR. Moreover, this membrane maintained a similar swelling ratio over examined timepoints, which suggests a very slow degradation pattern and supports its barrier function. Based on the study results, which showed biocompatibility of the sugar crosslinked membrane and its stability up to 60 days post-implantation, it can be concluded that this membrane may be suitable for application in GBR as a biomaterial with exclusive barrier functionality, similar to non-resorbable options. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membranes for Tissue Engineering)
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8 pages, 710 KiB  
Article
Peri-Implant Mucosa Augmentation with an Acellular Collagen Matrix
by Gregor-Georg Zafiropoulos, Adel A. Al-Asfour, Moosa Abuzayeda, Zeljka Perić Kačarević, Colin Alexander Murray and Branko Trajkovski
Membranes 2021, 11(9), 698; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11090698 - 12 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3744
Abstract
Peri-implant keratinized mucosa (PI-KM) may support implant survival. Acellular collagen matrices (aCMs) have been widely used to facilitate soft tissue regeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical outcomes obtained with the use of an aCM (mucoderm®) to enhance [...] Read more.
Peri-implant keratinized mucosa (PI-KM) may support implant survival. Acellular collagen matrices (aCMs) have been widely used to facilitate soft tissue regeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical outcomes obtained with the use of an aCM (mucoderm®) to enhance PI-KM. In this retrospective non-randomized case series, 27 restored implants in 14 patients (eight males and six females, mean age = 56 years) with a PI-KM width ≤ 1 mm were followed for 6 months. It was demonstrated that aCM grafts augmented PI-KM effectively (mean increase of 5.4 mm; >533%) without a significant change in bleeding on probing (BOP) from baseline. The mean aCM shrinkage was 3.9 mm (42%). Gender, area, arch, and BOP did not influence PI-KM augmentation or aCM shrinkage significantly. The present results demonstrated that the examined aCM was effective and predictable for attaining a band of keratinized tissue, while avoiding graft donor site harversting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membranes for Tissue Engineering)
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15 pages, 3147 KiB  
Article
Highly Segregated Biocomposite Membrane as a Functionally Graded Template for Periodontal Tissue Regeneration
by Syed Saad B. Qasim, Mirza Rustum Baig, Jukka Pekka Matinlinna, Umer Daood and Adel Al-Asfour
Membranes 2021, 11(9), 667; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11090667 - 30 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2691
Abstract
Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) membranes are used for treating chronic periodontal lesions with the aim of regenerating lost periodontal attachment. Spatially designed functionally graded bioactive membranes with surface core layers have been proposed as the next generation of GTR membranes. Composite formulations of [...] Read more.
Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) membranes are used for treating chronic periodontal lesions with the aim of regenerating lost periodontal attachment. Spatially designed functionally graded bioactive membranes with surface core layers have been proposed as the next generation of GTR membranes. Composite formulations of biopolymer and bioceramic have the potential to meet these criteria. Chitosan has emerged as a well-known biopolymer for use in tissue engineering applications due to its properties of degradation, cytotoxicity and antimicrobial nature. Hydroxyapatite is an essential component of the mineral phase of bone. This study developed a GTR membrane with an ideal chitosan to hydroxyapatite ratio with adequate molecular weight. Membranes were fabricated using solvent casting with low and medium molecular weights of chitosan. They were rigorously characterised with scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in conjunction with photoacoustic sampling accessory (FTIR-PAS), swelling ratio, degradation profile, mechanical tensile testing and cytotoxicity using human osteosarcoma and mesenchymal progenitor cells. Scanning electron microscopy showed two different features with 70% HA at the bottom surface packed tightly together, with high distinction of CH from HA. FTIR showed distinct chitosan dominance on top and hydroxyapatite on the bottom surface. Membranes with medium molecular weight showed higher swelling and longer degradation profile as compared to low molecular weight. Cytotoxicity results indicated that the low molecular weight membrane with 30% chitosan and 70% hydroxyapatite showed higher viability with time. Results suggest that this highly segregated bilayer membrane shows promising potential to be adapted as a surface layer whilst constructing a functionally graded GTR membrane on its own and for other biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membranes for Tissue Engineering)
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10 pages, 2452 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Strontium-Substituted Hydroxyapatite Nanofibrous Matrix on Osteoblast Proliferation and Differentiation
by Shiao-Wen Tsai, Yu-Wei Hsu, Whei-Lin Pan and Fu-Yin Hsu
Membranes 2021, 11(8), 624; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11080624 - 14 Aug 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2480
Abstract
Natural bone tissue consists primarily of bioapatite and collagen. Synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) possesses good biocompatibility, bioactivity, and osteoconductivity due to its chemical and biological similarity to bioapatite. Hence, HA has been widely used as a bone graft, cell carrier and drug/gene delivery carrier. [...] Read more.
