Special Issue "Physical Activity and Chronic Diseases"

A special issue of Medicina (ISSN 1648-9144).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Daniel Collado-Mateo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Rey Juan Carlos University, Centre for Sport Studies, Fuenlabrada, Spain
Interests: physical exercise; physical function; fibromyalgia; health-related quality of life; virtual reality
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is widely known that physical activity can significantly affect many aspects of human health. Although the scientific literature about the beneficial effects of physical activity on patients with chronic diseases has remarkably grown, there are still some disparities and discrepancies on which levels or types of physical activity are the most adequate for each health condition. Furthermore, novel therapies, such as those based on virtual reality, may lead to larger benefits and also increase the adherence to and the participation in physical activity programs.

The current Special Issue of the journal Medicina, entitled “Physical Activity and Chronic Diseases” aims to collect high-quality articles focused on the effects of physical activity programs on different health parameters in chronically ill patients. Original, review, and meta-analyses studies in any subject area related to physical fitness and physical activity and their relationship with chronic diseases are welcome. We are particularly interested in randomized controlled trials comparing the effects of different types of physical exercise in chronic patients.

Prof. Dr. Daniel Collado-Mateo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Medicina is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Physical activity
  • Physical exercise
  • Chronic disease
  • Pain
  • Health
  • Quality of Life
  • Physical fitness
  • Virtual reality
  • Parkinson’s disease