Natural bone tissue consists primarily of bioapatite and collagen. Synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) possesses good biocompatibility, bioactivity, and osteoconductivity due to its chemical and biological similarity to bioapatite. Hence, HA has been widely used as a bone graft, cell carrier and drug/gene delivery carrier. Moreover, strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite (SrHA) can enhance osteogenic differentiation and inhibit adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Hence, SrHA has the potential to be used as a bone graft for bone regeneration. It is widely accepted that cell adhesion and most cellular activities are sensitive to the topography and molecular composition of the matrix. Electrospun polymer or polymer-bioceramic composite nanofibers have been demonstrated to enhance osteoblast differentiation. However, to date, no studies have investigated the effect of nanofibrous bioceramic matrices on osteoblasts. In this study, hydroxyapatite nanofiber (HANF) and strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite nanofiber (SrHANF) matrices were fabricated by electrospinning. The effect of the HANF components on MG63 osteoblast-like cells was evaluated by cell morphology, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and gene expression levels of RUNX2, COLI, OCN and BSP. The results showed that MG63 osteoblast-like cells exhibited higher ALP and gene expression levels of RUNX2, COLI, BSP and OCN on the SrHANF matrix than the HANF matrix. Hence, SrHANFs could enhance the differentiation of MG63 osteoblast-like cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membranes for Tissue Engineering)
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13 pages, 2507 KiB  
Article
PRF-Solution in Large Sinus Membrane Perforation with Simultaneous Implant Placement-Micro CT and Histological Analysis
by Horia Mihail Barbu, Stefania Andrada Iancu, Violeta Hancu, Daniel Referendaru, Joseph Nissan and Sarit Naishlos
Membranes 2021, 11(6), 438; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11060438 - 10 Jun 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2926
Abstract
Background: The purpose of the study was to analyze the efficacy of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) as a single augmentation material for complicated cases of maxillary sinus floor elevation, resulting from membrane perforation or previous infections. Methods: Implant insertion in the posterior region of [...] Read more.
Background: The purpose of the study was to analyze the efficacy of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) as a single augmentation material for complicated cases of maxillary sinus floor elevation, resulting from membrane perforation or previous infections. Methods: Implant insertion in the posterior region of the maxilla was simultaneously performed with maxillary sinus floor augmentation. Schneiderian membrane elevation can be accompanied by extremely serious sinus membrane perforation, due to accidental tearing or intended incision for mucocele removal. PRFs were placed in the sinus cavity both for membrane sealing and sinus floor grafting. Radiological, histological and micro-CT analyses were performed. Implant survival was assessed every 6 months for 1 to 4 years, with a mean follow up of 1.8 years, after prosthetic loading. Radiological examinations were performed on CBCT at 9 and 12 and 36 months postoperatively and revealed improved degrees of radiopacity. Results: 19 implants were simultaneously placed in the course of nine maxillary sinus floor augmentation surgeries, with successful outcomes in terms of bone grafting and implant integration. New bone formation was evidenced 12 months postoperatively on radiological examination, micro-CT analysis, and histological analysis of a harvested bone segment from the augmented maxillary sinus. The mean gain in bone height of the sinus floor augmentation was 6.43 mm, with a maximum of 9 mm. The mean amount of vital bone obtained from histologic assessment was 52.30%, while bone volume/tissue volume ratio in micro-CT 3D had a mean of 50.32%. Conclusions: PRF may be considered as an alternative treatment for a single surgery of sinus augmentation with simultaneous implant placement, even in complicated cases with significant sinus membrane tearing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membranes for Tissue Engineering)
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16 pages, 4062 KiB  
Article
The Early Fragmentation of a Bovine Dermis-Derived Collagen Barrier Membrane Contributes to Transmembraneous Vascularization—A Possible Paradigm Shift for Guided Bone Regeneration
by Eleni Kapogianni, Said Alkildani, Milena Radenkovic, Xin Xiong, Rumen Krastev, Ignacio Stöwe, James Bielenstein, Ole Jung, Stevo Najman, Mike Barbeck and Daniel Rothamel
Membranes 2021, 11(3), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11030185 - 09 Mar 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2485
Abstract
Collagen-based barrier membranes are an essential component in Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR) procedures. They act as cell-occlusive devices that should maintain a micromilieu where bone tissue can grow, which in turn provides a stable bed for prosthetic implantation. However, the standing time of [...] Read more.
Collagen-based barrier membranes are an essential component in Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR) procedures. They act as cell-occlusive devices that should maintain a micromilieu where bone tissue can grow, which in turn provides a stable bed for prosthetic implantation. However, the standing time of collagen membranes has been a challenging area, as native membranes are often prematurely resorbed. Therefore, consolidation techniques, such as chemical cross-linking, have been used to enhance the structural integrity of the membranes, and by consequence, their standing time. However, these techniques have cytotoxic tendencies and can cause exaggerated inflammation and in turn, premature resorption, and material failures. However, tissues from different extraction sites and animals are variably cross-linked. For the present in vivo study, a new collagen membrane based on bovine dermis was extracted and compared to a commercially available porcine-sourced collagen membrane extracted from the pericardium. The membranes were implanted in Wistar rats for up to 60 days. The analyses included well-established histopathological and histomorphometrical methods, including histochemical and immunohistochemical staining procedures, to detect M1- and M2-macrophages as well as blood vessels. Initially, the results showed that both membranes remained intact up to day 30, while the bovine membrane was fragmented at day 60 with granulation tissue infiltrating the implantation beds. In contrast, the porcine membrane remained stable without signs of material-dependent inflammatory processes. Therefore, the bovine membrane showed a special integration pattern as the fragments were found to be overlapping, providing secondary porosity in combination with a transmembraneous vascularization. Altogether, the bovine membrane showed comparable results to the porcine control group in terms of biocompatibility and standing time. Moreover, blood vessels were found within the bovine membranes, which can potentially serve as an additional functionality of barrier membranes that conventional barrier membranes do not provide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membranes for Tissue Engineering)
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Review

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27 pages, 17229 KiB  
Review
Applications of Human Amniotic Membrane for Tissue Engineering
by Mathilde Fénelon, Sylvain Catros, Christophe Meyer, Jean-Christophe Fricain, Laurent Obert, Frédéric Auber, Aurélien Louvrier and Florelle Gindraux
Membranes 2021, 11(6), 387; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11060387 - 25 May 2021
Cited by 46 | Viewed by 8426
Abstract
An important component of tissue engineering (TE) is the supporting matrix upon which cells and tissues grow, also known as the scaffold. Scaffolds must easily integrate with host tissue and provide an excellent environment for cell growth and differentiation. Human amniotic membrane (hAM) [...] Read more.
An important component of tissue engineering (TE) is the supporting matrix upon which cells and tissues grow, also known as the scaffold. Scaffolds must easily integrate with host tissue and provide an excellent environment for cell growth and differentiation. Human amniotic membrane (hAM) is considered as a surgical waste without ethical issue, so it is a highly abundant, cost-effective, and readily available biomaterial. It has biocompatibility, low immunogenicity, adequate mechanical properties (permeability, stability, elasticity, flexibility, resorbability), and good cell adhesion. It exerts anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic, and antimutagenic properties and pain-relieving effects. It is also a source of growth factors, cytokines, and hAM cells with stem cell properties. This important source for scaffolding material has been widely studied and used in various areas of tissue repair: corneal repair, chronic wound treatment, genital reconstruction, tendon repair, microvascular reconstruction, nerve repair, and intraoral reconstruction. Depending on the targeted application, hAM has been used as a simple scaffold or seeded with various types of cells that are able to grow and differentiate. Thus, this natural biomaterial offers a wide range of applications in TE applications. Here, we review hAM properties as a biocompatible and degradable scaffold. Its use strategies (i.e., alone or combined with cells, cell seeding) and its degradation rate are also presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membranes for Tissue Engineering)
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