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
High Levels of Physical Activity May Promote a Reduction in Bone Mineral Density in Peritoneal Dialysis
Medicina 2020, 56(9), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56090464 - 11 Sep 2020
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Abstract
Background and objectives: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients are expected to present lower levels of physical activity, unhealthy changes at the body composition level, and low levels of strength. Firstly, this study aimed to report the sex differences in physical activity, body composition and [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients are expected to present lower levels of physical activity, unhealthy changes at the body composition level, and low levels of strength. Firstly, this study aimed to report the sex differences in physical activity, body composition and muscle strength and the relations among these variables. Secondly, we analyze the relationship between physical activity and biochemical parameters. Materials and Methods: Thirty-four patients (13 women and 21 men) participated in this study. Body composition was assessed by bioimpedance and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and maximum isokinetic unilateral strength, analytical parameters and physical activity levels were evaluated. Results: The men showed higher values for weight, height, lean body mass, bone mineral content, bone mineral density (BMD) and total body water, while women showed higher values for the percentage of fat mass and hydration of lean body mass (p < 0.05). No differences between the sexes were found in different levels of physical activity; however, males registered significantly higher values for isokinetic strength variables except for knee extensor strength. BMD was positively related to sedentary activity and negatively related to moderate and vigorous activity (r = 0.383 and r = −0.404, respectively). Light physical activity was negatively correlated with albumin (r = −0.393) and total protein (r = −0.410) levels, while moderate/vigorous activity was positively correlated with urea distribution volume (r = 0.446) and creatinine clearance (r = 0.359) and negatively correlated with the triglyceride level (r = −0.455). Conclusions: PD patients with higher levels of physical activity present better results in terms of body composition and biochemical parameters. Additional studies should be conducted to clarify the relation between physical activity level and BMD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Chronic Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
EMS-effect of Exercises with Music on Fatness and Biomarkers of Obese Elderly Women
Medicina 2020, 56(4), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56040158 - 01 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 706
Abstract
Background and objectives: Electromyostimulation (EMS) has been shown to improve body composition, but what biomarkers it affects has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to compare the EMS-effect of exercises with music on fatness and biomarker levels in obese elderly. [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Electromyostimulation (EMS) has been shown to improve body composition, but what biomarkers it affects has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to compare the EMS-effect of exercises with music on fatness and biomarker levels in obese elderly. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five women were randomly classified into a control group (CON) and EMS group (EMSG). EMS suits used in this study enabled the simultaneous activation of eight pairs with selectable intensities. Program sessions of EMS were combined with exercises of listening to music three times a week for eight weeks. Although both groups received the same program, CON did not receive electrical stimuli. Results: Compared with CON, a significant effect of the EMS intervention concerning decreased fatness, as well as an increased skeletal muscle mass and basal metabolic rate, were evident. Tumor necrosis factor-a, C-reactive protein, resistin, and carcinoembryonic antigen of biomarkers were significantly different in the groups by time interaction. Similarly, the positive changes caused by EMS were represented in lipoprotein-cholesterols. Conclusions: The results indicate that a significant effect due to the EMS intervention was found concerning body composition and biomarkers in obese elderly women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Chronic Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Functional Mobility and Basic Motor Skills in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Its Relation to the Anthropometrical Status and Body Composition Parameters
Medicina 2019, 55(12), 773; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55120773 - 04 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 831
Abstract
Background and objectives: Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have many potential risk factors (spasticity, immobilization, glucocorticoids use) which can deteriorate the anthropometrical status and body composition and may have a potential negative impact on functional mobility and basic motor skill improvement after [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have many potential risk factors (spasticity, immobilization, glucocorticoids use) which can deteriorate the anthropometrical status and body composition and may have a potential negative impact on functional mobility and basic motor skill improvement after physiotherapy. The aim of the study was to assess the functional mobility and basic motor skills in patients with MS and to correlate them with disability and anthropometrical status and body composition parameters. Materials and Methods: Timed Up-and-Go Test (TUG) and six-min walk test (6MWT) were performed in 36 patients with MS before and after 4 weeks of physiotherapy. Body mass index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio (W/HtR), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were assessed in this group. Body composition was evaluated by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and fat mass (FAT), fat free mass (FFM), total body water (TBW), and predicted muscle mass (PMM) were expressed as percentage of body mass. Clinical status was assessed by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and Ambulatory Index (AI) scales. Results: After physiotherapy, there was a significant improvement in functional mobility and basic motor skills assessed by total distance in 6MWT (p < 0.001) and in TUG trials (p < 0.001). Positive significant correlations were found between the results obtained in both tests (either before and after physiotherapy) vs. FFM, TBW, and PMM, whilst worse results in functional mobility and basic motor skills correlated significantly with higher WHtR, WHR, and FAT (p < 0.05). Clinical status (EDSS) was significantly related to the WHtR and body composition parameters with the same manner as the results in the either 6MWT and TUG. However, there were no significant relationships between BMI vs. either clinical status (EDSS, AI) or functional mobility tests results in patients with MS. Conclusions: Functional mobility and basic motor skills may be significantly improved during physiotherapy, but they are related to the anthropometrical status and body composition of MS patients. Moreover, disability status is also significantly related to these parameters. Body composition deterioration seems to be the important target for the therapeutic intervention in MS patients. For proper nutritional status assessment in patients with MS, body composition analysis or WHtR instead BMI should to be used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Chronic Diseases)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Role of Exercise to Reduce the Impact of Diabetes in the Seminal Quality: A Systematic Review
Medicina 2021, 57(2), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57020159 - 10 Feb 2021
Viewed by 627
Abstract
Background and Objectives: One of the most relevant consequences of diabetes mellitus is the temporal or complete infertility which can happen in young individuals. Therefore, the current systematic review aimed to investigate the effects of exercise to reduce the impact of Type [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: One of the most relevant consequences of diabetes mellitus is the temporal or complete infertility which can happen in young individuals. Therefore, the current systematic review aimed to investigate the effects of exercise to reduce the impact of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) in seminal quality and related parameters. Materials and Methods: A systematic search was conducted in Pubmed and Web of Science databases following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Guidelines (PRISMA). The inclusion criteria were: (1) the study included at least one experimental and one comparison group, (2) the sample of the study was comprised of humans or animals with diabetes mellitus, (3) an intervention based on physical exercise was conducted, and (4) the study reported variables related to the seminal quality. Results: A total of 115 articles were identified. However, only six accomplished the inclusion and exclusion criteria. This systematic review includes a sample size of 260 participants (180 rats and 80 humans). Intervention ranged from 6 to 14 weeks, with 3–6 days per week. All interventions performed endurance training (50–70% VO2max or maximum heart rate). Physical exercise increased sperm count, motility, and morphology, as well as improved testosterone, Luteinizing Hormone (LH), and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) levels. Moreover, physical exercise intervention reduced the percentages of sperms with negative Tubular Differentiation Index (TDI) and Spermiogenesis Index (SPI), DNA fragmentation, and also ameliorated the diabetes-induced apoptosis and improved sperm apoptosis index. Conclusions: Physical exercise could ameliorate diabetic pathological effects on sperm quality and related parameters that cause infertility or subfertility conditions. However, further homogeneous studies are needed to confirm these findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Chronic Diseases)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Effects of Equine-Assisted Therapies or Horse-Riding Simulators on Chronic Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Medicina 2020, 56(9), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56090444 - 31 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 989
Abstract
Background and objectives: Chronic pain is a complex global public health problem that affects the health status, quality of life, activities of daily living, and different work-related variables. Riding a horse may lead to some benefits in chronic pain patients through the improvement [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Chronic pain is a complex global public health problem that affects the health status, quality of life, activities of daily living, and different work-related variables. Riding a horse may lead to some benefits in chronic pain patients through the improvement of postural control and other biopsychosocial processes. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effects of horse riding (with real or simulated horses) on chronic pain. Materials and methods: A systematic literature search was carried out in accordance with PRISMA guidelines in Web of Science (WOS) and PubMed (Medline) electronic databases. Eleven articles (seven randomized controlled trials) were selected to be included in the review. Due to some risk of bias concerns, two meta-analyses (using postintervention or change-from-baseline measures) were conducted utilizing Review Manager Software (RevMan 5.3). Results: Horse-riding simulators significantly reduced the pain levels of patients with low back pain (p = 0.03, with a SMD of −1.14 and a 95% CI from −2.16 to −0.11) using change-from-baseline measures. However, the p-value in the meta-analysis with the postintervention measures was 0.06. Regarding interventions with real horses, it was not possible to conduct a meta-analysis due to the low number of studies. Conclusion: Horse riding could be a useful exercise to reduce pain, but more studies are needed to make evidence-based recommendations and to compare the effects of horse-riding with real and simulated horses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Chronic Diseases)
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